How Not to Network a Nation

The designers of major early cold war national networks in the Soviet Union, the United States, and Chile sought, ... scientists proposed differing images of the relationship between a network and the living body politic of the nation.

How Not to Network a Nation

How, despite thirty years of effort, Soviet attempts to build a national computer network were undone by socialists who seemed to behave like capitalists.

Verhaltensdesign

Ob Neokybernetik, Computerlyrik, Brainstorming, Gruppenpsychologie oder Umweltschutz - zahlreiche populäre Verfahren der 1960er und 1970er Jahre zeugen von medialer und humaner Transformation.

Verhaltensdesign


The Network Nation

Preface to the Revised Edition Originally published in 1978 , The Network Nation has been dubbed " the bible ” of ... Appendixes to several chapters , which are no longer necessary to illustrate the points we were making now that ...

The Network Nation

The defining document and standard reference for the field of computer mediated communication (CMC)

Network Nation

In 1840, almost no one anticipated that the entire population might one day communicate electrically by wire. By 1920, few doubted that the operators of the nation's telegraph and telephone networks had a social responsibility to ...

Network Nation

The telegraph and the telephone were the first electrical communications networks to become hallmarks of modernity. Yet they were not initially expected to achieve universal accessibility. In this pioneering history of their evolution, Richard R. John demonstrates how access to these networks was determined not only by technological imperatives and economic incentives but also by political decision making at the federal, state, and municipal levels. In the decades between the Civil War and the First World War, Western Union and the Bell System emerged as the dominant providers for the telegraph and telephone. Both operated networks that were products not only of technology and economics but also of a distinctive political economy. Western Union arose in an antimonopolistic political economy that glorified equal rights and vilified special privilege. The Bell System flourished in a progressive political economy that idealized public utility and disparaged unnecessary waste. The popularization of the telegraph and the telephone was opposed by business lobbies that were intent on perpetuating specialty services. In fact, it wasn’t until 1900 that the civic ideal of mass access trumped the elitist ideal of exclusivity in shaping the commercialization of the telephone. The telegraph did not become widely accessible until 1910, sixty-five years after the first fee-for-service telegraph line opened in 1845. Network Nation places the history of telecommunications within the broader context of American politics, business, and discourse. This engrossing and provocative book persuades us of the critical role of political economy in the development of new technologies and their implementation.

Improving the Nation s Highway Freight Network

I would not mind giving you an extra minute . Mr. RIBBLE . I thank the gentlelady for yielding . Along that same lines then , if the tax was reduced and we offset it with an increase in diesel fuel tax so that the trust fund stayed in ...

Improving the Nation s Highway Freight Network


Nation as Network

Introduction Nations, Migration, and the World Wide Web of Politics I would like to believe that Dehai is much more ... forms that not only are increasingly difficult to map as bounded communities but also operate through networks in ...

Nation as Network

Nations, migration, and the world wide web of politics -- Infopolitics and sacrificial citizenship: sovereignty in spaces beyond the nation -- Diasporic citizenship and the public sphere: creating national space online -- The mouse that roars: websites as an offshore platform for civil society -- Mourning becomes electronic: representing the nation in a virtual war memorial -- Sex, lies, and cyberspace: political participation and the "woman question."

The People s Network

Journal of Economic History 53, no. 2 (1993): 377–381; ... Asked Zimmerman: ''Even at that, he [the midwestern farmer] would not buy a telephone if he had no use for it? ... 2 (1994): 325–357; John, Network Nation, 269–339.

The People s Network

The Bell System dominated telecommunications in the United States and Canada for most of the twentieth century, but its monopoly was not inevitable. In the decades around 1900, ordinary citizens—farmers, doctors, small-town entrepreneurs—established tens of thousands of independent telephone systems, stringing their own wires to bring this new technology to the people. Managed by opportunists and idealists alike, these small businesses were motivated not only by profit but also by the promise of open communication as a weapon against monopoly capital and for protection of regional autonomy. As the Bell empire grew, independents fought fiercely to retain control of their local networks and companies—a struggle with an emerging corporate giant that has been almost entirely forgotten. The People's Network reconstructs the story of the telephone's contentious beginnings, exploring the interplay of political economy, business strategy, and social practice in the creation of modern North American telecommunications. Drawing from government documents in the United States and Canada, independent telephone journals and publications, and the archives of regional Bell operating companies and their rivals, Robert MacDougall locates the national debates over the meaning, use, and organization of the telephone industry as a turning point in the history of information networks. The competing businesses represented dueling political philosophies: regional versus national identity and local versus centralized power. Although independent telephone companies did not win their fight with big business, they fundamentally changed the way telecommunications were conceived.

THE NATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

Such rules change when the organization finds them no longer applicable to the reality it is facing . ... When the nation is said to have a culture , it usually means that a large majority ( if not all ) have a number of things in ...

THE NATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH


Serial set no 13100

The Committee also believes that increased utilization of the Nation's Federal laboratory network in responding to the technological challenges and needs of the states and local communities should be vigorously pursued.

