Routing Algorithms in Networks on Chip

This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs).

Routing Algorithms in Networks on Chip

This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation. Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.

Microarchitecture of Network on Chip Routers

This book is an invaluable reference for system, architecture, circuit, and EDA researchers and developers, who are interested in understanding the overall picture of network-on-chip routers' microarchitecture, the associated design ...

Microarchitecture of Network on Chip Routers

This book provides a unified overview of network-on-chip router micro-architecture, the corresponding design opportunities and challenges, and existing solutions to overcome these challenges. The discussion focuses on the heart of a NoC, the NoC router, and how it interacts with the rest of the system. Coverage includes both basic and advanced design techniques that cover the entire router design space including router organization, flow control, pipelined operation, buffering architectures, as well as allocators’ structure and algorithms. Router micro-architectural options are presented in a step-by-step manner beginning from the basic design principles. Even highly sophisticated design alternatives are categorized and broken down to simpler pieces that can be understood easily and analyzed. This book is an invaluable reference for system, architecture, circuit, and EDA researchers and developers, who are interested in understanding the overall picture of NoC routers' architecture, the associated design challenges, and the available solutions.

Analysis and Design of Networks on Chip Under High Process Variation

This book describes in detail the impact of process variations on Network-on-Chip (NoC) performance.

Analysis and Design of Networks on Chip Under High Process Variation

This book describes in detail the impact of process variations on Network-on-Chip (NoC) performance. The authors evaluate various NoC topologies under high process variation and explain the design of efficient NoCs, with advanced technologies. The discussion includes variation in logic and interconnect, in order to evaluate the delay and throughput variation with different NoC topologies. The authors describe an asynchronous router, as a robust design to mitigate the impact of process variation in NoCs and the performance of different routing algorithms is determined with/without process variation for various traffic patterns. Additionally, a novel Process variation Delay and Congestion aware Routing algorithm (PDCR) is described for asynchronous NoC design, which outperforms different adaptive routing algorithms in the average delay and saturation throughput for various traffic patterns.

Advances on Smart and Soft Computing

Network. on. Chip. Routing. Algorithms. Criteria. Muhammad Kaleem and Ismail
Fauzi Bin Isnin Abstract As number of ... Introduction. Network on chip is
promising solution that helps to facilitates system on chip (SoC) limitations [1].
Network on ...

Advances on Smart and Soft Computing


Networks on Chip

INTRODUCTION. The performance of networks-on-chip (NoCs) is sensitive to the
routing algorithm, as it defines the network latency and saturation throughput [7,
35]. Many novel NoC routing algorithms have been proposed to deliver high ...

Networks on Chip

Networks-on-Chip: From Implementations to Programming Paradigms provides a thorough and bottom-up exploration of the whole NoC design space in a coherent and uniform fashion, from low-level router, buffer and topology implementations, to routing and flow control schemes, to co-optimizations of NoC and high-level programming paradigms. This textbook is intended for an advanced course on computer architecture, suitable for graduate students or senior undergrads who want to specialize in the area of computer architecture and Networks-on-Chip. It is also intended for practitioners in the industry in the area of microprocessor design, especially the many-core processor design with a network-on-chip. Graduates can learn many practical and theoretical lessons from this course, and also can be motivated to delve further into the ideas and designs proposed in this book. Industrial engineers can refer to this book to make practical tradeoffs as well. Graduates and engineers who focus on off-chip network design can also refer to this book to achieve deadlock-free routing algorithm designs. Provides thorough and insightful exploration of NoC design space. Description from low-level logic implementations to co-optimizations of high-level program paradigms and NoCs. The coherent and uniform format offers readers a clear, quick and efficient exploration of NoC design space Covers many novel and exciting research ideas, which encourage researchers to further delve into these topics. Presents both engineering and theoretical contributions. The detailed description of the router, buffer and topology implementations, comparisons and analysis are of high engineering value.

VLSI SoC Internet of Things Foundations

Dynamic Programming-Based Lifetime Reliability Optimization in Networks-on-
Chip Liang Wang1(B), Xiaohang Wang2, ... Keywords: Reliability · Networks-on-
Chip · Routing algorithm · Dynamic programming 1 Introduction Networks-on-
Chip ...

