In Praise of Later Roman Emperors

Their balanced and well-informed text and commentaries will be of enormous help in introducing students to the significance and fascination of late-third and fourth-century history."—John F. Drinkwater, University of Nottingham, England ...

In Praise of Later Roman Emperors

Here, for the first time, is an annotated English translation of the eleven later panegyrics (291-389 C.E.) of the XII Panegyrici Latini, with the original Latin text prepared by R. A. B. Mynors. Each panegyric has a thorough introduction, and detailed commentary on historical events, style, figures of speech, and rhetorical strategies accompanies the translations. The very difficult Latin of these insightful speeches is rendered into graceful English, yet remains faithful to the original.

Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire

Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire offers new critical analysis of the textual depictions of a series of emperors in the fourth century within overlapping historical, religious and literary contexts.

Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire

Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire>/i> offers new critical analysis of the textual depictions of a series of emperors in the fourth century within overlapping historical, religious and literary contexts

Two Romes

This examination of the 'two Romes' in comparative perspective illuminates our understanding not just of both cities but of the whole late Roman world.

Two Romes

The city of Constantinople was named New Rome or Second Rome very soon after its foundation in AD 324; over the next two hundred years it replaced the original Rome as the greatest city of the Mediterranean. In this unified essay collection, prominent international scholars examine the changing roles and perceptions of Rome and Constantinople in Late Antiquity from a range of different disciplines and scholarly perspectives. The seventeen chapters cover both the comparative development and the shifting status of the two cities. Developments in politics and urbanism are considered, along with the cities' changing relationships with imperial power, the church, and each other, and their evolving representations in both texts and images. These studies present important revisionist arguments and new interpretations of significant texts and events. This comparative perspective allows the neglected subject of the relationship between the two Romes to come into focus while avoiding the teleological distortions common in much past scholarship. An introductory section sets the cities, and their comparative development, in context. Part Two looks at topography, and includes the first English translation of the Notitia of Constantinople. The following section deals with politics proper, considering the role of emperors in the two Romes and how rulers interacted with their cities. Part Four then considers the cities through the prism of literature, in particular through the distinctively late antique genre of panegyric. The fifth group of essays considers a crucial aspect shared by the two cities: their role as Christian capitals. Lastly, a provocative epilogue looks at the enduring Roman identity of the post-Heraclian Byzantine state. Thus, Two Romes not only illuminates the study of both cities but also enriches our understanding of the late Roman world in its entirety.

Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire

Nixon, C. E. V., and Rodgers, B. S. (eds and trs), In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: the Panegyrici Latini (Berkeley, 1994). Norman, A. F. (ed. and tr.), Libanius: Selected works (2 vols. Loeb classical library. Cambridge MA, 1969–77).

Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire

One of the great maxims of history is that it is written by the victors, and nowhere does this find greater support than in the later Roman Empire. Between 284 and 395 AD, no fewer than 37 men claimed imperial power, though today we recognize barely half of these men as 'legitimate' rulers and more than two thirds died at their subjects' hands. Once established in power, a new ruler needed to publicly legitimate himself and to discredit his predecessor: overt criticism of the new regime became high treason, with historians supressing their accounts for fear of reprisals and the very names of defeated emperors chiselled from public inscriptions and deleted from official records. In a period of such chaos, how can we ever hope to record in any fair or objective way the history of the Roman state? Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire is the first history of civil war in the later Roman Empire to be written in English and aims to address this question by focusing on the various ways in which successive imperial dynasties attempted to legitimate themselves and to counter the threat of almost perpetual internal challenge to their rule. Panegyric in particular emerges as a crucial tool for understanding the rapidly changing political world of the third and fourth centuries, providing direct evidence of how, in the wake of civil wars, emperors attempted to publish their legitimacy and to delegitimize their enemies. The ceremony and oratory surrounding imperial courts too was of great significance: used aggressively to dramatize and constantly recall the events of recent civil wars, the narratives produced by the court in this context also went on to have enormous influence on the messages and narratives found within contemporary historical texts. In its exploration of the ways in which successive imperial courts sought to communicate with their subjects, this volume offers a thoroughly original reworking of late Roman domestic politics, and demonstrates not only how history could be erased, rewritten, and repurposed, but also how civil war, and indeed usurpation, became endemic to the later Empire.