Serial set  no 13100


Air University Review

The U.S. military - indeed , the The Network nation's defense establishment - is no excep The Reformers have an effective network in tion . Washington . They maintain a strong power There are two forms of contemporary mili base within ...

Air University Review


Conference of the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament

Despite this , after the Soviet Union had unilaterally resumed its nuclear tests in September 1961 , the Soviet Government made a complete about - face by announcing to an astounded and disbelieving world that no international control ...

Conference of the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament


Somalia

In this introduction to Somalia and the Somali people, the authors examine the important events, themes & influences of the past in order to explain the complexities of the politics, society, culture, & economy of contemporary Somalia.

Somalia

In this introduction to Somalia and the Somali people, the authors examine the important events, themes & influences of the past in order to explain the complexities of the politics, society, culture, & economy of contemporary Somalia.

Looking Forward

... Myer sat “at the center of an electric intelligence network spanning the nation,” as James Rodger Fleming has described it, which enabled not only forecasting but also “domestic surveillance and social control.”15 (See figure 2.1.) ...

Looking Forward

Looking Forward puts some new spins on the old saying, "the future lies ahead." Pietruska's book is a history of forecasting in the United States from the 1860s to the1920s that reveals how methods of forecasting and ideas about uncertainty changed as institutions and individuals reckoned with what novelist Edward Bellamy noted as the "specter of Uncertainty" in the late 19th century. In that context, prediction became a ubiquitous scientific, economic, and cultural practice, and forecasts, accurate or not, offered illusions of control over one's future in what William Dean Howells recognized as the "economic chance-world" emerging at this time. Pietruska examines controversies over the production, circulation, and contestation of crop estimates, weather forecasts, economic predictions, and the predictions of fortune-tellers in order to uncover the social lives of forecasts that Americans used to mitigate risk in daily life. The book's overarching argument revises historians' understanding of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a "search for order" by demonstrating that a search for predictability yielded just the opposite: acceptance of the economic and cultural uncertainties of modern life. The search for order and the forces of chance and contingency may seem at odds, but Pietruska reconciles the two frameworks by recasting the 1860s to the 1920s as a period in which government bureaucracies, information networks, and professional forecasters came to accommodate the very uncertainties they had originally sought to conquer. As a cultural history of scientific and popular forecasting from the Civil War to World War I, this book grapples directly with a profound issue: how do we produce knowledge about the future?

International Directory of Company Histories

In January 1995 BHC Communications launched United Paramount Network , the nation's sixth television network . ... primetime programming were the six stations owned by BHC or its subsidiaries that were not network affiliated and nine of ...

International Directory of Company Histories

This library owns 80 volumes of this compendium of company histories (usually 2-3 pages each). See the index in volume 80 for all companies covered.

Congress and the Nation IX

29 letter, in which they warned that, if the United States did not ratify the pact, they could lose hundreds of ... The test ban treaty would bar even those underground tests, using an international network of monitoring sites to verify ...

Congress and the Nation IX

Annotation For more than 30 years, Congress and the Nation has been America's most trusted reference work on the decisions and debates in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. This concise and reliable reference encompasses the entire spectrum of American politics and is the perfect starting point for research on Congress. No library attempting to document American political affairs, no scholar tracing the chronological development of legislation, and no student of contemporary affairs should be without this impressive one-stop guide. Together with the other eight volumes in the series, Congress and the Nation IX offers an invaluable chronicle of the post-World War II era -- and the 10 presidencies from Truman through Clinton that have defined it. Congress and the Nation is the only congressional reference that allows readers to take as broad or as narrow a focus as they wish, and to look at the long history of issues. In compiling Congress and the Nation IX, the book editors at Congressional Quarterly have condensed major legislative, presidential, and political coverage during the 1993-1996 period into a single 1,296-page volume. Readers are given both an overview of the four-year period and detailed chronologies of congressional action in every major subject area. Congress and the Nation IX chronicles the legislative and public policy issues considered by Congress during President Clinton's first term. Written in the CQ tradition of thorough reporting and easy-to-understand language, this volume includes: -- A general survey of the politics of the period -- from the Republican "Contract with America", to the line-item veto, to the continuing debate about congressional distric lines.-- Key votes selected by CQ editors are noted in the articles and included in the appendix.-- Presidential speech texts: a generous selection of the most significant texts from President Clinton's first term.

Nation s Business

This PC software pro- trade center to use Network , but mem- mendous advantages such as managevides a risk - free way to learn how to bership , which includes many other ment expertise ; it's just a matter of a and how not ...

Nation s Business


Reports to the People

Voters, including Dr. Eu, turned off their television sets after networks announced projected winners in the 1980 ... that 71% of the nation disagrees with the use of early projections and that no one except the network representatives ...

Reports to the People


The Department of State Bulletin

Since the end of World War II , 18 new nations have come into being and several other peoples are at the threshold of ... of free - world policies depends not on dictation but on a vast network of negotiation and voluntary adjustment .

The Department of State Bulletin

The official monthly record of United States foreign policy.