VLSI SoC  Internet of Things Foundations

This book contains extended and revised versions of the best papers presented at the 22nd IFIP WG 10.5/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, VLSI-SoC 2014, held in Playa del Carmen, Mexico, in October 2014. The 12 papers included in the book were carefully reviewed and selected from the 33 full papers presented at the conference. The papers cover a wide range of topics in VLSI technology and advanced research. They address the current trend toward increasing chip integration and technology process advancements bringing about stimulating new challenges both at the physical and system-design levels, as well as in the test of these systems.

Advances in Computer Science and Engineering

Keywords: Network-on-Chip, On-chip network, virtual channel, parallel buffer,
router. 1 Introduction In designing Network-on-Chip (NoC) systems, there are
several issues to be considered, such as topology, routing algorithm,
performance, ...

Advances in Computer Science and Engineering

It is our pleasure to welcome you to the proceedings of the 13th International C- puter Society of Iran Computer Conference (CSICC-2008). The conference has been held annually since 1995, except for 1998, when it transitioned from a year-end to first-quarter schedule. It has been moving in the direction of greater selectivity (see Fig.1) and broader international participation. Holding it in Kish Island this year represents an effort to further facilitate and encourage international contributions. We feel privileged to participate in further advancing this strong technical tradition. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dec 23-26 Dec 23-25 Dec 23-25 Jan 26-28 Mar 8-10 Feb 21-23 Feb 28-30 Feb 23-26 Feb 16-19 Feb 15-18 Jan 24-26 Feb 20-22 Mar 9-11 1995 1996 1997 Iran 1999 2000 2001 U of 2002 Iran 2003 2004 2005 Iran 2006 IPM, 2007 2008 Sharif U Amirkabir U of Sharif U Shahid Isfahan, Telecom Ferdowsi Sharif U Telecom Tehran Shahid Sharif U of Tech, U of Tech, Sci/Tech, of Tech, Beheshti Isfahan Res. U, of Tech, Res. Beheshti of Tech, Tehran Tehran Tehran Tehran U, Tehran Center Mashhad Tehran Center U, Tehran Kish Island Dates, Year, Venue

Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing

Glass and Ni [13] present the turn model to develop adaptive deadlock free
routing algorithms for NoC. It shows that by prohibiting just enough turns the
routing algorithms gets deadlock free since no cycle can be formed. The main ...
APSRA framework 1 APSRA(in: CG, TG, M, out: Network-on-Chip Routing
Algorithms by Breaking Cycles 165 Introduction of Application Specific Routing
Algorithms (APSRA)

Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing

It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the proceedings of the 10th annual event of the International Conference on Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing (ICA3PP). ICA3PP is recognized as the main regular event covering the many dimensions of parallel algorithms and architectures, encompassing fundamental theoretical - proaches, practical experimental projects, and commercial components and systems. As applications of computing systems have permeated every aspect of daily life, the power of computing systems has become increasingly critical. Therefore, ICA3PP 2010 aimed to permit researchers and practitioners from industry to exchange inf- mation regarding advancements in the state of the art and practice of IT-driven s- vices and applications, as well as to identify emerging research topics and define the future directions of parallel processing. We received a total of 157 submissions this year, showing by both quantity and quality that ICA3PP is a premier conference on parallel processing. In the first stage, all papers submitted were screened for their relevance and general submission - quirements. These manuscripts then underwent a rigorous peer-review process with at least three reviewers per paper. In the end, 47 papers were accepted for presentation and included in the main proceedings, comprising a 30% acceptance rate.

Multi Core Embedded Systems

4. Routing. Algorithms. for. Irregular. Mesh-Based. Network-on-Chip. Shu-Yen Lin
and An-Yeu (Andy) Wu Electrical Engineering Department National Taiwan ...
CONTENTS 112 113 113 113 115 116 117 126 127 132 4.1 Introduction .

