John Davenant s Hypothetical Universalism

Prolegomena -- The extent of Christ's work from the early church to Gottschalk -- Lombardian formula in the sixteenth and early seventeenth century -- John Davenant and the Synod of Dordt -- John Davenant's hypothetical universalism -- John ...

John Davenant s Hypothetical Universalism

"John Davenant's hypothetical universalism has consistently been misinterpreted and misrepresented as a via media between Arminianism and Reformed theology. This study examines Bishop John Davenant's hypothetical universalism in the context of early modern Reformed orthodoxy. In light of the various misunderstandings of early modern hypothetical universalism, including English hypothetical universalism, as well as the paucity of studies touching on the theology of John Davenant in particular, this dissertation: (1) Gives a detailed exposition of Davenant's doctrine of universal redemption in dialogue with his understanding of closely related doctrines such as God's will, predestination, providence, and covenant theology; and (2) defends the thesis that Davenant's version of hypothetical universalism represents a significant strand of the Augustinian tradition, including the early modern Reformed tradition. In service of these two aims, this dissertation examines the patristic and medieval periods as they provide the background for the Lutheran, Remonstrant, and Reformed reactions to the so-called Lombardian formula ("Christ died sufficiently for all; effectually for the elect"). Moreover, it traces how Davenant and his fellow British delegates at the Synod of Dordt shaped the Canons of Dordt in such a way as to allow for their English hypothetical universalism. A careful exposition of the various theses found in Davenant's De Morte Christi makes up the central core of this dissertation. Finally, this study explores Davenant's covenant theology and doctrine of the divine will"--

John Davenant s Hypothetical Universalism

This book examines Davenant's hypothetical universalism in the context of early modern Reformed orthodoxy.

John Davenant s Hypothetical Universalism

"John Davenant's hypothetical universalism has consistently been misinterpreted and misrepresented as a via media between Arminianism and Reformed theology. This study examines Bishop John Davenant's hypothetical universalism in the context of early modern Reformed orthodoxy. In light of the various misunderstandings of early modern hypothetical universalism, including English hypothetical universalism, as well as the paucity of studies touching on the theology of John Davenant in particular, this dissertation: (1) Gives a detailed exposition of Davenant's doctrine of universal redemption in dialogue with his understanding of closely related doctrines such as God's will, predestination, providence, and covenant theology; and (2) defends the thesis that Davenant's version of hypothetical universalism represents a significant strand of the Augustinian tradition, including the early modern Reformed tradition. In service of these two aims, this dissertation examines the patristic and medieval periods as they provide the background for the Lutheran, Remonstrant, and Reformed reactions to the so-called Lombardian formula ("Christ died sufficiently for all; effectually for the elect"). Moreover, it traces how Davenant and his fellow British delegates at the Synod of Dordt shaped the Canons of Dordt in such a way as to allow for their English hypothetical universalism. A careful exposition of the various theses found in Davenant's De Morte Christi makes up the central core of this dissertation. Finally, this study explores Davenant's covenant theology and doctrine of the divine will"--

English Hypothetical Universalism

Jonathan D. Moore retrieves Preston from his traditional place as one of the "Calvinists against Calvin," provides a convincing argument for Preston's unique hypothetical universalism, and calls into question common misperceptions about ...

English Hypothetical Universalism

John Preston (1587-1628) stands as a key figure in the development of English Reformed orthodoxy in the courts of ElizabethaI and JamesaVI. Often cited as a favorite of the English and American Puritans who came after him, he nevertheless stood as a bridge between the crown and the nonconformists. Jonathan D. Moore retrieves Preston from his traditional place as one of the "Calvinists against Calvin," provides a convincing argument for Preston's unique hypothetical universalism, and calls into question common misperceptions about Reformed theology and Puritanism.

Richard Hooker and Reformed Orthodoxy

Scott N. Kindred-Barnes, W. Bradford Littlejohn ... First, as Richard Muller has recently demonstrated, when Bishop John Davenant, the preeminent English hypothetical universalist, was asked by the French Reformed Churches to give his ...