The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire AD 235 395

Experiencing Rome: Culture, Identity and Power in the Roman Empire, Routledge, 29–63. ... (1992) The Emperor in the Roman World, 2nd edition. London. ... (1994) In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The 'Panegyric Latini'. Berkeley.

The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire  AD 235   395

With The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235–395 Mark Hebblewhite offers the first study solely dedicated to examining the nature of the relationship between the emperor and his army in the politically and militarily volatile later Roman Empire. Bringing together a wide range of available literary, epigraphic and numismatic evidence he demonstrates that emperors of the period considered the army to be the key institution they had to mollify in order to retain power and consequently employed a range of strategies to keep the troops loyal to their cause. Key to these efforts were imperial attempts to project the emperor as a worthy general (imperator) and a generous provider of military pay and benefits. Also important were the honorific and symbolic gestures each emperor made to the army in order to convince them that they and the empire could only prosper under his rule.

Child Emperor Rule in the Late Roman West AD 367 455

Merdinger, J. E. (1997), Rome and the African church in the time of Augustus (New Haven). Merrills, A., and Miles, ... Nixon, C. E. V., and Rodgers, B. S. (1994), In praise of later Roman emperors: the Panegyrici Latini (Berkeley).

Child Emperor Rule in the Late Roman West  AD 367 455

In this book, McEvoy addresses the remarkable phenomenon of the Roman child-emperor. During the late fourth century the emperor Valentinian I took the novel step of declaring his eight year old son Gratian as his co-Augustus. Valentinian I's actions set a vital precedent: over the following decades, the Roman West was to witness the accessions of four year old Valentinian II, ten year old Honorius, and six year old Valentinian III.Even thoughthey were sons of emperors, the survival of their rule at the time of accession entailed vital support from both the aristocracy and the military of the state. Tracing both the course of theirfrequently tumultuous and lengthy reigns, the book looks at the way in which the sophistication of the Roman system of government made their accessions possible. It also highlights how such reigns allowed for individual generals to dominate the Roman state as imperial guardians, and the struggles which ensued upon a child-emperor reaching adulthood and seeking to take up functions which had long been delegated during his childhood.

A H M Jones and the Later Roman Empire

(1964) The Later Roman Empire 284–602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey, 3 vols (Oxford 1964), reprinted in ... 408–50 (Berkeley 2006) Nixon C.E.V. and Rodgers B.S. (1994) In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The “Panegyrici ...

A H M  Jones and the Later Roman Empire

This volume offers a reassessment of the life and scholarship of A.H.M. Jones and of the impact and legacy of his great work "The Later Roman Empire 284a "602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey (1964)."

The Restoration of the Roman Forum in Late Antiquity

Panegyrici Latini 10 (2) 1.4–5 (Panegyric of Maximian), in Nixon and Rodgers, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors, 523– 524: “Iure igitur hoc die quo immortalis ortus dominae gentium civitatis vestra pietate celebratur, tibi potissimum, ...