Multi Core Embedded Systems

Details a real-world product that applies a cutting-edge multi-core architecture Increasingly demanding modern applications—such as those used in telecommunications networking and real-time processing of audio, video, and multimedia streams—require multiple processors to achieve computational performance at the rate of a few giga-operations per second. This necessity for speed and manageable power consumption makes it likely that the next generation of embedded processing systems will include hundreds of cores, while being increasingly programmable, blending processors and configurable hardware in a power-efficient manner. Multi-Core Embedded Systems presents a variety of perspectives that elucidate the technical challenges associated with such increased integration of homogeneous (processors) and heterogeneous multiple cores. It offers an analysis that industry engineers and professionals will need to understand the physical details of both software and hardware in embedded architectures, as well as their limitations and potential for future growth. Discusses the available programming models spread across different abstraction levels The book begins with an overview of the evolution of multiprocessor architectures for embedded applications and discusses techniques for autonomous power management of system-level parameters. It addresses the use of existing open-source (and free) tools originating from several application domains—such as traffic modeling, graph theory, parallel computing and network simulation. In addition, the authors cover other important topics associated with multi-core embedded systems, such as: Architectures and interconnects Embedded design methodologies Mapping of applications

High Performance Datacenter Networks

This book describes the design and engineering tradeoffs of datacenter networks.

High Performance Datacenter Networks

Datacenter networks provide the communication substrate for large parallel computer systems that form the ecosystem for high performance computing (HPC) systems and modern Internet applications. The design of new datacenter networks is motivated by an array of applications ranging from communication intensive climatology, complex material simulations and molecular dynamics to such Internet applications as Web search, language translation, collaborative Internet applications, streaming video and voice-over-IP. For both Supercomputing and Cloud Computing the network enables distributed applications to communicate and interoperate in an orchestrated and efficient way. This book describes the design and engineering tradeoffs of datacenter networks. It describes interconnection networks from topology and network architecture to routing algorithms, and presents opportunities for taking advantage of the emerging technology trends that are influencing router microarchitecture. With the emergence of "many-core" processor chips, it is evident that we will also need "many-port" routing chips to provide a bandwidth-rich network to avoid the performance limiting effects of Amdahl's Law. We provide an overview of conventional topologies and their routing algorithms and show how technology, signaling rates and cost-effective optics are motivating new network topologies that scale up to millions of hosts. The book also provides detailed case studies of two high performance parallel computer systems and their networks. Table of Contents: Introduction / Background / Topology Basics / High-Radix Topologies / Routing / Scalable Switch Microarchitecture / System Packaging / Case Studies / Closing Remarks

VLSI Design and Test

Network-on-Chip (NoC) is evolving as an efficient and scalable interconnect
architecture for current and future CMP, MPSoC systems. An important challenge
in NoC design is to choose an appropriate routing algorithm, as it impacts the
NoC performance. ... 1 Introduction System on Chip (SoC) packages all complex
heterogeneous components of a system on a single integrated circuit. Due to
increasing ...

VLSI Design and Test

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on VLSI Design and Test, VDAT 2013, held in Jaipur, India, in July 2013. The 44 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 162 submissions. The papers discuss the frontiers of design and test of VLSI components, circuits and systems. They are organized in topical sections on VLSI design, testing and verification, embedded systems, emerging technology.

Communication Systems and Information Technology

Design Methodology of Dynamically Reconfigurable Network-on-Chip Haiyun Gu
College of Information Engineering, Shanghai Maritime ... of DRNoC, including
the topology, router, mapping algorithm, routing algorithm, implementation and
simulation of DRNoC. Keywords: NoC, dynamica reconfiguration, Xilinx FPGA 1
Introduction Semiconductor technology entered into the era of deep submicron.

Communication Systems and Information Technology

This volume includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2011) , held on June 20-22 , 2011, which is jointly organized by Nanchang University, Springer, and IEEE IAS Nanchang Chapter. The objective of EEIC 2011 Volume 4 is to provide a major interdisciplinary forum for the presentation of new approaches from Communication Systems and Information Technology, to foster integration of the latest developments in scientific research. 137 related topic papers were selected into this volume. All the papers were reviewed by 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof. Ming Ma. We hope every participant can have a good opportunity to exchange their research ideas and results and to discuss the state of the art in the areas of the Communication Systems and Information Technology.

Distributed Computing and Networking

Furthermore, it can be coupled with any OSF and any routing algorithm.
Keywords: networks-on-chip (NoCs), virtual channel (vc), wormhole switching, vc
chain, input selection function (ISF). 1 Introduction Due to wire delay scalability
and ...

Distributed Computing and Networking

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking, ICDCN 2012, held in Hong Kong, China, during January 3-6, 2012. The 36 revised full papers and 1 short paper presented together with 4 poster papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 submissions. The papers address all current issues in the field of distributed computing and networking. Being a leading forum for researchers and practitioners to exchange ideas and share best practices, ICDCN also hosts as a forum for PhD students to discuss their research ideas and get quality feedback from the well-renowned experts in the field of distributed computing and computer networking.