Richard Hooker and Reformed Orthodoxy

For more than forty years now there has been a steady stream of interest in Richard Hooker. This renaissance in Hooker Studies began with the publication of the Folger Library Edition of the Works of Richard Hooker. With this renaissance has come a growing recognition that it is anachronistic to classify Hooker simply as an Anglican thinker, but as yet, no generally agreed-upon alternative label, or context for his thought, has replaced this older conception; in particular, the question of Hooker’s Reformed identity remains hotly contested. Given the relatively limited engagement of Hooker scholarship with other branches of Reformation and early modern scholarship to date, there is a growing recognition that Hooker must be evaluated not only against the context of English puritanism and conformism but also in light of his broad international Reformed context. At the same time, it has become clear that, if this is so, scholars of continental Reformed orthodoxy must take stock of Hooker’s work as one of the landmark theological achievements of the era.This volume aims to facilitate this long-needed conversation, bringing together a wide range of scholars to consider Richard Hooker’s theology within the full context of late 16th- and early 17th-century Reformed orthodoxy, both in England and on the Continent. The essays seek to bring Hooker into conversation not merely with contemporaries familiar to Hooker scholarship, such as William Perkins, but also with such contemporaries as Jerome Zanchi and Franciscus Junius, predecessors such as Heinrich Bullinger, and successors such as John Davenant, John Owen, and Hugo Grotius. In considering how these successors of Hooker identified themselves in relation to his theology, these essays will also shed light on how Hooker was perceived within 17th-century Reformed circles. The theological topics touched on in the course of these essays include such central issues as the doctrine of Scripture, predestination, Christology, soteriology, the sacraments, and law. It is hoped that these essays will continue to stimulate further research on these important questions among a wide community of scholars.

Calvin and the Reformed Tradition

both the “categorical” universalism” of Arminius and the hypothetical universalism of Amyraut.[3] John Davenant and the Gallican Controversy over Hypothetical Universalism Davenant, Dort, and dating the debate.

Calvin and the Reformed Tradition

Richard Muller, a world-class scholar of the Reformation era, examines the relationship of Calvin's theology to the Reformed tradition, indicating Calvin's place in the tradition as one of several significant second-generation formulators. Muller argues that the Reformed tradition is a diverse and variegated movement not suitably described either as founded solely on the thought of John Calvin or as a reaction to or deviation from Calvin, thereby setting aside the old "Calvin and the Calvinists" approach in favor of a more integral and representative perspective. Muller offers historical corrective and nuance on topics of current interest in Reformed theology, such as limited atonement/universalism, union with Christ, and the order of salvation.

Drawn Into Controversie

6.3 John Davenant & English Hypothetical Universalism Despite the rigor and vigor of Owen's defense of particular redemption, this was by no means the only option for the Reformed Orthodox in seventeenth-century Britain, ...

Drawn Into Controversie

This volume looks at theological debates among the English Puritans in the seventeenth century. By their very nature, traditions are diverse. This is particularly the case with theological traditions, even including those cases where they have been named for a single individual (e.g. Augustinianism, Thomism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism). In the eras of the Reformation and of Reformed orthodoxy there was intense theological debate, leading to confessional identity and confessional boundaries; hence the Remonstrant controversy in the early seventeenth century. What the essays of this volume look at, however, are the debates that took place within the Reformed theological tradition, particularly within Puritan England. Some of the debates considered here threatened to rise to a confessional level whereas others were not so serious insofar as they did not press on confessional boundaries. The Puritan tradition surveyed in these essays looks at both major and minor intra-Reformed debates. Most of these debates analyzed have been passed over in the older scholarship in its quest to find the few true Calvinians to oppose to the so-called Calvinists. By contrast, none of the studies included in the present volume brands one side of a seventeenth-century debate as un-Calvinian or identifies an alteration of doctrinal perspective as a declension from Reformation-era purity. Calvin no longer appears as a norm, although he does appear, with other Reformers, as an antecedent of certain lines of argument. Lastly, the essays document the ongoing concern among Reformed theologians to further the Reformation cause. In this pursuit, Reformed theologians, as they did during the time of the Reformation theologians, often found themselves disagreeing on a number of theological doctrines. - Publisher.

Calvin on the Death of Christ

hypothetical universalism, which included three essential elements.177 The first element concerns redemption ... For a fuller summary of Davenant's views, see Compton, “John Davenant's Dissertation on the Death of Christ,” 167–81; Kang, ...

