Language of Gender and Class

The Language of Gender and Class challenges widely-held assumptions about the study of the Victorian novel.

Language of Gender and Class

The Language of Gender and Class challenges widely-held assumptions about the study of the Victorian novel. Lucid, multilayered and cogently argued, this volume will provoke debate and encourage students and scholars to rethink their views on ninteenth-century literature. Examining six novels, Patricia Ingham demonstrates that none of the writers, male or female, easily accept stereotypes of gender and class. The classic figures of Angel and Whore are reassessed and modified. And the result, argues Ingham, is that the treatment of gender by the late nineteenth century is released from its task of containing neutralising class conflict. New accounts of feminity can begin to emerge. The novels which Ingham studies are: * Shirley by Charlotter Bronte * North and South by Elizabeth Gaskell * Felix Holt by George Eliot * Hard Times by Charles Dickens * The Unclassed by George Gissing * Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy

Language of Gender and Class

Martineau, for instance, a strict authoritarian, deploys the languages of ... reinforces the use of the language of gender to contain the class issue in the ...

Language of Gender and Class

The Language of Gender and Class challenges widely-held assumptions about the study of the Victorian novel. Lucid, multilayered and cogently argued, this volume will provoke debate and encourage students and scholars to rethink their views on ninteenth-century literature. Examining six novels, Patricia Ingham demonstrates that none of the writers, male or female, easily accept stereotypes of gender and class. The classic figures of Angel and Whore are reassessed and modified. And the result, argues Ingham, is that the treatment of gender by the late nineteenth century is released from its task of containing neutralising class conflict. New accounts of feminity can begin to emerge. The novels which Ingham studies are: * Shirley by Charlotter Bronte * North and South by Elizabeth Gaskell * Felix Holt by George Eliot * Hard Times by Charles Dickens * The Unclassed by George Gissing * Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy

Gender Across Languages

This is the third of a three-volume comprehensive reference work on “Gender across Languages”, which provides systematic descriptions of various categories of gender (grammatical, lexical, referential, social) in 30 languages of diverse ...

Gender Across Languages

This is the third of a three-volume comprehensive reference work on “Gender across Languages”, which provides systematic descriptions of various categories of gender (grammatical, lexical, referential, social) in 30 languages of diverse genetic, typological and socio-cultural backgrounds. Among the issues discussed for each language are the following: What are the structural properties of the language that have an impact on the relations between language and gender? What are the consequences for areas such as agreement, pronominalisation and word-formation? How is specification of and abstraction from (referential) gender achieved in a language? Is empirical evidence available for the assumption that masculine/male expressions are interpreted as generics? Can tendencies of variation and change be observed, and have alternatives been proposed for a more equal linguistic treatment of women and men? This volume (and the previous two volumes) will provide the much-needed basis for explicitly comparative analyses of gender across languages. All chapters are original contributions and follow a common general outline developed by the editors. The book contains rich bibliographical and indexical material. Languages of Volume 3: Czech, Danish, French, German, Greek, Japanese, Oriya, Polish, Serbian, Swahili and Swedish.

Language and Woman s Place

This new edition of Language and Woman's Place not only makes available once again the pioneering text of feminist linguistics; just as important, it places the text in the context of contemporary feminist and gender theory for a new ...

Language and Woman s Place

The 1975 publication of Robin Tolmach Lakoff's Language and Woman's Place, is widely recognized as having inaugurated feminist research on the relationship between language and gender, touching off a remarkable response among language scholars, feminists, and general readers. For the past thirty years, scholars of language and gender have been debating and developing Lakoff's initial observations. Arguing that language is fundamental to gender inequality, Lakoff pointed to two areas in which inequalities can be found: Language used about women, such as the asymmetries between seemingly parallel terms like master and mistress, and language used by women, which places women in a double bind between being appropriately feminine and being fully human. Lakoff's central argument that "women's language" expresses powerlessness triggered a controversy that continues to this day. The revised and expanded edition presents the full text of the original first edition, along with an introduction and annotations by Lakoff in which she reflects on the text a quarter century later and expands on some of the most widely discussed issues it raises. The volume also brings together commentaries from twenty-six leading scholars of language, gender, and sexuality, within linguistics, anthropology, modern languages, education, information sciences, and other disciplines. The commentaries discuss the book's contribution to feminist research on language and explore its ongoing relevance for scholarship in the field. This new edition of Language and Woman's Place not only makes available once again the pioneering text of feminist linguistics; just as important, it places the text in the context of contemporary feminist and gender theory for a new generation of readers.

