Figurative Language Comprehension

The studies reported here, inaddition toother works that have also looked into social/cultural variables onnonliteral language use, processing, and comprehension (some of whichare reviewed by other chapters in this book), are beginning ...

Figurative Language Comprehension

Figurative language, such as verbal irony, metaphor, hyperbole, idioms, and other forms is an increasingly important subfield within the empirical study of language comprehension and use. Figurative Language Comprehension: Social and Cultural Influences is an edited scholarly book that ties together recent research concerning the social and cultural influences on figurative language cognition. These influences include gender, cultural differences, economic status, and inter-group effects, among others. The effects these influences have on people's use, comprehension, and even processing of figurative language, comprise the main theme of this volume. No other book offers such a look at the social and cultural influences on a whole family of figurative forms at several levels of cognition. This volume is of great interest to scholars and professionals in the disciplines of social and cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, and second language acquisition, as well as cognitive and other fields of linguistics where scholars have interests in pragmatics, metaphor, symbol, discourse, and narrative. Some knowledge of the empirical and experimental methods used in language research, as well as some familiarity with theories underlying the use, comprehension, and processing of figurative language would be helpful to readers of this book.

Language Comprehension

In languages such as German which mark case overtly it is the article that carries relevant grammatical information. ... neuronal basis of the syntactic processes presented here follows a syntax-first model of language comprehension.

Language Comprehension

The second edition of the book on language comprehension in honor of Pim Levelt's sixtieth birthday has been released before he turns sixty-one. Some things move faster than the years of age. This seems to be especially true for advances in science. Therefore, the present edition entails changes in some of the chapters and incorporates an update of the current literature. I would like to thank all contributors for their cooperation in making a second edition possible such a short time after the completion of the first one. Angela D. Friederici Leipzig, November 23, 1998. Preface to the first edition Language comprehension and production is a uniquely human capability. We know little about the evolution of language as a human trait, possibly because our direct ancestors lived several million years ago. This fact certainly impedes the desirable advances in the biological basis of any theory of language evolution. Our knowledge about language as an existing species-specific biological sys tem, however, has advanced dramatically over the last two decades. New experi mental techniques have allowed the investigation of language and language use within the methodological framework of the natural sciences. The present book provides an overview of the experimental research in the area of language com prehension in particular.

Language Comprehension

One of my courtiers can understand their language. ... “How can anyone understand the language of a parrot ? ... punished for falsely accusing his friend (b)They were betting on whether Rajmal would run away (c) 10 Language Comprehension.

Language Comprehension


Right Hemisphere Language Comprehension

The earliest and most robust evidence to support the localizationist viewpoint was the dramatic language deficit that ... Thus it is rather ironic that this theoretical evolution has revealed RH involvement in language comprehension.

Right Hemisphere Language Comprehension

The statement, "The Right Hemisphere (RH) processes language"--while not exactly revolutionary--still provokes vigorous debate. It often elicits the argument that anything the RH does with language is not linguistic but "paralinguistic." The resistance to the notion of RH language processing persists despite the fact that even the earliest observers of Left Hemisphere (LH) language specialization posited some role for the RH in language processing, and evidence attesting to various RH language processes has steadily accrued for more than 30 years. In this volume, chapters pertain to a wide, but by no means, exhaustive set of language comprehension processes for which RH contributions have been demonstrated. The sections are organized around these processes, beginning with initial decoding of written or spoken input, proceeding through semantic processing of single words and sentences, up to comprehension of more complex discourse, as well as problem solving. The chapters assembled here should begin to melt this resistance to evidence of RH language processing. This volume's main goal is to compile evidence about RH language function from a scattered literature. The editorial commentaries concluding each section highlight the relevance of these phenomena for psycholinguistic and neuropsychological theory, and discuss similarities and apparent discrepancies in the findings reported in individual chapters. In the final chapter, common themes that emerge from the enterprise of studying RH language and future challenge for the field are reviewed. Although all chapters focus only on "typical" laterality of right handed people, this work provides a representative sample of the current state of the art in RH language research. Important features include: * a wide range of coverage from speech perception and reading through complex discourse comprehension and problem-solving; * research presented from both empirical and theoretical perspectives; and * commentaries and conclusions integrating findings and theories across sub-domains, and speculating on future directions of the field.

