Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The A to Z of the Wars of the French Revolution

The A to Z of the Wars of the French Revolution

The French Revolution rocketed from Paris and made its influence felt throughout the world. Vast changes occurred in the way people related to their governing bodies. Instead of acting as passive onlookers, the people of France directly involved themselves in the affairs of state. The monumental changes brought about by the French Revolution also changed the nature of warfare. A period of nearly uninterrupted conflict existed both within and outside of France from 1792 to 1802. To rise to this daunting challenge, the armies of the French Republic developed a new approach to waging war. Under assault by Europe's great powers and faced with internal struggles, the French Republic mobilized the full range of its natural and human resources. The call for volunteers produced a mass citizen army, and the government moved to provide new officers, new organizations, and new tactics. The French Republic nationalized the economy to equip its patriotic army for a decade-long struggle to preserve the ideals of the revolution. The A to Z of the Wars of the French Revolution describes significant persons, places, events, encounters, and battles that substantially changed the nature of warfare at the end of the 18th century in Europe. Additionally, it gives a sense of the impact of these changes on the general course of human history, drawing connections between events to map out an entire time period of eventful change. The dictionary contains a detailed chronology from the declaration of the French Republic in 1792 to the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Numerous maps help to orient the reader. The entries are efficient and generously referenced, giving the reader detailed knowledge while simultaneously allowing a broad picture of this crucial time period. An introduction provides a useful overview for the general reader.

Brotherly Love

Freemasonry and Male Friendship in Enlightenment France

Brotherly Love

Friendship, an acquired relationship primarily based on choice rather than birth, lay at the heart of Enlightenment preoccupations with sociability and the formation of the private sphere. In Brotherly Love, Kenneth Loiselle argues that Freemasonry is an ideal arena in which to explore the changing nature of male friendship in Enlightenment France. Freemasonry was the largest and most diverse voluntary organization in the decades before the French Revolution. At least fifty thousand Frenchmen joined lodges, the memberships of which ranged across the social spectrum from skilled artisans to the highest ranks of the nobility. Loiselle argues that men were attracted to Freemasonry because it enabled them to cultivate enduring friendships that were egalitarian and grounded in emotion. Drawing on scores of archives, including private letters, rituals, the minutes of lodge meetings, and the speeches of many Freemasons, Loiselle reveals the thought processes of the visionaries who founded this movement, the ways in which its members maintained friendships both within and beyond the lodge, and the seemingly paradoxical place women occupied within this friendship community. Masonic friendship endured into the tumultuous revolutionary era, although the revolutionary leadership suppressed most of the lodges by 1794. Loiselle not only examines the place of friendship in eighteenth-century society and culture but also contributes to the history of emotions and masculinity, and the essential debate over the relationship between the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.

Illuminati Manifesto of World Revolution (1792)

Illuminati Manifesto of World Revolution (1792)

A translation of a very important book in identifying the ebb and flow of the parties involved in the French Revolution from 1789 to 1793 -- the Spirit of Religions by Bonneville.

The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution

The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution

Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Editors' Introduction -- Introduction -- 1. Enlightenment and Revolution -- Revolution and Enlightenment -- 2. The Public Sphere and Public Opinion -- 3. The Way of Print -- 4. Do Books Make Revolutions? -- 5. Dechristianization and Secularization -- 6. A Desacralized King -- 7. A New Political Culture -- 8. Do Revolutions Have Cultural Origins? -- Conclusion -- Notes -- For Further Reading -- Index

Colonialism and Science

Saint Domingue in the Old Regime

Colonialism and Science

How was the character of science shaped by the colonial experience? In turn, how might we make sense of how science contributed to colonialism? Saint Domingue (now Haiti) was the world's richest colony in the eighteenth century and home to an active society of science--one of only three in the world, at that time. In this deeply researched and pathbreaking study of the colony, James E. McClellan III first raised his incisive questions about the relationship between science and society that historians of the colonial experience are still grappling with today. Long considered rare, the book is now back in print in an English-language edition, accompanied by a new foreword by Vertus Saint-Louis, a native of Haiti and a widely-acknowledged expert on colonialism. Frequently cited as the crucial starting point in understanding the Haitian revolution, Colonialism and Science will be welcomed by students and scholars alike. "By deftly weaving together imperialism and science in the story of French colonialism, [McClellan] ... brings to light the history of an almost forgotten colony."--Journal of Modern History "McClellan has produced an impressive case study offering excellent surveys of Saint Domingue's colonial history and its history of science."--Isis.