Gender and Class in the Egyptian Women s Movement 1925 1939

The language they employed to transmit their discourse , however , remained decidedly an area of conflict . 34 Ruling - class women employed French or ...

Gender and Class in the Egyptian Women   s Movement  1925 1939

The women’s movement in Egypt has been heralded as improving the lives of women in Egypt and paving the way for women throughout the Arab world. As seen through the eyes of the university educated elite and middle class, this is no doubt true, yet such a narrow view fails to account for the diversity of women’s experience. In Changing Perspectives, Cathlyn Mariscotti provides a critical re-examination of the women’s movement, framing it within the broader economic and political movements occurring in Egypt and abroad. Her nuanced account unveils a rich, differentiated, and complex history of Egyptian women. Drawing upon published journal reports and newspaper articles, Mariscotti explores the tensions between upper class harem women and lower class women. Rather than a unified movement, the author describes the way in which elite feminism created a concept of womanhood that fed into the nationalist cultural ideal, one that was not necessarily progressive for all Egyptian women. Demonstrating active resistance, the non-elite women constructed a model of feminism in line with their own class position and political interests. Mariscotti’s reveals the tension in the movement through the profiles of From this class struggle, a unique, synthesized form of feminism emerged, infused with the politics and culture of Egypt at that time. Humanizing her analysis, the author profiles two outspoken and prominent women who symbolize the conflict: the university educated and wealthy Huda Sha’rawi and Munira Thabit who represented the working class women. The first book to emphasize the class conflict among women, this book makes an invaluable contribution to the fields of women’s studies and Middle East studies.

Rewriting English

Annotation First published in 2002.

Rewriting English

Annotation First published in 2002.

The Noun Class System of Proto Benue Congo

class of that noun) (substituted for or modified) such that gender is an ... This amounts to saying that a class language is a class language only when it ...

The Noun Class System of Proto Benue Congo


Gender in Language

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Gender in Language

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 50. Chapters: Gender-neutral language, Grammatical gender, Gender neutrality in English, Gender-neutral pronoun, Gender-specific pronoun, Gender-neutrality in languages with grammatical gender, Gender of connectors and fasteners, Gender-neutrality in genderless languages, Noun class, Gender reform in Esperanto, Generic antecedent, Gender differences in spoken Japanese, Animacy, Gender-specific job title, Gender in Dutch grammar, Unisex name, Epicenity, Gender in English, Allocutive agreement, Synesis, Mating connection. Excerpt: Grammatical gender is defined linguistically as a system of classes of nouns which trigger specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few that belong to several classes at once. If a language distinguishes between genders, in order to correctly decline any noun and any modifier or other type of word affected by that noun, one must identify the gender of the noun. While Old English (Anglo-Saxon) had grammatical gender, Modern English is normally described as lacking grammatical gender. The linguistic notion of grammatical gender is distinguished from the biological and social notion of natural gender, although they interact closely in many languages. Both grammatical and natural gender can have linguistic effects in a given language. Grammatical gender is typical of Afro-Asiatic, Dravidian, Indo-European, Northeast Caucasian, and several Australian aboriginal languages such as Dyirbal. It is usually absent in the Altaic, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Uralic and most Native American language families. The Niger-Congo languages typically have an extensive system of noun classes, which can be grouped into several grammatical genders (Corbett, ..

Gender Class and Freedom in Modern Political Theory

The third layer of social construction is “discourse,” which involves the way in which language develops to explain, describe, and account for this material ...

Gender  Class  and Freedom in Modern Political Theory

In Gender, Class, and Freedom in Modern Political Theory, Nancy Hirschmann demonstrates not merely that modern theories of freedom are susceptible to gender and class analysis but that they must be analyzed in terms of gender and class in order to be understood at all. Through rigorous close readings of major and minor works of Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, and Mill, Hirschmann establishes and examines the gender and class foundations of the modern understanding of freedom. Building on a social constructivist model of freedom that she developed in her award-winning book The Subject of Liberty: Toward a Feminist Theory of Freedom, she makes in her new book another original and important contribution to political and feminist theory. Despite the prominence of "state of nature" ideas in modern political theory, Hirschmann argues, theories of freedom actually advance a social constructivist understanding of humanity. By rereading "human nature" in light of this insight, Hirschmann uncovers theories of freedom that are both more historically accurate and more relevant to contemporary politics. Pigeonholing canonical theorists as proponents of either "positive" or "negative" liberty is historically inaccurate, she demonstrates, because theorists deploy both conceptions of freedom simultaneously throughout their work.