Calvin on the Death of Christ

One of the most contested questions in historical theology concerns John Calvin’s understanding of the so-called “extent of the atonement.” On a popular level, Calvin’s name is closely associated with the “limited atonement” stance canonized within the “TULIP” acronym. But did Calvin himself insist upon a strictly particularist view of Christ dying for the elect alone? This study re-examines the evidence in the primary sources, traces the diversity of resulting historical trajectories, and engages the spectrum of secondary scholarship. Undoubtedly, Calvin believed in unconditional election, but he also spoke on multiple occasions of Christ dying for “all” or for “the world”—yet what did he mean? Some may find the conclusions surprising, but all should find them cogently articulated and irenically tempered.

Catholicity and the Covenant of Works

121 Explicitly following Ames, who was not a hypothetical universalist, Ussher distinguished the differences between ... 60r (sermon on Romans 8:34, dated February 20, 1647); Lynch, “John Davenant's Hypothetical Universalism,” 138–42.

Catholicity and the Covenant of Works

James Ussher (1581-1656), one of the most important religious scholars and Protestant leaders of the seventeenth century, helped shape the Church of Ireland and solidify its national identity. In Catholicity and the Covenant of Works, Harrison Perkins addresses the development of Christian doctrine in the Reformed tradition, paying particular attention to the ways in which Ussher adopted various ideas from the broad Christian tradition to shape his doctrine of the covenant of works, which he utilized to explain how God related to humanity both before and after the fall into sin. Perkins highlights the ecumenical premises that underscored Reformed doctrine and the major role that Ussher played in codifying this doctrine, while also shedding light on the differing perspectives of the established churches of Ireland and England. Catholicity and the Covenant of Works considers how Ussher developed the doctrine of a covenant between God and Adam that was based on law, and illustrates how he related the covenant of works to the doctrines of predestination, Christology, and salvation.

Deviant Calvinism

This book contributes to theological retrieval within the Reformed tradition, and establishes a wider path to thinking Calvinism differently.

Deviant Calvinism

Deviant Calvinism seeks to show that the Reformed tradition is much broader and more variegated than is often thought. Crisp’s work focuses on a cluster of theological issues concerning the scope of salvation and shows that there are important ways in which current theological discussion of these topics can be usefully resourced by attention to theologians of the past. This book contributes to theological retrieval within the Reformed tradition, and establishes a wider path to thinking Calvinism differently.

Learning from the Past

Essays on Reception, Catholicity, and Dialogue in Honour of Anthony N. S. Lane Jon Balserak, Richard Snoddy ... career. richard Baxter claimed that ussher led John davenant to subscribe to hypothetical universalism.20 if this is true, ...

Learning from the Past

This collection of essays in honour of Anthony N. S. Lane has two main foci, picking up themes which resonate with some of Lane's most important work. The first broad theme is the reception of the thought of earlier generations of biblical interpreters and theologians. The essays here explore various facets of reception history-textual transmission, the identification of editions used, the deployment of these sources in doctrinal formulation, in polemic, and in relation to the contested site of 'catholicity'. The second broad theme is engagement with other confessional identities and allegiances. The essays presented here shed light on the past and stimulate contemporary theological reflection.

The Religious Formation of John Witherspoon

Although Witherspoon's Popular Party colleague John Erskine was personally close to Edwards, the latter is never mentioned by ... Although John Davenant had argued for a version of hypothetical universalism as a member of the British ...

The Religious Formation of John Witherspoon

This book explores in unprecedented detail the theological thinking of John Witherspoon during his often overlooked ministerial career in Scotland. In contrast to the arguments made by other historians, it shows that there was considerable continuity of thought between Witherspoon’s Scottish ministry and the second half of his career as one of America’s Founding Fathers. The book argues that Witherspoon cannot be properly understood until he is seen as not only engaged with the Enlightenment, but also firmly grounded in the Calvinist tradition of High to Late Orthodoxy, embedded in the transatlantic Evangelical Awakening of the eighteenth century, and frustrated by the state of religion in the Scottish Kirk. Alongside the titles of pastor, president, educator, philosopher, should be a new category: John Witherspoon as Reformed apologist. This is a fresh re-examination of the intellectual formation of one of Scotland’s most important churchman from the eighteenth century and one of America’s most influential early figures. The volume will be of keen interest to academics working in Religious History, American Religion, Reformed Theology and Calvinism, as well as Scottish and American history more generally.