Designing 2D and 3D Network on Chip Architectures

This chapter outlines topological and routing characteristics of the packet-
switched Spidergon STNoC, focusing on its low diameter, vertex-symmetric, point
-to-point chordal ring topology, and its low-cost, efficient deterministic, shortest-
path routing algorithm. ... Introduction. Multicore system-on-chip (MPSoC)
technology has created exciting opportunities for developing new advanced
engineering ...

Designing 2D and 3D Network on Chip Architectures

This book covers key concepts in the design of 2D and 3D Network-on-Chip interconnect. It highlights design challenges and discusses fundamentals of NoC technology, including architectures, algorithms and tools. Coverage focuses on topology exploration for both 2D and 3D NoCs, routing algorithms, NoC router design, NoC-based system integration, verification and testing, and NoC reliability. Case studies are used to illuminate new design methodologies.

Contemporary Computing

Throughput Considerations of Fault-Tolerant Routing in Network-on-Chip Arshin
Rezazadeh and Mahmood Fathy Department of Computer ... A well-known
wormhole-switched routing algorithm for 2-D mesh interconnection network, f-
cube3, uses three virtual channels to pass faulty ... 1 Introduction Interconnection
networks have become integral issues to interconnect components of parallel
computers.

Contemporary Computing

This book constitutes the refereed papers of the 2nd International Conference on Contemporary Computing, which was held in Noida (New Delhi), India, in August 2009. The 61 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 213 submissions and focus on topics that are of contemporary interest to computer and computational scientists and engineers. The papers are organized in topical sections on Algorithms, Applications, Bioinformatics, and Systems.

Autonomic Networking on Chip

1 A Bio-Inspired Architecture for Autonomic Network-on-Chip M. Bakhouya
Universite de Technologie de Belfort Montbeliard, Belfort, France ... such as
routing algorithm, switching scheme and flits' size, should be adapted at runtime.

Autonomic Networking on Chip

Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-on-chip (ANoC) technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The FIRST Book to Assess Research Results, Opportunities, & Trends in "BioChipNets" The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent researchers in industry and academia around the world. A response to the critical need for a global information exchange and dialogue, it is written for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and other researchers who have a basic understanding of NoC and are now ready to learn how to specify, develop, and verify ANoC using rigorous approaches. Offers Expert Insights Into Technical Topics Including: Bio-inspired NoC How to map applications onto ANoC ANoC for FPGAs and structured ASICs Methods to apply formal methods in ANoC development Ways to formalize languages that enable ANoC Methods to validate and verify techniques for ANoC Use of "self-" processes in ANoC (self-organization, configuration, healing, optimization, protection, etc.) Use of calculi for reasoning about context awareness and programming models in ANoC With illustrative figures to simplify contents and enhance understanding, this resource contains original, peer-reviewed chapters reporting on new developments and opportunities, emerging trends, and open research problems of interest to both the autonomic computing and network-on-chip communities. Coverage includes state-of-the-art ANoC architectures, protocols, technologies, and applications. This volume thoroughly explores the theory behind ANoC to illustrate strategies that enable readers to use formal ANoC methods yet still make sound judgments and allow for reasonable justifications in practice.

Embedded Software and Systems

A new chip design paradigm, so called Network on Chip, has been introduced
based on the demand of integration of many ... latency of heterogeneous Network
on Chip architectures in which the shortest path routing algorithm is applied.

Embedded Software and Systems

Welcome to the proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Emb- ded Software and Systems (ICESS 2005) held in Xian, China, December 16-18, 2005. With the advent of VLSI system level integration and system-on-chip, the center of gravity of the computer industry is now moving from personal c- puting into embedded computing. Embedded software and systems are incre- ingly becoming a key technological component of all kinds of complex technical systems, ranging from vehicles, telephones, aircraft, toys, security systems, to medical diagnostics, weapons, pacemakers, climate control systems, etc. The ICESS 2005 conference provided a premier international forum for - searchers, developers and providers from academia and industry to address all resulting profound challenges; to present and discuss their new ideas, - search results, applications and experience; to improve international com- nication and cooperation; and to promote embedded software and system - dustrialization and wide applications on all aspects of embedded software and systems.

Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing

THIN: A New Hierarchical Interconnection Network-on-Chip for SOC Baojun
Qiao1,2, Feng Shi1, and Weixing Ji1 1 School of ... A new tree-based multicast
routing algorithm in THIN is proposed. ... 1 Introduction Continued progress in
silicon technology now allows future System-on-Chip (SOC) to integrate from
several ...

Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing

Parallel and distributed computing in the 1980s and 1990s had great in?uence onapplication developmentin science, engineering andbusiness computing. The improvements in computation and communication capabilities have enabled the creation of demanding applications in critical domains such as the environment, health, aerospace, and other areas of science and technology. Similarly, new classesofapplicationsareenabledbytheavailabilityofheterogeneouslarge-scale distributed systems which are becoming available nowadays (based on techno- giessuchasgridandpeer-to-peersystems).Parallelcomputingsystemsexploita large diversity of computer architectures, from supercomputers, shared-memory or distributed-memory multi processors, to local networks and clusters of p- sonal computers. With the recent emergence of multi core architectures, parallel computing is now set to achieve “mainstream” status. Approaches that have been advocated by parallelcomputing researchersin the past are now being utilized in a number of software libraries and hardware systems that are available for everyday use. Parallel computing ideas have also come to dominate areas such as multi user gaming (especially in the development of gaming engines based on “cell” arc- tectures) – often ignored by many “serious” researchers in the past, but which now are set to have a growing user base of tens of millions across the world. In recent years, focus has also shifted to support energy e?ciency in com- tation, with some researchers proposing a new metric of performance based on Flops/Watt.

Proceedings of the 2011 2nd International Congress on Computer Applications and Computational Science

Parameterized Path Based Randomized Oblivious Minimal Path Routing with
Fault Tolerance in 2D Mesh Network on Chip Mushtaq ... Overcome from
permanent fault can be achieved using efficient routing algorithms whereas
retransmission of faulty packet resolve transient faults in the network. ...
Introduction Network on Chip has become an accepted perspective of design of
large scale systems.

Proceedings of the 2011 2nd International Congress on Computer Applications and Computational Science

The latest inventions in computer technology influence most of human daily activities. In the near future, there is tendency that all of aspect of human life will be dependent on computer applications. In manufacturing, robotics and automation have become vital for high quality products. In education, the model of teaching and learning is focusing more on electronic media than traditional ones. Issues related to energy savings and environment is becoming critical. Computational Science should enhance the quality of human life, not only solve their problems. Computational Science should help humans to make wise decisions by presenting choices and their possible consequences. Computational Science should help us make sense of observations, understand natural language, plan and reason with extensive background knowledge. Intelligence with wisdom is perhaps an ultimate goal for human-oriented science. This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in computer application and computational science. This book provides state-of-the-art accounts in Computer Control and Robotics, Computers in Education and Learning Technologies, Computer Networks and Data Communications, Data Mining and Data Engineering, Energy and Power Systems, Intelligent Systems and Autonomous Agents, Internet and Web Systems, Scientific Computing and Modeling, Signal, Image and Multimedia Processing, and Software Engineering.

Advances in Computer Systems Architecture

Much research has been done in this field of study recently, e.g. in routing
algorithms, switching methods, VLSI Layout, and ... To overcome these limitations
, network-on-chip (NoC) is introduced in recent years and much research has
been ...

Advances in Computer Systems Architecture

On behalf of the program and organizing committee members of this conference, we th are pleased to present you with the proceedings of the 12 Asia-Pacific Computer Systems Architecture Conference (ACSAC 2007), which was hosted in Seoul, Korea on August 23-25, 2007. This conference has traditionally been a forum for leading researchers in the Asian, American and Oceanian regions to share recent progress and the latest results in both architectural and system issues. In the past few years the c- ference has become more international in the sense that the geographic origin of p- ticipants has become broader to include researchers from all around the world, incl- ing Europe and the Middle East. This year, we received 92 paper submissions. Each submission was reviewed by at least three primary reviewers along with up to three secondary reviewers. The total number of completed reviews reached 333, giving each submission 3.6 reviews on average. All the reviews were carefully examined during the paper selection process, and finally 26 papers were accepted, resulting in an acceptance rate of about 28%. The selected papers encompass a wide range of topics, with much emphasis on hardware and software techniques for state-of-the-art multicore and multithreaded architectures.