The Language of Autobiography

The Language of Autobiography


Transforming the Disciplines

“Constructing Meaning, Constructing Selves: Snapshots of Language, Gender, and Class from Belten High.” In Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz (Eds.), ...

Transforming the Disciplines

A jargon-free, non-technical, and easily accessible introduction to women's studies! All too many students enter academia with the hazy idea that the field of women's studies is restricted to housework, birth control, and Susan B. Anthony. Their first encounter with a women's studies textbook is likely to focus on the history and sociology of women's lives. While these topics are important, the emphasis on them has led to neglect of equally important issues. Transforming the Disciplines: A Women's Studies Primer is one of the first women's studies textbooks to show feminist scholarship as an active force, changing the way we study such diverse fields as architecture, bioethics, history, mathematics, religion, and sports studies. Although this text was designed as an introduction to women's studies, it is also rewarding for upper-level or graduate students who want to understand the pervasive effects of feminist theory. Most chapters provide a bibliography or list of further reading of significant works. Its clear, jargon-free prose makes feminist thought accessible to general readers without sacrificing the revolutionary power of its ideas. In almost thirty essays, covering a broad range of subjects from anthropology to chemistry to rhetoric, Transforming the Disciplines exemplifies the changes achieved by feminist thought. Transforming the Disciplines: combines a high standard of writing and scholarship with personal insight includes both traditional academic arguments and alternative, non-agonistic forms of discussion embraces an international scope challenges traditional assumptions, models, and methodologies offers an inter- and multidisciplinary approach strengthens readers’understanding of the big picture not only for women but for all disempowered groups critiques feminism as well as patriarchal society Feminist theory is grounded in a questioning of traditional assumptions about what is right, natural, and self-evident, not just about the roles and nature of men and women but about how we think, what we teach, whose experience matters, and what is important. Transforming the Disciplines is the first textbook to show the consequences of those questions -- not the answers themselves, but the consequences of the willingness to ask and the transformations that have occurred when the “right” answers changed.

English Politeness and Class

In this highly original account, Sara Mills analyses the interrelationship between class and linguistic interaction, uncovering the linguistic ideologies behind politeness in British English.

English Politeness and Class

Politeness plays a vital role in maintaining class differences. In this highly original account, Sara Mills analyses the interrelationship between class and linguistic interaction, uncovering the linguistic ideologies behind politeness in British English. She sheds light on the way politeness and rudeness interrelate with the marking of class boundaries, and reveals how middle-class positions in society are marked by people's use of self-deprecation, indirectness and reserve. Systematically challenging received wisdom about cross-cultural and inter-cultural differences, she goes beyond the mere context of the interaction to investigate the social dimension of politeness. This approach enables readers to analyse other languages in the same way, and a range of case studies illustrate how ideologies of politeness are employed and judged.

Representing Ireland

"From demographics to politics to very private memory making, this volume covers the 'grounds' of Irishness as no other I have seen.

