J R R Tolkien and His Literary Resonances

Although Tolkien's literary works have, over the past few decades, attracted a considerable and varied body of criticism, much of this material is inaccessible, unreflective, and repetitive.

J R R  Tolkien and His Literary Resonances

Although Tolkien's literary works have, over the past few decades, attracted a considerable and varied body of criticism, much of this material is inaccessible, unreflective, and repetitive. Though various scholars have treated Tolkien's sources and his concept of fantasy, this study situates the author in a broad literary context that includes ancient metrical modes, medieval culture, Renaissance poetics, 19th-century social movements, and modern critical thought. Each chapter is written by an expert contributor and examines the literary resonances of Tolkien's works from a variety of informed perspectives.

Ents Elves and Eriador

Many readers drawn into the heroic tales of J. R. R. Tolkien's imaginary world of Middle-earth have given little conscious thought to the importance of the land itself in his stories or to the vital roles played by the flora and fauna of ...

Ents  Elves  and Eriador

Many readers drawn into the heroic tales of J. R. R. Tolkien’s imaginary world of Middle-earth have given little conscious thought to the importance of the land itself in his stories or to the vital roles played by the flora and fauna of that land. As a result, The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion are rarely considered to be works of environmental literature or mentioned together with such authors as John Muir, Rachel Carson, or Aldo Leopold. Tolkien’s works do not express an activist agenda; instead, his environmentalism is expressed in the form of literary fiction. Nonetheless, Tolkien’s vision of nature is as passionate and has had as profound an influence on his readers as that of many contemporary environmental writers. The burgeoning field of agrarianism provides new insights into Tolkien’s view of the natural world and environmental responsibility. In Ents, Elves, and Eriador, Matthew Dickerson and Jonathan Evans show how Tolkien anticipated some of the tenets of modern environmentalism in the imagined world of Middle-earth and the races with which it is peopled. The philosophical foundations that define Tolkien’s environmentalism, as well as the practical outworking of these philosophies, are found throughout his work. Agrarianism is evident in the pastoral lifestyle and sustainable agriculture of the Hobbits, as they harmoniously cultivate the land for food and goods. The Elves practice aesthetic, sustainable horticulture as they shape their forest environs into an elaborate garden. To complete Tolkien’s vision, the Ents of Fangorn Forest represent what Dickerson and Evans label feraculture, which seeks to preserve wilderness in its natural form. Unlike the Entwives, who are described as cultivating food in tame gardens, the Ents risk eventual extinction for their beliefs. These ecological philosophies reflect an aspect of Christian stewardship rooted in Tolkien’s Catholic faith. Dickerson and Evans define it as “stewardship of the kind modeled by Gandalf,” a stewardship that nurtures the land rather than exploiting its life-sustaining capacities to the point of exhaustion. Gandalfian stewardship is at odds with the forces of greed exemplified by Sauron and Saruman, who, with their lust for power, ruin the land they inhabit, serving as a dire warning of what comes to pass when stewardly care is corrupted or ignored. Dickerson and Evans examine Tolkien’s major works as well as his lesser-known stories and essays, comparing his writing to that of the most important naturalists of the past century. A vital contribution to environmental literature and an essential addition to Tolkien scholarship, Ents, Elves, and Eriador offers both Tolkien fans and environmentalists an understanding of Middle-earth that has profound implications for environmental stewardship in the present and the future of our own world.

J R R Tolkien Encyclopedia

In J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth, edited by George Clark and Daniel Timmons, 147–58. Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy, 89. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.

J R R  Tolkien Encyclopedia

A detailed work of reference and scholarship, this one volume Encyclopedia includes discussions of all the fundamental issues in Tolkien scholarship written by the leading scholars in the field. Coverage not only presents the most recent scholarship on J.R.R. Tolkien, but also introduces and explores the author and scholar's life and work within their historical and cultural contexts. Tolkien's fiction and his sources of influence are examined along with his artistic and academic achievements - including his translations of medieval texts - teaching posts, linguistic works, and the languages he created. The 550 alphabetically arranged entries fall within the following categories of topics: adaptations art and illustrations characters in Tolkien's work critical history and scholarship influence of Tolkien languages biography literary sources literature creatures and peoples of Middle-earth objects in Tolkien's work places in Tolkien's work reception of Tolkien medieval scholars scholarship by Tolkien medieval literature stylistic elements themes in Tolkien's works theological/ philosophical concepts and philosophers Tolkien's contemporary history and culture works of literature

A Companion to J R R Tolkien

George Clark and Daniel Timmons's edited collection J. R. R. Tolkien and his Literary Resonances (2000), for example, offers very little on the literary heritage of the sixteenth, seventeenth, or eighteenth centuries, skipping from ...

