Kielmeyer and the Organic World

Kielmayer [sic] in Tübingen might make known to us his results in these fields ... Unfortunately, this wealthy property ... 18 What does it mean to say that Kielmeyer was interested 4 Kielmeyer and the Organic World Kielmeyer's Programme.

Kielmeyer and the Organic World

Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer (1765-1844) was the 'father of philosophy of nature' owing to his profound influence on German Idealist and Romantic Naturphilosophie. With the recent growth of interest in Idealist and Romantic philosophy of nature in the UK and abroad, the importance of Kielmeyer's work is being increasingly recognised and special attention is being paid to his influence on biology's development as a distinct discipline at the end of the eighteenth century. In this exciting new book, Lydia Azadpour and Daniel Whistler present the first ever English translations of key texts by Kielmeyer, along with contextual and interpretative essays by leading international scholars, who are experts on the philosophy of nature and the formation of the life sciences in the late eighteenth century. The topics they cover include: the laws of nature, the concept of force, the meaning of 'organism', the logic of recapitulation, Kielmeyer and ecology, sexual differentiation in animal life and Kielmeyer's relationship to Kant, Schelling and Hegel. In doing so, they provide a comprehensive English reference to Kielmeyer's historical and contemporary significance.

Kielmeyer and the Organic World

In this exciting new book, Lydia Azadpour and Daniel Whistler present the first ever English translations of key texts by Kielmeyer, along with contextual and interpretative essays by leading international scholars, who are experts on the ...

Kielmeyer and the Organic World

Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer (1765-1844) was the 'father of philosophy of nature' owing to his profound influence on German Idealist and Romantic Naturphilosophie. With the recent growth of interest in Idealist and Romantic philosophy of nature in the UK and abroad, the importance of Kielmeyer's work is being increasingly recognised and special attention is being paid to his influence on biology's development as a distinct discipline at the end of the eighteenth century. In this exciting new book, Lydia Azadpour and Daniel Whistler present the first ever English translations of key texts by Kielmeyer, along with contextual and interpretative essays by leading international scholars, who are experts on the philosophy of nature and the formation of the life sciences in the late eighteenth century. The topics they cover include: the laws of nature, the concept of force, the meaning of 'organism', the logic of recapitulation, Kielmeyer and ecology, sexual differentiation in animal life and Kielmeyer's relationship to Kant, Schelling and Hegel. In doing so, they provide a comprehensive English reference to Kielmeyer's historical and contemporary significance.

The Romantic Conception of Life

Lecture on Organic Forces Kielmeyer's lecture on the “Organic Forces” requires careful analysis to recover those ... so that “all other species are bound together in a system of effects to produce the great machine of the organic world.

The Romantic Conception of Life

"All art should become science and all science art; poetry and philosophy should be made one." Friedrich Schlegel's words perfectly capture the project of the German Romantics, who believed that the aesthetic approaches of art and literature could reveal patterns and meaning in nature that couldn't be uncovered through rationalistic philosophy and science alone. In this wide-ranging work, Robert J. Richards shows how the Romantic conception of the world influenced (and was influenced by) both the lives of the people who held it and the development of nineteenth-century science. Integrating Romantic literature, science, and philosophy with an intimate knowledge of the individuals involved—from Goethe and the brothers Schlegel to Humboldt and Friedrich and Caroline Schelling—Richards demonstrates how their tempestuous lives shaped their ideas as profoundly as their intellectual and cultural heritage. He focuses especially on how Romantic concepts of the self, as well as aesthetic and moral considerations—all tempered by personal relationships—altered scientific representations of nature. Although historians have long considered Romanticism at best a minor tributary to scientific thought, Richards moves it to the center of the main currents of nineteenth-century biology, culminating in the conception of nature that underlies Darwin's evolutionary theory. Uniting the personal and poetic aspects of philosophy and science in a way that the German Romantics themselves would have honored, The Romantic Conception of Life alters how we look at Romanticism and nineteenth-century biology.

Thought A Philosophical History

Kielmeyer's address understands the organic world both synchronically and diachronically in terms of a comparative distribution of organic forces. Under the influence of J. F. Blumenbach, Albrecht Haller and J. G. Herder, Kielmeyer ...

