An Essay on Kant's Theory of Evil shows the centrality of the doctrine of radical evil within Kant's critical philosophy.
Author: Pablo Muchnik
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
An Essay on Kant's Theory of Evil shows the centrality of the doctrine of radical evil within Kant's critical philosophy. Combining textual accuracy with systematic ethical theory, it fills the gaps Kant left open in his own doctrine, and provides a non-mystifying account of h...
Kant infamously claimed that all human beings, without exception, are evil by nature. This collection of essays critically examines and elucidates what he must have meant by this indictment.
Author: Sharon Anderson-Gold
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Kant infamously claimed that all human beings, without exception, are evil by nature. This collection of essays critically examines and elucidates what he must have meant by this indictment. It shows the role which evil plays in his overall philosophical project and analyses its relation to individual autonomy. Furthermore, it explores the relevance of Kant's views for understanding contemporary questions such as crimes against humanity and moral reconstruction. Leading scholars in the field engage a wide range of sources from which a distinctly Kantian theory of evil emerges, both subtle and robust, and capable of shedding light on the complex dynamics of human immorality.
And yet from his first essays on ethics to later, more rigorous writings on the issue, Kant also admits an undeniable fallibility and inherent weakness to humanity. This book explores this neglected existential side of Kant's work.
Author: Joel Madore
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
To speak of evil is to speak of a gap between what is and what should be. If classical approaches to this problem often relied on a religious or metaphysical framework to structure their response, Kant's answer is typically modern in that it places within the subject the means of its own moral regeneration. And yet from his first essays on ethics to later, more rigorous writings on the issue, Kant also admits an undeniable fallibility and inherent weakness to humanity. This book explores this neglected existential side of Kant's work. It presents radical evil as vacillating between tragic and freedom, at the threshold of humanity. Through it's careful exegesis of the Kantian corpus, in gauging contemporary responses from both philosophical traditions, and by drawing from concrete examples of evil, the book offers a novel and accessible account of what is widely considered to be an intricate yet urgent problem of philosophy.
Laura Papish's Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform addresses this crucial element of Kant's ethical theory.
Author: Laura Papish
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Throughout his writings, and particularly in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, Kant alludes to the idea that evil is connected to self-deceit, and while numerous commentators regard this as a highly attractive thesis, none have seriously explored it. Laura Papish's Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform addresses this crucial element of Kant's ethical theory. Working with both Kant's core texts on ethics and materials less often cited within scholarship on Kant's practical philosophy (such as Kant's logic lectures), Papish explores the cognitive dimensions of Kant's accounts of evil and moral reform while engaging the most influential -- and often scathing -- of Kant's critics. Her book asks what self-deception is for Kant, why and how it is connected to evil, and how we achieve the self-knowledge that should take the place of self-deceit. She offers novel defenses of Kant's widely dismissed claims that evil is motivated by self-love and that an evil is rooted universally in human nature, and she develops original arguments concerning how social institutions and interpersonal relationships facilitate, for Kant, the self-knowledge that is essential to moral reform. In developing and defending Kant's understanding of evil, moral reform, and their cognitive underpinnings, Papish not only makes an important contribution to Kant scholarship. Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform also reveals how much contemporary moral philosophers, philosophers of religion, and general readers interested in the phenomenon of evil stand to gain by taking seriously Kant's views.
Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more.