A Companion to J  R  R  Tolkien

This is a complete resource for scholars and students of Tolkien, as well as avid fans, with coverage of his life, work, dominant themes, influences, and the critical reaction to his writing. An in-depth examination of Tolkien’s entire work by a cadre of top scholars Provides up-to-date discussion and analysis of Tolkien’s scholarly and literary works, including his latest posthumous book, The Fall of Arthur, as well as addressing contemporary adaptations, including the new Hobbit films Investigates various themes across his body of work, such as mythmaking, medieval languages, nature, war, religion, and the defeat of evil Discusses the impact of his work on art, film, music, gaming, and subsequent generations of fantasy writers

Tolkien as a Literary Artist

Exploring Rhetoric, Language and Style in the Lord of the Rings Thomas Kullmann, Dirk Siepmann ... In George Clark, Daniel Timmons, eds., J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000 ...

Tolkien as a Literary Artist


The Mythopoeic Code of Tolkien

A Christian Platonic Reading of the Legendarium Jyrki Korpua Donald E. Palumbo, C.W. Sullivan III. Ryan, Marie-Laure. 1991. ... J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth. Ed. George Clark and Daniel Timmons.

The Mythopoeic Code of Tolkien

J. R. R. Tolkien is arguably the most influential fantasy writer of all time--his world building and epic mythology have changed Western audiences' imaginations and the entire fantasy genre. This book is the first wide-ranging Christian Platonic reading on Tolkien's fiction. This analysis, written for scholars and general Tolkien enthusiasts alike, discusses how his fiction is constructed on levels of language, myth and textuality that have a background in the Greek philosopher Plato's texts and early Christian philosophy influenced by Plato. It discusses the concepts of ideal and real, creation and existence, and fall and struggle as central elements of Tolkien's fiction, focusing on The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion and The History of Middle-earth. Reading Tolkien's fiction as a depiction of ideal and real, from the vision of creation to the process of realization, illuminates a part of Tolkien's aesthetics and mythology that previous studies have overlooked.

J R R Tolkien

old motifs and make them familiar once more'.60 The landscapes of Middleearth are part of a continuous tradition of which ... George Clark and Daniel Timmons, J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middleearth (Westport, ...

J R R  Tolkien

J. R. R. Tolkien is arguably the most influential and popular of all fantasy writers. Although his position and status have long been controversial, his popularity has not faded. His best-loved works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, have sold millions of copies around the world and continue to enthral readers young and old. This lively collection of original essays examines The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings in the light of children's literature theory and approaches, as well as from adult and fantasy literature perspectives. Exploring issues such as gender, language, worldbuilding, and ecocriticism, the volume also places Tolkien's works in the context of a range of visual media, including Peter Jackson's film adaptations.

Classical Traditions in Modern Fantasy

“Loss Eternal in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth.” In J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances. Eds. G. Clark and D. Timmons. Westport, CT, and London: Greenwood Press. 173–182. Senior, W. A. 2012. “Quest Fantasies.

Classical Traditions in Modern Fantasy

Classical Traditions in Modern Fantasy is the first collection of essays in English focusing on how fantasy draws deeply on ancient Greek and Roman mythology, philosophy, literature, history, art, and cult practice. Presenting fifteen all-new essays intended for both scholars and other readers of fantasy, this volume explores many of the most significant examples of the modern genre-including the works of H. P. Lovecraft, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, C. S. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia, J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, George R. R. Martin's Game of Thrones series, and more-in relation to important ancient texts such as Aeschylus' Oresteia, Aristotle's Poetics, Virgil's Aeneid, and Apuleius' The Golden Ass. These varied studies raise fascinating questions about genre, literary and artistic histories, and the suspension of disbelief required not only of readers of fantasy but also of students of antiquity. Ranging from harpies to hobbits, from Cyclopes to Cthulhu, and all manner of monster and myth in-between, this comparative study of Classics and fantasy reveals deep similarities between ancient and modern ways of imagining the world. Although antiquity and the present day differ in many ways, at its base, ancient literature resonates deeply with modern fantasy's image of worlds in flux and bodies in motion.