Thought  A Philosophical History

Of all the topics in the history of philosophy, the history of different forms of thinking and contemplation is one of the most important, and yet is also relatively overlooked. What is it to think philosophically? How did different forms of thinking—reflection, contemplation, critique and analysis—emerge in different epochs? This collection offers a rich and diverse philosophical exploration of the history of contemplation, from the classical period to the twenty-first century. It covers canonical figures including Plato, Aristotle, Descartes and Kant, as well as debates in less well-known areas such as classical Indian and Islamic thought and the role of speculation in twentieth-century Russian philosophy. Comprising twenty-two chapters by an international team of contributors, the volume is divided into five parts: • Flourishing and Thinking from Homer to Hume • The Thinking of Thinking from Augustine to Gödel • Images and Thinking from Plotinus to Unger • Bodies of Thought and Habits of Thinking from Plato to Irigaray • The Efficacy of Thinking from Sextus to Bataille Thought: A Philosophical History is the first comprehensive investigation of the history of philosophical thought and contemplation. As such, it is a landmark publication for anyone researching and teaching the history of philosophy, and a valuable resource for those studying the subject in related fields such as literature, religion, sociology and the history of ideas.

The Gestation of German Biology

110 When Kielmeyer wrote of “the great machine of the organic world,” he meant to stress systemic holism, a holism that embraced even the inorganic in a “worldorganism.” Thus, Bach observes, “Already in Kielmeyer nature is conceived as ...

The Gestation of German Biology

This book explores how and when biology emerged as a science in Germany. Beginning with the debate about organism between Georg Ernst Stahl and Gottfried Leibniz at the start of the eighteenth century, John Zammito traces the development of a new research program, culminating in 1800, in the formulation of developmental morphology. He shows how over the course of the century, naturalists undertook to transform some domains of natural history into a distinct branch of natural philosophy, which attempted not only to describe but to explain the natural world and became, ultimately, the science of biology.

The Concept of Drive in Classical German Philosophy

Force and Law in Kielmeyer's 1793 speech. In Kielmeyer and the Organic World. Edited by Daniel Whistler and Lydia Azadpour, 81–98. London: Bloomsbury. Darwin, Charles. 1959. The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, a Variorum Text.

The Concept of Drive in Classical German Philosophy


Reproduction Race and Gender in Philosophy and the Early Life Sciences

One of the authors who took up Herder's central ideas was Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer. ... of the individual is integrated within a “larger system,”65 the “life of the species,” and this, in turn, is part of the “life of the organic world.

Reproduction  Race  and Gender in Philosophy and the Early Life Sciences

Investigates the impact of theories of reproduction and heredity on the emerging concepts of race and gender at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, this volume highlights the scientific and philosophical inquiry into heredity and reproduction and the consequences of these developing ideas on understandings of race and gender. Neither the life sciences nor philosophy had fixed disciplinary boundaries at this point in history. Kant, Hegel, and Schelling weighed in on these questions alongside scientists such as Caspar Friedrich Wolff, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, and Karl Ernst von Baer. The essays in this volume chart the development of modern gender polarizations and a naturalized, scientific understanding of gender and race that absorbed and legitimized cultural assumptions about difference and hierarchy.

Baroque Naturalism in Benjamin and Deleuze

Kielmeyer and the Organic World: Texts and Interpretations. London: Bloomsbury. Beierwaltes, Werner. 2002. The Legacy of Neoplatonism in F. W. J. Schelling's Thought, trans. Peter Adamson. International Journal of Philosophical Studies ...