Author: Claudia Card
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and impossible or that makes a death indecent. The other component is culpable wrongdoing. Atrocities, such as genocides, slavery, war rape, torture, and severe child abuse, are Card's paradigms because in them these key elements are writ large. Atrocities deserve more attention than secular philosophers have so far paid them. They are distinguished from ordinary wrongs not by the psychological states of evildoers but by the seriousness of the harm that is done. Evildoers need not be sadistic: they may simply be negligent or unscrupulous in pursuing their goals. Card's theory represents a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic alternatives (including Kant's theory of radical evil). Utilitarians tend to reduce evils to their harms; Stoics tend to reduce evils to the wickedness of perpetrators: Card accepts neither reduction. She also responds to Nietzsche's challenges about the worth of the concept of evil, and she uses her theory to argue that evils are more important than merely unjust inequalities. She applies the theory in explorations of war rape and violence against intimates. She also takes up what Primo Levi called the gray zone, where victims become complicit in perpetrating on others evils that threaten to engulf themselves. While most past accounts of evil have focused on perpetrators, Card begins instead from the position of the victims, but then considers more generally how to respond to -- and live with -- evils, as victims, as perpetrators, and as those who have become both.
Elaborating on this key point that the source of moral evil does not lie simply in inclinations in a way that does not impugn reason and the will, Kant contends that, “genuine evil consists in our will not to resist inclinations when ...
Author: Anne Margaret Baxley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Anne Margaret Baxley offers a systematic interpretation of Kant's theory of virtue, whose most distinctive features have not been properly understood. She explores the rich moral psychology in Kant's later and less widely read works on ethics, and argues that the key to understanding his account of virtue is the concept of autocracy, a form of moral self-government in which reason rules over sensibility. Although certain aspects of Kant's theory bear comparison to more familiar Aristotelian claims about virtue, Baxley contends that its most important aspects combine to produce something different - a distinctively modern, egalitarian conception of virtue which is an important and overlooked alternative to the more traditional Greek views which have dominated contemporary virtue ethics.
I had profited from Sharon's writings on Kant's philosophy of history in my earlier work (see, e.g., her Unnecessary Evil), and like her, I approach Kant's doctrine of radical evil from a multitextual perspective.
Author: Robert B. Louden
Publisher: OUP USA
In Kant's Human Being, Robert B. Louden continues and deepens avenues of research first initiated in his highly acclaimed book, Kant's Impure Ethics. Drawing on a wide variety of both published and unpublished works spanning all periods of Kant's extensive writing career, Louden here focuses on Kant's under-appreciated empirical work on human nature, with particular attention to the connections between this body of work and his much-discussed ethical theory. Kant repeatedly claimed that the question, "What is the human being" is philosophy's most fundamental question, one that encompasses all others. Louden analyzes and evaluates Kant's own answer to his question, showing how it differs from other accounts of human nature. This collection of twelve essays is divided into three parts. In Part One (Human Virtues), Louden explores the nature and role of virtue in Kant's ethical theory, showing how the conception of human nature behind Kant's virtue theory results in a virtue ethics that is decidedly different from more familiar Aristotelian virtue ethics programs. In Part Two (Ethics and Anthropology), he uncovers the dominant moral message in Kant's anthropological investigations, drawing new connections between Kant's work on human nature and his ethics. Finally, in Part Three (Extensions of Anthropology), Louden explores specific aspects of Kant's theory of human nature developed outside of his anthropology lectures, in his works on religion, geography, education ,and aesthetics, and shows how these writings substantially amplify his account of human beings. Kant's Human Being offers a detailed and multifaceted investigation of the question that Kant held to be the most important of all, and will be of interest not only to philosophers but also to all who are concerned with the study of human nature.
Asamatter of fact,I think Kant's concept of radicalevil only strengthensour claim concerning human spontaneity capabilities. In conceivingthe term “radical evil,”Kant, as Baxley claims, didnot “mean any extreme ordiabolical formof evil.
Author: G. Lahat
Category: Political Science
Based on an insightful and innovative reading of Kant's theory of knowledge, this book explores the political implications of Kant's philosophical writings on knowledge. It suggests that Kant offers a stable foundation for the reconsideration of the idea of progress as crucial in matters of political management at the outset of the 21st Century.
In Kant's Moral Religion, Allen W. Wood argues that Kant's doctrine of religious belief if consistent with his best critical thinking and, in fact, that the "moral arguments"—along with the faith they justify—are an integral part of ...