The Hobbit and Tolkien s Mythology

In A Tolkien Compass. Ed. Jared Lobdell. Lasalle, IL: Open Court, rpt. New York: Ballantine. 9–28. Clark, George. 2000. “J.R.R. Tolkien and the True Hero.” InJ.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances. Eds. Clark and Timmons. 39–52.

The Hobbit and Tolkien  s Mythology

At the 2013 "Celebrating The Hobbit" conference at Valparaiso University--marking the 75th anniversary of the book's publication and the first installment of Peter Jackson's Hobbit movies--two plenary papers were presented: "Anchoring the Myth: The Impact of The Hobbit on Tolkien's Legendarium" by John D. Rateliff provided numerous examples of The Hobbit's influence on Tolkien's legendarium; and "Tolkien's French Connections" by Verlyn Flieger discussed French influences on the development of Bilbo Baggins and his adventures. In discussions with the plenary speakers and other presenters, it became apparent that a book focusing on how The Hobbit influenced the subsequent development of Tolkien's legendarium was sorely needed. This collection of 15 previously unpublished essays fills that need. With Rateliff's and Flieger's papers included, the book presents two chapters on the Evolution of the Dwarven Race, two chapters on Durin's Day examining the Dwarven lunar calendar, and 11 chapters on themes exploring various topics on influences and revisions between The Hobbit and Tolkien's legendarium.

The Power of Tolkien s Prose

“'Joy beyond the Walls of the World': The Secondary WorldMaking of J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis.” J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances, eds. George Clark and Daniel Timmons. London: Greenwood Press, 2000. 133–45.

The Power of Tolkien s Prose

Shortlisted for the 2011 Mythopoeic Scholarship Award forInklingsStudies Tolkien's unparalleled popularity has been largely attributed to his gifts as a storyteller and his thematic currency. But The Lord of the Rings may have become a modern classic for a deeper reason than we've noticed: Tolkien is a first-rate stylist. The Power of Tolkien's Prose illuminates the multifaceted appeal of Tolkien's prose style in dimensions ranging from his fantastic realism to his revitalizing imagery to his dynamic narrative to his expansive characterization to his engaging language. Viewed through the lens of Steve Walker's stylistic appreciation, Tolkien's fiction emerges as a new dimension of perception.

J R R Tolkien

... The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the literary intelligentsia, 1880-1939, New York: St Martin's, 1993 Clark, George, and Dan Timmons, eds., J.R.R. Tolkien and his Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth, ...

J R R  Tolkien

The definitive Tolkien companion—an indispensable guide to The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and more, from the author of The Road to Middle-earth. This “highly erudite celebration and exploration of Tolkien’s works [is] enormous fun,” declared the Houston Chronicle, and Tom Shippey, a prominent medievalist and scholar of fantasy, “deepens your understanding” without “making you forget your initial, purely instinctive response to Middle-earth and hobbits.” In a clear and accessible style, Shippey offers a new approach to Tolkien, to fantasy, and to the importance of language in literature. He breaks down The Lord of the Rings as a linguistic feast for the senses and as a response to the human instinct for myth. Elsewhere, he examines The Hobbit’s counterintuitive relationship to the heroic world of Middle-earth; demonstrates the significance of The Silmarillion to Tolkien’s canon; and takes an illuminating look at lesser-known works in connection with Tolkien’s life. Furthermore, he ties all these strands together in a continuing tradition that traces its roots back through Grimms’ Fairy Tales to Beowulf. “Shippey’s commentary is the best so far in elucidating Tolkien’s lovely myth,” wrote Harper’s Magazine. J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century is “a triumph” (Chicago Sun-Times) that not only gives readers a deeper understanding of Tolkien and his work, but also serves as an entertaining introduction to some of the most influential novels ever written.

There and Back Again

Poe, Harry Lee and James Ray Veneman, The Inklings of Oxford: C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and their Friends (Grand ... Clark and Daniel Timmons, eds, J.R.R. Tolkien and his Literary Resonances (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 2000), 71–81.