Visually Situated Language Comprehension

This chapter will examine key features of language comprehension in conversation, and will highlight the role of the visual environment in establishing joint domains of reference. Unlike in non-interactive settings, in conversation ...

Visually Situated Language Comprehension

Visually Situated Language Comprehension has been compiled as a state-of the-art introduction to real-time language processing in visually-situated contexts. It covers the history of this emergent field, explains key methodological developments and discusses the insights these methods have enabled into how language processing interacts with our knowledge and perception of the immediate environment. Scientists interested in how language users integrate what they know with their perception of objects and events will find the book a rewarding read. The book further covers lexical, sentence, and discourse level processes, as well as active visual context effects in both non-interactive and interactive tasks and thus present a well-balanced view of the field. It is aimed at experienced researchers and students alike in the hopes of attracting new talent to the field. Thanks to its in-depth methodological introduction and broad coverage it constitutes an excellent course book.

Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension

I. The Problem of Understanding Understanding Language comprehension is one of those activities every normal person does without conscious effort . Like breathing or walking , we do it all the time without thinking about how we are ...

Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension


Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension

computer - based environment in which students would have the opportunity to explore the structure of language by designing , programing , and testing various kinds of language comprehension programs . The virtues of such a laboratory ...

Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension


Language Comprehension As Structure Building

Why not focus on those aspects of language that distinguish it from everything else (B. Repp, personal communication, March 12, 1990)? Focusing on those aspects of comprehension that are specific to language might identify the limits of ...

Language Comprehension As Structure Building

This book presents a new theoretical framework -- what Gernsbacher calls the Structure Building Framework -- for understanding language comprehension in particular, and cognitive processing in general. According to this framework, the goal in comprehending both linguistic and nonlinguistic materials is to build a coherent mental representation or "structure" of the information being comprehended. As such, the underlying processes and mechanisms of structure building are viewed as general, cognitive processes and mechanisms. The strength of the volume lies in its empirical detail: a thorough literature review and solid original data.

The Visual Consequences of Language Comprehension

I use the word “representation” throughout this dissertation to refer to the information and neural mechanisms that are brought online during real-time language comprehension. I will explore how people make meaning from the language ...

The Visual Consequences of Language Comprehension

How do we understand language? What kinds of representations do people form when hearing a story or when reading a paragraph? In this dissertation, I will explore how people make meaning out of the language that they read or hear. One possibility is that the words we read or hear engage perceptuomotor representations, and language comprehension arises from modality-specific simulation or imagery of the linguistic content. Strong versions of the modality-specific approach assume complete overlap between the representations generated by language and those generated by perception and action. Perhaps representations brought about by language only partially overlap and interact with perception and action, with clear limits, and with important differences along the continuum from concrete to abstract language. The studies presented in this dissertation aim to delineate where perception and language understanding share representations and processing resources, and where they diverge. The findings suggest that language understanding affects visuospatial processing (Chapter 2) and visual motion processing (Chapter 3), but to a lesser extent than does perception itself.

Applying First language Skills to Second language Comprehension

APPLYING FIRST - LANGUAGE SKILLS TO SECOND - LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION : NARRATIVE COMPREHENSION BY SPANISH - ENGLISH SPEAKERS * Susan R. Goldman Maria Reyes Connie Varnhagen The narrative story holds an importance place in children's ...

Applying First language Skills to Second language Comprehension


Phonetics and Phonology in Language Comprehension and Production

There is a host of research in language comprehension that is congruent with this view, but the distinction becomes far less clear-cut, when languages with a more complex plural system than English are considered (cf.

Phonetics and Phonology in Language Comprehension and Production

This edited volume investigates the role of phonetics and phonology in psycholinguistics. Speaking and understanding spoken language both engage phonological and phonetic knowledge. There are detailed models of phonological and phonetic encoding in language production and there are equally refined models of phonetic and phonological processing in language comprehension. However, since most psycholinguists work on either language production or comprehension, the relationship between the two has received surprisingly little attention. Prominent researchers in various areas of psycholinguistics were invited to discuss this relationship focusing on the phonological and phonetic components.