Author: Allen W. Wood
Publisher: Cornell University Press
In Kant's Moral Religion, Allen W. Wood argues that Kant's doctrine of religious belief if consistent with his best critical thinking and, in fact, that the "moral arguments"—along with the faith they justify—are an integral part of Kant's critical philosophy. Wood shows that Kant's sensitive religious outlook on the world deserves to be counted among the greatest of his philosophical contributions. In setting forth his interpretation of Kant, Wood provides a clear statement of what the philosopher reveals in his reasoning for belief in God and immortality. He reexamines Kant's conception of moral volition and defends his doctrine of the "highest good." He discusses Kant's use of moral faith as a rational criterion for religion in relation to ecclesiastically faith, religious experience, and claims to divine revelation. Finally, he discusses the philosopher's idea of radical evil in man's nature, and develops Kant's theory of divine grace as it is foreshadowed in his 1793 book Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone. Kant's thoughts about religion, Wood maintains, are a great philosopher's solution to difficult problems that must be confronted by everyone and can serve as a guide in any effort to deal rationally with questions of religion.
September 2015 an der Universität Wien stattgefunden hat, versammeln die Ergebnisse dieses Kongresses. Mit dem Thema "Natur und Freiheit" wurde zwei tragenden Begriffen des Kritischen Werks Kants Rechnung getragen.
This timely book by philosopher Peter Dews explores the idea of evil, one of the most problematic terms in the contemporary moral vocabulary.
Author: Peter Dews
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This timely book by philosopher Peter Dews explores the idea of evil, one of the most problematic terms in the contemporary moral vocabulary. Surveys the intellectual debate on the nature of evil over the past two hundred years Engages with a broad range of discourses and thinkers, from Kant and the German Idealists, via Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, to Levinas and Adorno Suggests that the concept of moral evil touches on a neuralgic point in western culture Argues that, despite the widespread abuse and political manipulation of the term ‘evil’, we cannot do without it Concludes that if we use the concept of evil, we must acknowledge its religious dimension
radical evil, and Wood, who defends an empirical—anthropological argument. Anderson-Gold, like Wood, connects Kant's theory of evil with human history. Grenberg situates Kant's theory of evil in the broader context of an ethics of ...
Author: Patrick R. Frierson
Philosophers, anthropologists and biologists have long puzzled over the question of human nature. It is also a question that Kant thought about deeply and returned to in many of his writings. In this lucid and wide-ranging introduction to Kant's philosophy of human nature - which is essential for understanding his thought as a whole - Patrick R. Frierson assesses Kant's theories and examines his critics. He begins by explaining how Kant articulates three ways of addressing the question 'what is the human being?': the transcendental, the empirical, and the pragmatic. He then considers some of the great theorists of human nature who wrestle with Kant's views, such as Hegel, Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, and Freud; contemporary thinkers such as E.O.Wilson and Daniel Dennett, who have sought biological explanations of human nature; Thomas Kuhn, Michel Foucault, and Clifford Geertz, who emphasize the diversity of human beings in different times and places; and existentialist philosophers such as Sartre and Heidegger. He argues that whilst these approaches challenge and enrich Kant's views in significant ways, all suffer from serious weaknesses that Kant's anthropology can address. Taking a core insight of Kant's - that human beings are fundamentally free but finite - he argues that it is the existentialists, particularly Sartre, who are the most direct heirs of his transcendental anthropology. The final part of the book is an extremely helpful overview of the work of contemporary philosophers, particularly Christine Korsgaard and Jürgen Habermas. Patrick R. Frierson explains how these philosophers engage with questions of naturalism, historicism, and existentialism while developing Kantian conceptions of the human being. Including chapter summaries and annotated further reading, What is the Human Being? is an outstanding introduction to some fundamental aspects of Kant's thought and a judicious assessment of leading theories of human nature. It is essential reading for all students of Kant and the philosophy of human nature, as well as those in related disciplines such as anthropology, politics and sociology.