Revisiting the Synod of Dordt 1618 1619

... was his winning of John Davenant to the system of hypothetical universalism prior to the Synod commencing. Ussher first met Davenant in during one of his expeditions to London, the same year that Davenant was appointed Lady ...

Revisiting the Synod of Dordt  1618 1619

Proceedings of a conference held Apr. 6-7, 2006 in Dordrecht, Netherlands.

The Oxford History of Protestant Dissenting Traditions Volume I

The Post-Reformation Era, 1559-1689 John Coffey ... some British theologians were in the process of softening Reformed orthodoxy through a doctrine of 'hypothetical universalism': James Ussher, John Davenant, and John Preston ...

The Oxford History of Protestant Dissenting Traditions  Volume I

The Oxford History of Protestant Dissenting Traditions, Volume I traces the emergence of Anglophone Protestant Dissent in the post-Reformation era between the Act of Uniformity (1559) and the Act of Toleration (1689). It reassesses the relationship between establishment and Dissent, emphasising that Presbyterians and Congregationalists were serious contenders in the struggle for religious hegemony. Under Elizabeth I and the early Stuarts, separatists were few in number, and Dissent was largely contained within the Church of England, as nonconformists sought to reform the national Church from within. During the English Revolution (1640-60), Puritan reformers seized control of the state but splintered into rival factions with competing programmes of ecclesiastical reform. Only after the Restoration, following the ejection of two thousand Puritan clergy from the Church, did most Puritans become Dissenters, often with great reluctance. Dissent was not the inevitable terminus of Puritanism, but the contingent and unintended consequence of the Puritan drive for further reformation. The story of Dissent is thus bound up with the contest for the established Church, not simply a heroic tale of persecuted minorities contending for religious toleration. Nevertheless, in the half century after 1640, religious pluralism became a fact of English life, as denominations formed and toleration was widely advocated. The volume explores how Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, and Quakers began to forge distinct identities as the four major denominational traditions of English Dissent. It tracks the proliferation of Anglophone Protestant Dissent beyond England—in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, the Dutch Republic, New England, Pennsylvania, and the Caribbean. And it presents the latest research on the culture of Dissenting congregations, including their relations with the parish, their worship, preaching, gender relations, and lay experience.

The Cambridge Companion to Reformed Theology

Preston, with others such as the Irish archbishop James Ussher (1581–1656) and John Davenant (ca. 1572–1641), bishop of Salisbury, argued instead for 'hypothetical universalism': Christ ...

The Cambridge Companion to Reformed Theology

This volume provides an authoritative and detailed introduction to the doctrinal positions, central figures, and historic contexts of Reformed theology.

Saving Calvinism

But Oliver Crisp argues that the Reformed tradition is much more diverse and flexible than we usually imagine. Taking on thorny topics like atonement, free will, and universalism, Crisp explores a more expansive Calvinism.

Saving Calvinism

Is there hope for Calvinism beyond TULIP? For many, Calvinism evokes the idea of a harsh God who saves a select few and condemns others to eternal torment. Others find comfort in the Five Points of TULIP with its emphasis on the sovereignty of God's grace. Oliver Crisp thinks both sides have too small a picture of the Reformed tradition. There are ample resources for developing a more expansive Calvinism. Reformed Christians have inherited a vast mansion, but many of them only live in two rooms, reading John Calvin and Jonathan Edwards on repeat, while the rest of the house lies waiting for someone to discover its treasures. Saving Calvinism explores some of the thorniest problems in the Reformed tradition, including free will, the extent of the atonement, and the possibility of universal salvation. By engaging a host of Reformed thinkers and exploring often ignored ideas, Crisp shows that Calvinism is much more diverse and flexible than the stereotype suggests.

A Faith Worth Defending

Remarkably, Calvin himself, in his comments on 1 John 2:2 (Calvin's Commentaries [1844–1856; repr., Grand Rapids: Baker, ... including the Amyraldian view of hypothetical universalism, see W. Robert Godfrey, “Reformed Thought on the ...