Contributions to Functional Syntax Semantics and Language Comprehension

mulas of a formal language of intensional logic) is maintained and elaborated in a specific way. ... so are accounts of some of the experimental systems from the domains of computational linguistics and natural language comprehension.

Contributions to Functional Syntax  Semantics  and Language Comprehension

This volume presents a rather complete survey of the research activities of the Prague group of algebraic linguistics. Some of the papers included bear witness to the fact that algebraic linguistics, or the formal description of language, is not the only domain in which the Prague group is active. Typological and empirically oriented discussions are represented as well, and so are accounts of some of the experimental systems from the domains of computational linguistics and natural language comprehension. Most of the papers included here have been published (partly in Czech) in periodicals and miscellanies, some of which are not easily accessible; a smaller part consists of papers written specifically for the present volume. The volume is divided into four sections, the first of which contains generally oriented papers. The second section consists of contributions devoted to the core of the empirical problems of sentence structure. The third section includes papers concerning specific questions of the syntax of Czech, and section four is oriented towards the experimental systems prepared by the Prague group.

Case and Linking in Language Comprehension

Westartedourdiscussionoftherelationshipbetween working memory andsen- tencecomprehensionwiththe question asto what typesofmemory areinvolved in language comprehension in general, and syntactic parsing in particular.

Case and Linking in Language Comprehension

The German language, due to its verb-final nature, relatively free order of constituents and morphological Case system, poses challenges for models of human syntactic processing which have mainly been developed on the basis of head-initial languages with little or no morphological Case. The verb-final order means that the parser has to make predictions about the input before receiving the verb. What are these predictions? What happens when the predictions turn out to be wrong? Furthermore, the German morphological Case system contains ambiguities. How are these ambiguities resolved under the normal time pressure in comprehension? Based on theoretical as well as experimental work, the present monograph develops a detailed account of the processing steps that underly language comprehension. At its core is a model of linking noun phrases to arguments of the verb in the developing phrase structure and checking the result with respect to features such as person, number and Case. This volume contains detailed introductions to human syntactic processing as well as to German syntax which will be helpful especially for readers less familiar with psycholinguistics and with Germanic.

Oral Language and Comprehension in Preschool

It is the bedrock of future reading comprehension, broadly defined as the ability to read with understanding. Oral language comprehension provides the evidence of a child's oral language development. When 4-year-old Josie actively ...

Oral Language and Comprehension in Preschool

Before children are readers and writers, they are speakers and listeners. This book provides creative, hands-on strategies for developing preschoolers' speaking, listening, and oral comprehension skills, within a literacy-rich classroom environment. Each chapter features helpful classroom vignettes; a section called Preschool in Practice, with step-by-step lesson ideas; and Ideas for Discussion, Reflection, and Action. The book addresses the needs of English language learners and describes ways to support students' literacy development at home. The final chapter pulls it all together through a portrait of an exemplary day of preschool teaching and learning. Reproducible forms and checklists can be downloaded and printed in a convenient 8 1/2" x 11" size.

Children s Comprehension Problems in Oral and Written Language

OVERVIEW OF THIS VOLUME In this volume, we have brought together a collection of research on a diverse range of populations who experience written and spoken language comprehension difficulties. There are four parts.

Children s Comprehension Problems in Oral and Written Language

Comprehension is the ultimate aim of reading and listening. How do children develop the ability to comprehend written and spoken language, and what can be done to help those who are having difficulties? This book presents cutting-edge research on comprehension problems experienced by children without any formal diagnosis as well as those with specific language impairment, autism, ADHD, learning disabilities, hearing impairment, head injuries, and spina bifida. Providing in-depth information to guide research and practice, chapters describe innovative assessment strategies and identify important implications for intervention and classroom instruction. The book also sheds light on typical development and the key cognitive skills and processes that underlie successful comprehension.

Language and Comprehension

A theory of syntactic recognition for natural language. M.I.T. Press, 1980. s 19 |MINSKY (M.).- A framework for representing knowledge memo 306 MIT, Cambridge Mass., 1974. [20] ORTONY.- Remembering, understanding & representation ...