Radical Evil and the Scarcity of Hope: Postsecular Meditations. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. McCarty, Richard. 2009. Kant's Theory of Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Citations are to section numbers.) ...
Author: Stephen R. Palmquist
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Palmquist’s Commentary provides the first definitive clarification on Kant’s Philosophy of Religion in English; it includes the full text of Pluhar’s translation, interspersed with explanations, providing both a detailed overview and an original interpretation of Kant’s work. Offers definitive, sentence-level commentary on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason Presents a thoroughly revised version of Pluhar’s translation of the full text of Kant’s Religion, including detailed notes comparing the translation with the others still in use today Identifies most of the several hundred changes Kant made to the second (1794) edition and unearths evidence that many major changes were responses to criticisms of the first edition Provides both a detailed overview and original interpretation of Kant’s work on the philosophy of religion Demonstrates that Kant’s arguments in Religion are not only cogent, but have clear and profound practical applications to the way religion is actually practiced in the world today Includes a glossary aimed at justifying new translations of key technical terms in Religion, many of which have previously neglected religious and theological implications
Kant's Early Critics: The Empiricist Critique of the Theoretical Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ... Muchnik, P. (2009) Kant's Theory of Evil: An Essay on the Dangers of Self-love and the Aprioricity of History, ...
Author: Lawrence R. Pasternack
Throughout his career, Kant engaged with many of the fundamental questions in philosophy of religion: arguments for the existence of God, the soul, the problem of evil, and the relationship between moral belief and practice. Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is his major work on the subject. This book offers a complete and internally cohesive interpretation of Religion. In contrast to more reductive interpretations, as well as those that characterize Religion as internally inconsistent, Lawrence R. Pasternack defends the rich philosophical theology contained in each of Religion’s four parts, and shows how the doctrines of the "Pure Rational System of Religion" are eminently compatible with the essential principles of Transcendental Idealism. The book also presents and assesses: the philosophical background to Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason the ideas and arguments of the text the continuing importance of Kant’s work to philosophy of religion today.
('radical') evil exists in human nature. This conclusion is necessary not only if we base our judgment on 'what we know of man through experience' [32(27)]; in addition, 'it must be apprehended a priori through the concept of evil' ...
Author: Stephen R. Palmquist
Category: Social Science
This title was first published in 2000. Applying the new perspectival method of interpreting Kant he expounded in earlier works, Palmquist examines a broad range of Kant's philosophical writings to present a fresh view of his thought on theology, religion, and religious experience.
10 It seems paradoxical therefore to suppose that inner freedom could be a cause of evil . There is , nevertheless , a straightforward way of understanding this idea . Because positive freedom is the capacity to obey the moral law for ...
Author: Allen D. Rosen
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Following the tradition of classical liberalism, Kant's political philosophy and theory of justice focus on the relation between individual freedom, as the central value of political life, and the state, whose primary normative function is both to restrain and protect individual liberty. In this accessible interpretation of Kant's political philosophy, Allen D. Rosen focuses on the relation among justice, political authority (the state), and individual liberty. He offers interpretations of the ethical bases of Kant's view of justice, of the structure of his taxonomy of duties, and of his understanding of social welfare legislation.
The Philosophical Review 114 (2005): 63–114. Moroney, Stephen. The Noetic Effects of S a Historical and Contemporary Exploration of How Sin Affects Our Thinking. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2000. Muchnik, Pablo. Kant's Theory of Evil.
Author: Dennis Vanden Auweele
Publisher: Lexington Books
Dennis Vanden Auweele explores Kant’s moral and religious philosophy and shows that a pessimistic undercurrent pervades them. This provides a new vantage point not only to comprehensively assess Kantian philosophy, but also to provide much needed context and reading assistance to the general premises of Kant's philosophy and rationality.