Baroque Naturalism in Benjamin and Deleuze

​This book, itself a study of two books on the Baroque, proposes a pair of related theses: one interpretive, the other argumentative. The first, enveloped in the second, holds that the significance of allegory Gilles Deleuze recognized in Walter Benjamin’s 1928 monograph on seventeenth century drama is itself attested in key aspects of Kantian, Leibnizian, and Platonic philosophy (to wit, in the respective forms by which thought is phrased, predicated, and proposed).The second, enveloping the first, is a literalist claim about predication itself – namely, that the aesthetics of agitation and hallucination so emblematic of the Baroque sensibility (as attested in its emblem-books) adduces an avowedly metaphysical ‘naturalism’ in which thought is replete with predicates. Oriented by Barbara Cassin’s development of the concerted sense in which homonyms are critically distinct from synonyms, the philosophical claim here is that ‘the Baroque’ names the intervallic [διαστηματική] relation that thought establishes between things. On this account, any subject finds its unity in a concerted state of disquiet – a state-rempli in which, phenomenologically speaking, experience comprises as much seeing as reading (as St Jerome encountering Origen’s Hexapla).

Experimenting at the Boundaries of Life

In the address he indicated how the course and existence of the species of the organic world are grounded in these ... Kielmeyer clarified that he was not claiming to be able to know what these organic powers are in a determinate sense ...

Experimenting at the Boundaries of Life

Attempts to distinguish a science of life at the turn of the nineteenth century faced a number of challenges. A central difficulty was clearly demarcating the living from the nonliving experimentally and conceptually. The more closely the boundaries between organic and inorganic phenomena were examined, the more they expanded and thwarted any clear delineation. Experimenting at the Boundaries of Life traces the debates surrounding the first articulations of a science of life in a variety of texts and practices centered on German contexts. Joan Steigerwald examines the experiments on the processes of organic vitality, such as excitability and generation, undertaken across the fields of natural history, physiology, physics and chemistry. She highlights the sophisticated reflections on the problem of experimenting on living beings by investigators, and relates these epistemic concerns directly to the philosophies of nature of Kant and Schelling. Her book skillfully ties these epistemic reflections to arguments by the Romantic writers Novalis and Goethe for the aesthetic aspects of inquiries into the living world and the figurative languages in which understandings of nature were expressed.

Philosophies of Nature After Schelling

this particular issue consists in the gulf between organic and inorganic nature that was the legacy of mechanism ... then the generative series in the organic world is historically or genetically unrelated to that of the inorganic .

Philosophies of Nature After Schelling

A lucid and crucial account of Schelling's major works in the philosophy of nature, now available in paperback.

Philosophy of Biology Before Biology

Kielmeyer, for instance, envisions a system of interconnected effects between organisms of different species that combine into a “huge machine of the organic world” (Kielmeyer 1793, 5); in 1798 Schelling considers nature to be a ...

Philosophy of Biology Before Biology

The use of the term "biology" to refer to a unified science of life emerged around 1800 (most prominently by scientists such as Lamarck and Treviranus, although scholarship has indicated its usage at least 30-40 years earlier). The interplay between philosophy and natural science has also accompanied the constitution of biology as a science. Philosophy of Biology Before Biology examines biological and protobiological writings from the mid-eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century (from Buffon to Cuvier; Kant to Oken; and Kielmeyer) with two major sets of questions in mind: What were the distinctive conceptual features of the move toward biology as a science? What were the relations and differences between the "philosophical" focus on the nature of living entities, and the "scientific" focus? This insightful volume produces a fresh but also systematic perspective both on the history of biology as a science and on the early versions of, in the 1960s in a post-positivist context, the philosophy of biology. It will appeal to students and researchers interested in fields such as history of science, philosophy of science and biology.

The New Schelling

That the World Soul is a conflict of forces, that deep time is phenomenologically inscrutable, means that there can be no a priori finality in nature. All that is certain is the conflict — although, again following Kielmeyer, ...

The New Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von Schelling (1775-1854) was a colleague of Hegel, Holderlin, Fichte, Goethe, Schlegel, and Schiller. Always a champion of Romanticism, Schelling advocated a philosophy which emphasized intuition over reason, which maintained aesthetics and the creative imagination to be of the highest value. At the same time, Schelling's concerns for the self and the rational make him a major precursor to existentialism and phenomenology. The New Schelling brings together a wide-ranging set of essays which elaborate the connections between Schelling and other thinkers—such as Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Sartre, Deleuze, and Lacan—and argue for the unexpected modernity of Schelling's work. Contributors: Manfred Frank, Jürgen Habermas, Iain Hamilton Grant, Joseph Lawrence, Odo Marquand, Judith Norman, Alberto Toscano, Michael Vater, Alistair Welchman, Slavoj Š ZiŠzek.