The Restoration of the Roman Forum in Late Antiquity

In The Restoration of the Roman Forum in Late Antiquity, Gregor Kalas examines architectural conservation during late antiquity period at Rome's most important civic center: the Roman Forum. During the fourth and fifth centuries CE—when emperors shifted their residences to alternate capitals and Christian practices overtook traditional beliefs—elite citizens targeted restoration campaigns so as to infuse these initiatives with political meaning. Since construction of new buildings was a right reserved for the emperor, Rome's upper echelon funded the upkeep of buildings together with sculptural displays to gain public status. Restorers linked themselves to the past through the fragmentary reuse of building materials and, as Kalas explores, proclaimed their importance through prominently inscribed statues and monuments, whose placement within the existing cityscape allowed patrons and honorees to connect themselves to the celebrated history of Rome. Building on art historical studies of spolia and exploring the Forum over an extended period of time, Kalas demonstrates the mutability of civic environments. The Restoration of the Roman Forum in Late Antiquity maps the evolution of the Forum away from singular projects composed of new materials toward an accretive and holistic design sensibility. Overturning notions of late antiquity as one of decline, Kalas demonstrates how perpetual reuse and restoration drew on Rome's venerable past to proclaim a bright future.

The Eternal Decline and Fall of Rome

Nixon and Rodgers in C. E. V. Nixon and B. Saylor Rodgers, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The Panegyrici Latini (Berkeley, 1994),. “Ravaged countryside ... assailed many cities”: Eutropius, Caes. 39.17 (trans. Bird). 5.

The Eternal Decline and Fall of Rome

As this book intriguingly explores, for those who would make Rome great again and their victims, ideas of Roman decline and renewal have had a long and violent history. The decline of Rome has been a constant source of discussion for more than 2200 years. Everyone from American journalists in the twenty-first century AD to Roman politicians at the turn of the third century BC have used it as a tool to illustrate the negative consequences of changes in their world. Because Roman history is so long, it provides a buffet of ready-made stories of decline that can help develop the context around any snapshot. And Rome did, in fact, decline and, eventually, fall. An empire that once controlled all or part of more than 40 modern European, Asian, and African countries no longer exists. Roman prophets of decline were, ultimately, proven correct-a fact that makes their modern invocations all the more powerful. If it happened then, it could happen now. The Eternal Decline and Fall of Rome tells the stories of the people who built their political and literary careers around promises of Roman renewal as well as those of the victims they blamed for causing Rome's decline. Each chapter offers the historical context necessary to understand a moment or a series of moments in which Romans, aspiring Romans, and non--Romans used ideas of Roman decline and restoration to seize power and remake the world around them. The story begins during the Roman Republic just after 200 BC. It proceeds through the empire of Augustus and his successors, traces the Roman loss of much of western Europe in the fifth century AD, and then follows Roman history as it runs through the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) until its fall in 1453. The final two chapters look at ideas of Roman decline and renewal from the fifteenth century until today. If Rome illustrates the profound danger of the rhetoric of decline, it also demonstrates the rehabilitative potential of a rhetoric that focuses on collaborative restoration, a lesson of great relevance to our world today.

The Late Roman World and Its Historian

... Papers of the Liverpool Latin Seminar, Fourth Volume 1983, Liverpool 1984, 129–65 (references to clementia are scattered through this analysis); cf. also Nixon and Rodgers, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors, 21–6; L.J. Daly, ...

The Late Roman World and Its Historian

Ammianus Marcellinus, Greek by birth but writing in Latin c. AD 390, was the last great Roman historian. His writings are an indispensable basis for our knowledge of the late Roman world. This book represents a collection of papers analysing Ammianus's writings from a variety of perspective, including Ammianus as historian of, and participant in, Julian's Persian campaign, his identification with traditional religious attitudes and values in Rome and his view of the Persian Magi. The contributors engage especially with the concept of self-identification. They address the tension of Ammianus' dual role as both 'outside' external narrator and at the same time and 'insider' to the contemporary experiences and events which make up his surviving history.

Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity

nixon, c.E.V. and rodgers, B.S. 1994 In Praise of Later Roman Emperors. The 'Panegyrici Latini', Berkeley, Oxford. thorpe, l. 1974 Gregory of Tours. The history of the Franks, london.

Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity

The period AD 300-600 saw huge changes. The Graeco-Roman city-state was first transformed then eclipsed. Much of the Roman Empire broke up and was reconfigured. New barbarian kingdoms emerged in the Roman West. Above all, religious culture moved from polytheistic to monotheistic. Here, twenty papers by international scholars explore how group identities were established against this shifting background. Separate sections treat the Latin-speaking West, the Greek East, and the age of Justinian. Themes include religious conversion, Roman law in the barbarian West, problems of Jewish identity, and what in Late Antiquity it meant to be Roman.

Military History of Late Rome 284 361

Hadrian's Speech at Lambaesis in 128 ad, Michael P. Speidel, Emperor Hadrian's speeches to the African Army – a new Text, Mainz 2006. ... Julian1 = The Emperor Julian. ... Panegyrici Latini, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors, ...

Military History of Late Rome 284 361

This ambitious series gives the reader a comprehensive narrative of late Roman military history from 284-641. Each volume (5 are planned) gives a detailed account of the changes in organization, equipment, strategy and tactics among both the Roman forces and her enemies in the relevant period, while also giving a detailed but accessible account of the campaigns and battles. Volume I covers the period 284-361, starting with recovery from the 'third-century crisis' and the formation of the Tetrarchy. Constantine's civil wars and stabilization.are also major themes, with the pattern repeated under his sons. Constantius II's wars against the usurper Magnentius, the Danubian tribes and the Sassanid Persians illustrate the serious combination of internal and external threats the Empire faced at this time. The author discusses these and the many other dramatic military events in their full context and puts forward some interesting conclusions on strategic and tactical developments. He argues, for example, that the Roman shift from infantry to cavalry as the dominant arm occurred considerably earlier than usually accepted. Anyone with an interest in the military history of this period will find it both informative and thought-provoking.

Christianity in the Later Roman Empire A Sourcebook

And, as is the case with our imperial power on earth, so we have decreed that his sacred church in Rome is to be honoured ... Nixon and B. S. Rodgers, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The Panegyrici Latini (Berkeley and Oxford 1994, ...

Christianity in the Later Roman Empire  A Sourcebook

This sourcebook gathers into a single collection the writings that illuminate one of the most fundamental periods in the history of Christian Europe. Beginning from the Great Persecution of Diocletian and the conversion of Constantine the first Christian Roman emperor, the volume explores Christianity's rise as the dominant religion of the Later Roman empire and how the Church survived the decline and fall of Roman power in the west and converted the Germanic tribes who swept into the western empire. These years of crisis and transformation inspired generations of great writers, among them Eusebius of Caesarea, Ammianus Marcellinus, Julian 'the Apostate', Ambrose of Milan, John Chrysostom, Jerome and Augustine of Hippo. They were also years which saw Christianity face huge challenges on many crucial questions, from the evolution of Christian doctrine and the rise of asceticism to the place of women in the early Church and the emerging relationship between Church and state. All these themes will be made accessible to specialists and general readers alike, and the sourcebook will be invaluable for students and teachers of courses in history and church history, the world of late antiquity, and religious studies.

A History of the Later Roman Empire AD 284 641

Stephen Mitchell. They have become the starting point for almost all serious work on the late Roman economy. ... 2 Patricia Cox,Biography in Late Antiquity. ... Rodgersand C. E. V. Nixon, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors.

A History of the Later Roman Empire  AD 284 641

The Second Edition of A History of the Later Roman Empire features extensive revisions and updates to the highly-acclaimed, sweeping historical survey of the Roman Empire from the accession of Diocletian in AD 284 to the death of Heraclius in 641. Features a revised narrative of the political history that shaped the late Roman Empire Includes extensive changes to the chapters on regional history, especially those relating to Asia Minor and Egypt Offers a renewed evaluation of the decline of the empire in the later sixth and seventh centuries Places a larger emphasis on the military deficiencies, collapse of state finances, and role of bubonic plague throughout the Europe in Rome’s decline Includes systematic updates to the bibliography

Military History of Late Rome 361 395

Cambridge and London (1978) Panegyrici Latini, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors, The Panegyrici Latini, Introduction, Translation and Historical Commentary with the Latin Text of R.A.B. Mynors, C.E.V. Nixon and Barbara Saylor Rodgers.