Language and Comprehension

Language and Comprehension

Production Comprehension Asymmetries in Child Language

Young children acquiring a language have to learn both: to decode what a given linguistic expression means in language comprehension, and to encode a meaning linguistically in language production. Comprehension tasks are often ...

Production Comprehension Asymmetries in Child Language

The workshop Production-Comprehension Asymmetries in Child Language held in Osnabrück in 2009 is the starting point for this book. The workshop developed from the observation that children's production skills appear to precede their comprehension skills in a number of phenomena, e.g. pronouns or negation. The volume provides cross-linguistic evidence for such asymmetric development and investigates grammatical and methodical explanations of the observed asymmetries.

The Production Comprehension Interface in Second Language Acquisition

Ortega, L. (2009), Understanding second language acquisition, London: Hodder Arnold. ... Pickering, M. J. (1999), 'Language comprehension', in S. Garrod and M. Pickering (eds), Language processing, 123–53, Hove: Psychology Press.

The Production Comprehension Interface in Second Language Acquisition

Examining a key issue in second language acquisition (SLA) research, this book explores the relation between second language (L2) production and comprehension at the level of processing. The central question underlying this interface is the relationship between grammatical encoding and decoding, namely: are the two modalities of production and comprehension subserved by different types of processors, or by the same syntactic processing module? Proposing an 'Integrated Encoding-Decoding Model' of SLA, Anke Lenzing presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study to demonstrate the extent to which the two modalities rely on shared representations and/or shared processes. Through this detailed analysis The Production-Comprehension Interface in Second Language Acquisition sheds new light on the cognitive architecture of human language processing and offers a deeper understanding of the mechanisms at work in the L2 acquisition process.

Asymmetries between Language Production and Comprehension

Some aspects Of optimality in natural language interpretation. Journal of Semantics 17: 189—216. Chapman, Robin 8., and Jon F. Miller. 1975. Word order in early two and three word utterances: Does production precede comprehension?

Asymmetries between Language Production and Comprehension

This book asserts that language is a signaling system rather than a code, based in part on such research as the finding that 5-year-old English and Dutch children use pronouns correctly in their own utterances, but often fail to interpret these forms correctly when used by someone else. Emphasizing the unique and sometimes competing demands of listener and speaker, the author examines resulting asymmetries between production and comprehension. The text offers examples of the interpretation of word order and pronouns by listeners, and word order freezing and referential choice by speakers. It is explored why the usual symmetry breaks down in children but also sometimes in adults. Gathering contemporary insights from theoretical linguistic research, psycholinguistic studies and computational modeling, Asymmetries between Language Production and Comprehension presents a unified explanation of this phenomenon. “Through a lucid, comprehensive review of acquisition studies on reference-related phenomena, Petra Hendriks builds a striking case for the pervasiveness of asymmetries in comprehension/production. In her view, listeners systematically misunderstand what they hear, and speakers systematically fail to prevent such misunderstandings. She argues that linguistic theory should take stock of current psycholinguistic and developmental evidence on optionality and ambiguity, and recognize language as a signaling system. The arguments are compelling yet controversial: grammar does not specify a one-to-one correspondence between form and meaning; and the demands of the mapping task differ for listeners and speakers. Her proposal is formalized within optimality theory, but researchers working outside this framework will still find it of great interest. In the language-as-code vs. language-as-signal debate, Hendriks puts the ball firmly in the other court.” Ana Pérez-Leroux, University of Toronto, Canada

Comprehension Strategies in the Acquiring of a Second Language

In many cases their language errors are a function of the strong emphasis on forced speaking when their language comprehension resources are limited. Although Krashen has been steadfast in his approach to secondlanguage learning in that ...

Comprehension Strategies in the Acquiring of a Second Language

This book provides a critical analysis and account of the development of the Comprehension Approach as a method for language learning. The author draws on interrelated sub-fields - including linguistic theory, child language acquisition, and educational technology - to examine how a comprehension-based strategy could have pedagogical potential for adult second language learning. While second language pedagogy has to date been dominated by production models, this book takes another look at the Comprehension Approach as a possible alternative, presenting results from both child first language and adult second language contexts. It will be of interest to psycholinguistics and applied linguistics scholars, particularly those with an interest in second language teaching and learning.