There and Back Again

'Even the smallest person can change the course of the future.' The prophetic words of Galadriel, addressed to Frodo as he prepared to travel from Lothlorien to Mordor to destroy the One Ring, are just as pertinent to J R R Tolkien's own fiction. For decades, hobbits and the other fantastical creatures of Middle-earth have captured the imaginations of a fiercely loyal tribe of readers, all enhanced by the immense success of Peter Jackson's films: first "The Lord of the Rings", and now his new "The Hobbit". But for all Tolkien's global fame and the familiarity of modern culture with Gandalf, Bilbo, Frodo and Sam, the sources of the great mythmaker's own myth-making have been neglected. Mark Atherton here explores the chief influences on Tolkien's work: his boyhood in the West Midlands; the landscapes and seascapes which shaped his mythologies; his experiences in World War I; his interest in Scandinavian myth; his friendships, especially with the other Oxford-based Inklings; and the relevance of his themes, especially ecological themes, to the present-day. "There and Back Again" offers a unique guide to the varied inspirations behind Tolkien's life and work, and sheds new light on how a legend is born.

Queer Movie Medievalisms

20 For the former view—Tolkien's misogyny—see Tanya Wood, “'Is Tolkien a Renaissance Man? ... Sidney's Defense of Poesy and J. R. R. Tolkien's 'On FairyStories,'” J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middleearth, eds.

Queer Movie Medievalisms

How is history even possible, since it involves recapturing a past already lost? It is through this urge to understand, feel and experience, that films based on medieval history are made. They attempt to re-create the past, but can only do so through a queer re-visioning that inevitably replicates modernity. In these mediations between past and present, history becomes misty, and so, too, do constructions of gender and sexuality leading to the impossibility of heterosexuality, or of any sexuality, predicated upon cinematic medievalism. Queer Movie Medievalisms is the first book of its kind to grapple with the ways in which mediations between past and present, as registered on the silver screen, queerly undercut assumptions about sexuality throughout time. It will be of great interest to scholars of Gender and Sexuality, Cultural and Media Studies, Film Studies and Medieval History.

Tolkien s Intellectual Landscape

In Chance, Tolkien the Medievalist, 239–58. _____. “The Medievalist('s) Fiction: Textuality and Historicity as Aspects of Tolkien's Medievalist Cultural Theory in a Postmodernist Context ... J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances.

Tolkien s Intellectual Landscape

The work of J.R.R. Tolkien has had a profound effect on contemporary fiction and filmmaking. Often disparaged by critics, Tolkien's fiction created a market for the "fantasy trilogy" and his academic work represents an innovative contribution to the field of philology. In the 20th century, his fiction bridged the gap between "learned" and "popular" readerships. Today the fantasy genre continues to grow--even as publishers cut back on creative fiction--moving energetically into film, gaming and online fan fiction. This book describes how Tolkien's imaginative landscape continues to entertain and inspire, drawing new generations to Middle-earth.

The Inklings and Culture

“J. R. R. Tolkien and the True Hero.” J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth, edited by George Clark and Daniel Timmons, Greenwood Press, 2000, pp. 39-51. Curry, Patrick. Defending Middle-earth: Tolkien, ...

The Inklings and Culture

How did five twentieth-century British authors, C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Dorothy L. Sayers, along with their mentors George MacDonald and G. K. Chesterton, come to contribute more to the intellect and imagination of millions than many of their literary contemporaries put together? How do their achievements continue to inform and potentially transform us in the twenty-first century? In this first collection of its kind, addressing the entire famous group of seven authors, the twenty-seven chapters in The Inklings and Culture explore the legacy of their diverse literary art—inspired by the Christian faith—art that continues to speak hope into a hurting and deeply divided world.

Tolkien Self and Other

Resonances: Views of Middle-earth, ed. George Clark and Daniel Timmons, 21–38 (Westport, Connecticut, and London: Greenwood Press, 2000); and George Clark, “J.R.R. Tolkien and the True Hero,” in J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary ...