A Faith Worth Defending

Table of Contents: 1. Preserving the Reformation: A Historical Portrait of the Synod of Dort — W. Robert Godfrey 2. What’s the Difference? A Historical and Theological Comparison of the Three Forms of Unity — Lyle D. Bierma 3. The English Delegation to the Synod of Dort — Kevin J. Bidwell 4. The Everlasting Love of God: Election and Predestination — J. V. Fesko 5. Dead in Sin: The Utter Depravity of Mankind — Christopher J. Gordon 6. The Promise of the Gospel: Redemption in Christ — Michael Horton 7. The Irresistible Spirit: The Work of the Holy Spirit in the Canons of Dort — Sebastian Heck 8. The Preservation and Perseverance of the Saints — Danny Hyde 9. Comfort and Assurance: The Pastoral Implications of Dort — Joel R. Beeke and Ray B. Lanning 10. Preaching the Doctrines of Dort — Cornelis P. Venema 11. Proclaiming Joyful Tidings: Dort, Evangelism, and the Sovereignty of God — Jon D. Payne

John Owen Richard Baxter and the Formation of Nonconformity

I appreciate that Davenant's theology, with its hypothetical universalism, was built along different 67 Owen, Display ofArminianism (1643): 1/Vorks, x.61. 66 Owen did not refer to Davenant's book in his Display. John Davenant ...

John Owen  Richard Baxter and the Formation of Nonconformity

John Owen (1616–1683) and Richard Baxter (1615–1691) were both pivotal figures in shaping the nonconformist landscape of Restoration England. Yet despite having much in common, they found themselves taking opposite sides in several important debates, and their relationship was marked by acute strain and mutual dislike. By comparing and contrasting the parallel careers of these two men, this book not only distils the essence of their differing theology, it also offers a broader understanding of the formation of English nonconformity. Placing these two figures in the context of earlier events, experience and differences, it argues that Restoration nonconformity was hampered by their strained personal relationship, which had its roots in their contrasting experiences of the English Civil War. This study thus contributes to historiography that explores the continuities across seventeenth-century England, rather than seeing a divide at 1660. It illustrates the way in which personality and experience shaped the development of wider movements.

James Ussher

Ward and Davenant, both privately and publicly, adopted Ussher's 'hypothetical universalism' (as it is catchily ... for converting not only Davenant, but also the puritan leader John Preston to hypothetical universalism.29 He has ...

James Ussher

Though known today largely for dating the creation of the world to 4004BC, James Ussher (1581-1656) was an important scholar and ecclesiastical leader in the seventeenth century. As Professor of Theology at Trinity College Dublin, and Archbishop of Armagh from 1625, he shaped the newly protestant Church of Ireland. Tracing its roots back to St Patrick, he gave it a sense of Irish identity and provided a theology which was strongly Calvinist and fiercely anti-Catholic. In exile in England in the 1640s he advised both king and parliament, trying to heal the ever-widening rift by devising a compromise over church government. Forced finally to choose sides by the outbreak of civil war in 1642, Ussher opted for the royalists, but found it difficult to combine his loyalty to Charles with his detestation of Catholicism. A meticulous scholar and an extensive researcher, Ussher had a breathtaking command of languages and disciplines - 'learned to a miracle' according to one of his friends. He worked on a series of problems: the early history of bishops, the origins of Christianity in Ireland and Britain, and the implications of double predestination, making advances which were to prove of lasting significance. Tracing the interconnections between this scholarship and his wider ecclesiastical and political interests, Alan Ford throws new light on the character and attitudes of a seminal figure in the history of Irish Protestantism.

T T Clark Companion to Reformation Theology

Furthermore, prominent hypothetical universalists like James Ussher in Ireland, and Bishop John Davenant and John Preston in England did not oppose one or the other of the traditional decretal categories.

T T Clark Companion to Reformation Theology

This volume introduces the main theological topics of Reformation theology in a language that is clear and concise. Theology in the Reformation era can be complicated and contentious. This volume aims to cut through the theological jargon and explain what people believed and why. The book begins with an essay that explains to students how one can approach the study of 16th century theology. It includes a guide to major events, persons, doctrines, and movements.