Military History of Late Rome 361   395

This is the second volume in an ambitious series giving the reader a comprehensive narrative of late Roman military history from AD 284-641. Each volume (7 are planned) gives a detailed account of the changes in organization, equipment, strategy and tactics among both the Roman forces and her enemies in the relevant period, while also giving a detailed but accessible account of the campaigns and battles. This volume covers the tumultuous period from the death of Constantius II in AD 361 to the death of Theodosius. Among the many campaigns covered, it therefore includes the Emperor Julian’s fatal campaign against the Sassanian Persians and the disastrous defeat and death of Valens at Adrianople in 378. Such calamities illustrate the level of external threat Rome’s armies faced on many fronts in this difficult period.

Rabbinic Body Language Non Verbal Communication in Palestinian Rabbinic Literature of Late Antiquity

29 Nixon/Rodgers, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors, 52. See also S.P. Kershaw, A Brief History of the Roman Empire: Rise and Fall (London: Constable & Robinson Ltd., 2013), ch. 13, on Diocletian and the Dominate.

Rabbinic Body Language  Non Verbal Communication in Palestinian Rabbinic Literature of Late Antiquity

In Rabbinic Body Language Catherine Hezser examines the literary representation of non-verbal communication within rabbinic circles and in encounters with others in Palestinian rabbinic documents of late antiquity.

News and Frontier Consciousness in the Late Roman Empire

In Praise of Later Roman Emperors : The Panegyrici Latini : Introduction , Translation , and Historical Commentary with the Latin Text of R. A. B. Mynors . Berkeley : University of California Press , 1994 Zosimus Zosimus .

News and Frontier Consciousness in the Late Roman Empire

Prior to the third century A.D., two broad Roman conceptions of frontiers proliferated and competed: an imperial ideology of rule without limit coexisted with very real and pragmatic attempts to define and defend imperial frontiers. But from about A.D. 250-500, there was a basic shift in mentality, as news from and about frontiers began to portray a more defined Roman world—a world with limits—allowing a new understanding of frontiers as territorial and not just as divisions of people. This concept, previously unknown in the ancient world, brought with it a new consciousness, which soon spread to cosmology, geography, myth, sacred texts, and prophecy. The “frontier consciousness” produced a unified sense of Roman identity that transcended local identities and social boundaries throughout the later Empire. Approaching Roman frontiers with the aid of media studies as well as anthropological and sociological methodologies, Mark W. Graham chronicles and documents this significant transition in ancient thought, which coincided with, but was not necessarily dependent on, the Christianization of the Roman world. Mark W. Graham is Assistant Professor of History at Grove City College.

War and Warfare in Late Antiquity 2 vols

Neal D. S. (1974) The Excavation of the Roman Villa in Gadebridge Park, Hemel Hempstead 1963–8 (london 1974). Nixon a. and rodgers B. (1994) In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: the Panegyrici latini (Berkeley 1994). Okamura l.

War and Warfare in Late Antiquity  2 vols

This collection of papers, arising from the Late Antique Archaeology conference series, explores war and warfare in Late Antiquity. Papers examine strategy and intelligence, weaponry, literary sources and topography, the West Roman Empire, the East Roman Empire, the Balkans, civil war and Italy.

Deleto paene imperio Romano

Motschmann , Cornelius , Die Religionspolitik Marc Aurels , Stuttgart 2002 Mynors , Roger A. B. / Nixon , Charles E. V. / Rodgers , Barbara S. ( Hgg . ) , In Praise of Later Roman Emperors . The Panegyrici Latini , Berkely u . a .