The Third Culture

... and organic nature which must have been crucial.37 Goethe had come across a similar theory in the work of Kielmeyer ... by suggesting magnetic duality as a mutual principle of both the inorganic and the organic world ; 39 secondly ...

The Third Culture


The Suspension of Reason in Hegel and Schelling

According to this conception, what is proper to the organic world is a mutual determination of an organism's receptivity ... While an organism's activity is inhibited by its surrounding world, this is only the case because its activity ...

The Suspension of Reason in Hegel and Schelling

In this rigorous historical analysis, Lauer challenges traditional readings that have reduced two of German idealism's most important thinkers to opposing caricatures: Hegel the uncompromising systematist blind to the novelty and contingency of human life and Schelling the protean thinker drawn to all manner of pseudoscientific charlatanry. Bringing together recent scholarship that is just beginning to realise Schelling's centrality in the overthrow of metaphysics and Hegel's openness to diversity and innovation, this book shows that both thinkers can be read as contributing to the Kantian project of showing both the utter necessity and the limitations of reason. In readings of texts spanning each thinker's career, Lauer shows that animating much of Hegel and Schellings' most passionate work is their recognition of the need neither for a canonization of reason nor for its overthrow, but for its 'suspension'. Their lifelong willingness to revisit both their definitions of reason and their accounts of its role in philosophy give these discussions a vitality and depth that few in the history of philosophy can match.

Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel s Philosophy and especially of his Logic

If the former briefly be denominated the mechanical, this is the chemical world. ... programme sketched by Kielmeyer at Stuttgart in 1793, in a lecture 'on the proportions of organic forces,' According to Kielmeyer there are three types ...

Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel   s Philosophy and especially of his Logic

Reproduction of the original: Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel ́s Philosophy and especially of his Logic by William Wallace

H G Bronn Ernst Haeckel and the Origins of German Darwinism

34 Thus the end of Kielmeyer's long paragraph links up with its beginning , with an appreciation of nature's greatness , which could be appreciated just as well in the organic world as in astronomy.35 Aesthetically , according to ...

H G  Bronn  Ernst Haeckel  and the Origins of German Darwinism

A revisionist view of the history of German Darwinism examines the translation ofDarwin's work and its early reception in Germany.

The Reception of Darwinism in the Iberian World

... de la nueva escuela" [On the creation of the organic world according to English and German naturalists of the new school]. It praised, in contrast with the deductive/a priori systems of Schelling, Steffens, Kielmeyer and Carus, ...

The Reception of Darwinism in the Iberian World

I Twenty-five years ago, at the Conference on the Comparative Reception of Darwinism held at the University of Texas in 1972, only two countries of the Iberian world-Spain and Mexico-were represented.' At the time, it was apparent that the topic had attracted interest only as regarded the "mainstream" science countries of Western Europe, plus the United States. The Eurocentric bias of professional history of science was a fact. The sea change that subsequently occurred in the historiography of science makes 1972 appear something like the antediluvian era. Still, we would like to think that that meeting was prescient in looking beyond the mainstream science countries-as then perceived-in order to test the variation that ideas undergo as they pass from center to periphery. One thing that the comparative study of the reception of ideas makes abundantly clear, however, is the weakness of the center/periphery dichotomy from the perspective of the diffusion of scientific ideas. Catholics in mainstream countries, for example, did not handle evolution much better than did their corre1igionaries on the fringes. Conversely, Darwinians in Latin America were frequently better placed to advance Darwin's ideas in a social and political sense than were their fellow evolutionists on the Continent. The Texas meeting was also a marker in the comparative reception of scientific ideas, Darwinism aside. Although, by 1972, scientific institutions had been studied comparatively, there was no antecedent for the comparative history of scientific ideas.

German Romanticism A sketch

Within the organic world, the three levels of reproductive capacity, irritability, sensitivity, detach. The higher the development, ... Although he was particularly excited by Kielmeyer, he himself also attributed Kielmeyer's thoughts.