Tolkien  Self and Other

This book examines key points of J. R. R. Tolkien’s life and writing career in relation to his views on humanism and feminism, particularly his sympathy for and toleration of those who are different, deemed unimportant, or marginalized—namely, the Other. Jane Chance argues such empathy derived from a variety of causes ranging from the loss of his parents during his early life to a consciousness of the injustice and violence in both World Wars. As a result of his obligation to research and publish in his field and propelled by his sense of abjection and diminution of self, Tolkien concealed aspects of the personal in relatively consistent ways in his medieval adaptations, lectures, essays, and translations, many only recently published. These scholarly writings blend with and relate to his fictional writings in various ways depending on the moment at which he began teaching, translating, or editing a specific medieval work and, simultaneously, composing a specific poem, fantasy, or fairy-story. What Tolkien read and studied from the time before and during his college days at Exeter and continued researching until he died opens a door into understanding how he uniquely interpreted and repurposed the medieval in constructing fantasy.

Tolkien A Look Behind The Lord Of The Rings

Salu, Mary and Robert T. Farrell (ed) J. R. R. Tolkien, Scholar and Storyteller: Essays In Memoriam (Cornell University Press). ... Clark, George and Daniel Timmons, J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-Earth ...

Tolkien  A Look Behind The Lord Of The Rings

Lin Carter introduces readers to Tolkien's epic trilogy then takes them on a scholarly yet populist journey through the massive web of myths and legends that Tolkien drew on for both imagery and themes during his life's work. Carter's book places Tolkien's trilogy in the context of world mythology and legend and is a tribute to Tolkiens power of assimilation and original vision. It is the ideal introduction to the background of the LORD OF THE RINGS for the legions of new fans.

Reading and Interpreting the Works of J R R Tolkien

Jonathan Evans, “The Dragon-Lore of Middle-Earth: Tolkien and Old English and Old Norse Tradition,” in J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-Earth (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000), 25–28. 17. Tolkien, The Hobbit ...

Reading and Interpreting the Works of J R R  Tolkien

The world of J.R.R. Tolkien is one that is inhabited by hobbits, dwarves, elves, wizards, and dragons. As a young man, Tolkien created his very own language, and from there he went on to imagine an entire magical world and its detailed history. Students will take an in-depth and thought-provoking look at The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, as well as The Simarillion, which provides the foundation for his classic works. The text includes an insightful analysis of the major themes and characters of the works that continue to fascinate new generations of readers.

The A to Z of Fantasy Literature

J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-Earth. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2000. Crabbe, Katharyn F. J. R. R. Tolkien. New York: Ungar, 1981; revised 1988. Day, David. Tolkien's Ring. London: HarperCollins, 1994.

The A to Z of Fantasy Literature

Once upon a time all literature was fantasy, set in a mythical past when magic existed, animals talked, and the gods took an active hand in earthly affairs. As the mythical past was displaced in Western estimation by the historical past and novelists became increasingly preoccupied with the present, fantasy was temporarily marginalized until the late 20th century, when it enjoyed a spectacular resurgence in every stratum of the literary marketplace. Stableford provides an invaluable guide to this sequence of events and to the current state of the field. The chronology tracks the evolution of fantasy from the origins of literature to the 21st century. The introduction explains the nature of the impulses creating and shaping fantasy literature, the problems of its definition and the reasons for its changing historical fortunes. The dictionary includes cross-referenced entries on more than 700 authors, ranging across the entire historical spectrum, while more than 200 other entries describe the fantasy subgenres, key images in fantasy literature, technical terms used in fantasy criticism, and the intimately convoluted relationship between literary fantasies, scholarly fantasies, and lifestyle fantasies. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography that ranges from general textbooks and specialized accounts of the history and scholarship of fantasy literature, through bibliographies and accounts of the fantasy literature of different nations, to individual author studies and useful websites.

Reading The Lord of the Rings

Paper given to the London Old and Middle English Research Seminar , 24 November 2004 . ... the shadow of the ring ' , in George Clark and Daniel Timmons ( eds ) , J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances : Views of Middle - earth .

Reading The Lord of the Rings

Beginning with an analysis of the critical history of Tolkien, the first section, Context and Criticism, examines and contrasts the historical and intellectual context of the books, films and their criticism. The second, Space, Place and Communities, turns to the philosophical and post-colonial concerns which structure contemporary understandings of the book and film. The third section, Gender, Sexuality and Class, shows how these issues are depicted in the novles and films. The final section, Tolkien's Futures, looks at the continuing influence of his work in both more traditional literary forms and in contemporary game and electronic narrative >