Deleto paene imperio Romano

Kaum eine andere Periode der r�mischen Geschichte bietet ein so turbulentes Bild wie die Soldatenkaiserzeit zwischen 235 und 284 n. Chr. Zahlreiche Einf�lle von Germanen und Persern, h�ufige Herrscherwechsel und wirtschaftliche Probleme erschuetterten das R�mische Reich in seinen Grundfesten. Neben Krisensymptomen lassen sich aber auch Reformans�tze aufzeigen. Der Band vereinigt die Vortr�ge einer Berliner Tagung vom Juli 2005. Die 20 Autorinnen und Autoren untersuchen die Transformationsprozesse auf Reichsebene, in den Regionen und auf dem Gebiet der Religion sowie die Deutungsmodelle in der Forschungsgeschichte. Sie leisten damit einen Beitrag zur kontroversen Diskussion ueber den Charakter dieser Epoche. Inhalt Klaus-Peter Johne / Thomas Gerhardt / Udo Hartmann: Einleitung Er�ffnungsvortrag: Hartwin Brandt: Facts and Fictions - Die Historia Augusta und das 3.�Jahrhundert I. Die Transformation des R�mischen Reiches im 3. Jahrhundert I.1. Die politische Transformation des Reiches: Lukas de Blois: The Onset of Crisis in the First Half of the Third Century A.�D. Ulrich Huttner: Zwischen Traditionalismus und Totalitarismus. Zur Ideologie und Praxis der Regierung des Kaisers Decius Bruno Bleckmann: Zu den Motiven der Christenverfolgung des Decius Michael P. Speidel: Gallienus and the Marcomanni Udo Hartmann: Der Mord an Kaiser Gallienus � Klaus-Peter Johne: Die Illyrischen Kaiser als Herrscher neuen Typs Olivier Hekster�/ Erika Manders: Kaiser gegen Kaiser: Bilder der Macht im 3.�Jahrhundert I.2. Wandel und Kontinuit�t in den Regionen des R�mischen Reiches: Christian Witschel: Zur Situation im r�mischen Africa w�hrend des 3.�Jahrhunderts Kai Ruffing: Wirtschaftliche Prosperit�t im 3. Jahrhundert: Die St�dte �gyptens als Paradigma? Werner Oenbrink: Shahba�/ Philippopolis - Die Transformation einer safaitisch-arabischen Siedlung in eine r�mische Colonia Johannes Noll�: Bronzene Reflexe einer Krise. Das st�dtische Muenzwesen Kleinasiens als Indikator von Ph�nomenen der Reichskrise des 3.�Jahrhunderts und von zeitgen�ssischem Krisenempfinden I.3. Transformation religi�ser Vorstellungen im 3. Jahrhundert: Thorsten Fleck: Isis, Sarapis, Mithras und die Ausbreitung des Christentums im 3. Jahrhundert Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst: Die manich�ische Mission in Palmyra. Die Quellen und ihre Auswertung II. Die Rezeption der Soldatenkaiserzeit II.1. Die Rezeption im Mittelalter und in der Fruehen Neuzeit: Andreas Goltz: Zerrbilder eines Herrschers und Christenverfolgers. Zur Rezeption Kaiser Valerians in Sp�tantike, Mittelalter und Neuzeit Kathrin Schade: Palladio und die Soldatenkaiser. Renaissancezeichnungen verlorener Monumentalbauten des 3.�Jahrhunderts in Rom II.2. Das 3.�Jahrhundert in der modernen Forschung: Monika Schuol: Die Wuerdigung der Soldatenkaiserzeit in der rechtsgeschichtlichen Forschung Thomas Gerhardt: Zur Geschichte des Krisenbegriffs Matth�us Heil: �Soldatenkaiser� als Epochenbegriff Die Soldatenkaiser � Abkuerzungsverzeichnis � Abbildungsverzeichnis � Autorenverzeichnis � Register � Tafeln.