German Romanticism   A sketch

The request to provide a concise account of German romanticism for the collection "From the world of nature and the mind", seeks the following attempt to do their utmost. Within the prescribed narrow limits, the whole richness of romantic thought and poetry could not be manifested. Research in this field is so zealously active at the moment that contrasts of scientific observation have been manifold. To substantiate the point of view which the author takes, much more detail had to be expounded than was good for the economy of the book. In the course of time, it is true that the image of Romanticism is executed here more in terms of the intellectual than the artistic-creative side, As much has been said of the theoretical views of early Romanticism as of the poetic achievements of the younger Romantics, so grateful would be the reverse procedure, especially in the case of a dispute that turns to wider circles. Yet, in the field of Romanticism, the problem of the moment may first lie in the task of drawing the lines of communication that extend from the very beginning to the last foothills. The in-depth consideration of early romanticism given to us in recent decades has given a new appreciation to the older Romantic generation, making it considerably more valuable than was previously thought. At the same time, the gap that exists between her and her younger comrades seemed to grow into something unmistakable. Today there is a danger that the concept of Romanticism will not fall into disrepair at all, and that in the future only disjointed representatives of German intellectual life and German art will speak in the age of 1795-1830. It is the author's conviction that a purposeless work of destruction would be accomplished in such division and separation. As he himself sees it, it seeks[S. vi]he at least hint at it here. The attempt to draw the main features of the early Romantic view of life and the arts occupies most of the explanations; but it is only intended to serve as a basis for the discussion of the problem of how the rich ideas of early Romanticism give rise to the artistic formations of the younger Romantic period. Hopefully, what romantic poetry has created on its own and without the help of theory will not be neglected. The idea on which the whole presentation rests is considered from another point of view in the essay "Goethe and the problem of Faustian nature" (International Weekly 1908, No. 35). To draw lines of development was quite attempted.

Vital Forces Teleology and Organization

He referred to Kielmeyer, one of Blumenbach's most distinguished students, as the founder of this idea and thus saw ... 84 This fact compelled him not “to start directly at the origin of the organic world, but rather to go back to the ...

Vital Forces  Teleology and Organization

This book offers a comprehensive account of vitalism and the Romantic philosophy of nature. The author explores the rise of biology as a unified science in Germany by reconstructing the history of the notion of “vital force,” starting from the mid-eighteenth through the early nineteenth century. Further, he argues that Romantic Naturphilosophie played a crucial role in the rise of biology in Germany, especially thanks to its treatment of teleology. In fact, both post-Kantian philosophers and naturalists were guided by teleological principles in defining the object of biological research. The book begins by considering the problem of generation, focusing on the debate over the notion of “formative force.” Readers are invited to engage with the epistemological status of this formative force, i.e. the question of the principle behind organization. The second chapter provides a reconstruction of the physiology of vital forces as it was elaborated in the mid- to late-eighteenth century by the group of physicians and naturalists known as the “Göttingen School.” Readers are shown how these authors developed an understanding of the animal kingdom as a graded series of organisms with increasing functional complexity. Chapter three tracks the development of such framework in Romantic Naturphilosophie. The author introduces the reader to the problem of classification, showing how Romantic philosophers of nature regarded classification as articulated by a unified plan that connects all living forms with one another, relying on the idea of living nature as a universal organism. In the closing chapter, this analysis shows how the three instances of pre-biological discourse on living beings – theory of generation, physiology and natural history – converged to form the consolidated disciplinary matrix of a general biology. The book offers an insightful read for all scholars interested in classical German philosophy, especially those researching the philosophy of nature, as well as the history and philosophy of biology.

Monad to Man

We have the all-embracing world picture of the Naturphilosophen: "I had not failed to learn from Kant's scientific ... for his is virtually the philosophy of (the post-Kantian, pre-Hegelian) Schelling transferred to the organic world.

Monad to Man

In interviews with today's major figures in evolutionary biology--including Stephen Jay Gould, E. O. Wilson, Ernst Mayr, and John Maynard Smith--Ruse offers an unparalleled account of evolutionary theory, from popular books to museums to the most complex theorizing, at a time when its status as science is under greater scrutiny than ever before.