Representing Ireland

"From demographics to politics to very private memory making, this volume covers the 'grounds' of Irishness as no other I have seen. Considering the variety of topics and the different interests among the contributors, it is remarkable that [the book] is so consistently accessible, jargon-free, and graceful."--Mary Lowe-Evans, University of West Florida "A wide-ranging and important collection of essays on the intersections of social class, gender, national identity, and aesthetics in Irish literature and culture. It is a timely and significant contribution to Irish studies."--Jonathan Allison, University of Kentucky In one of the first books to bring contemporary critical theory to bear on Irish studies, contributors--eminent Irish and American scholars--provide insightful and timely essays on Ireland's changing identity by looking at representations of Ireland in history, film, literature, and political science. Contributors explore the role of language in identity construction, modern efforts to reconstruct Irish identity after the Great Famine, and the impact of gender and class on nationality. Ultimately, the Ireland that emerges from these theoretical, multidisciplinary snapshots is complex, diverse, and largely unmapped. Long defined by others, it is also an Ireland ready and eager to define itself. CONTENTS Introduction: Representation: Responsibility/Ideology/Power/Difference, by Susan Shaw Sailer Part I. Constructing Irish Identities: Nationality, Gender, Language 1. From Nationalism to Liberation, by Declan Kiberd 2. "The Stone Recalls Its Quarry": An Interview with Eil�an N� Chuillean�in 3. Why I Choose to Write in Irish, The Corpse That Sits Up and Talks Back, by Nuala N� Dhomhnaill Part II. Reconstructing Irish Identities 4. Irish Identity and the Illustrated London News 1846-1851: Famine to Depopulation, by Leslie Williams 5. Studying a New Science: Yeats, Irishness, and the East, by John Rickard 6. The Changing Social Bases of Political Identity in Ireland, by Timothy J. White Part III. Interweavings: Gender, Class, Nationality 7. Class, Gender, and the Forms of Narrative: The Autobiographies of Anglo-Irish Women, by Elizabeth Grubgeld 8. Irish Working-Class Women and World War I, by Claire A. Culleton 9. First Principles and Last Things: Death and the Poetry of Eavan Boland and Audre Lorde, by Margaret Mills Harper 10. Women, "Queers," Love, and Politics: The Crying Game as a Corrective Adaptation of / Reply to The Hostage, by Maureen S. G. Hawkins Susan Shaw Sailer is associate professor of English at West Virginia University and the author of On the Void of To Be: Incoherence and Trope in Finnegans Wake (1993).

Language Cognition and Gender

Russian is a language in which gender is predictable from semantic and morphological factors. Russian nouns are divided into three gender classes: feminine, ...

Language  Cognition and Gender

Gender inequality remains an issue of high relevance, and controversy, in society. Previous research shows that language contributes to gender inequality in various ways: Gender-related information is transmitted through formal and semantic features of language, such as the grammatical category of gender, through gender-related connotations of role names (e.g., manager, secretary), and through customs of denoting social groups with derogatory vs. neutral names. Both as a formal system and as a means of communication, language passively reflects culture-specific social conditions. In active use it can also be used to express and, potentially, perpetuate those conditions. The questions addressed in the contributions to this Frontiers Special Topic include: • how languages shape the cognitive representations of gender • how features of languages correspond with gender equality in different societies • how language contributes to social behaviour towards the sexes • how gender equality can be promoted through strategies for gender-fair language use These questions are explored both developmentally (across the life span from childhood to old age) and in adults. The contributions present work conducted across a wide range of languages, including some studies that make cross-linguistic comparisons. Among the contributors are both cognitive and social psychologists and linguists, all with an excellent research standing. The studies employ a wide range of empirical methods: from surveys to electro-physiology. The papers in the Special Topic present a wide range of complimentary studies, which will make a substantial contribution to understanding in this important area.

Social Stratification Class Race and Gender in Sociological Perspective Second Edition

genders, women have no choice but to be economically dependent on men (England ... to recast the class-gender debate in the language of contextual effects.

Social Stratification  Class  Race  and Gender in Sociological Perspective  Second Edition

This book assembles classic and contemporary articles representing the major sociological approaches to understanding social inequality. Although there are various competing texts covering issues of social inequality, this book is the only comprehensive source of classic and contemporary articles that have defined and redefined the contours of the field. The introductory articles in each section of the book provide examples of the major research traditions in the field, while the concluding essays (commissioned by leading scholars) provide broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues.. The field of stratification is being transformed and reshaped by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Although these developments are revolutionary in their implications, until now there has been no comprehensive effort to bring together the classic articles that have defined the contours of the field. In this revised and updated second edition of Social Stratification , the history of stratification research unfolds in systematic fashion, with the introductory articles in each section providing examples of the major research traditions in the field and the concluding essays (commissioned from leading scholars) providing broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. This comprehensive reader is designed as a primary text for introductory courses on social stratification and as a supplementary text for advanced courses on occupations, labor markets, or social mobility. The field of stratification is being transformed and reshaped by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Although these developments are revolutionary in their implications, until now there has been no comprehensive effort to bring together the classic and contemporary articles that define the contours of the field. In this revised and updated edition of Social Stratification, the history of stratification research unfolds in systematic fashion, with the introductory articles in each section providing examples of the major research traditions in the field and the concluding essays (commissioned from leading scholars) providing broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. The resulting collection of articles both celebrates the diversity of theoretical approaches and reveals the cumulative nature of ongoing research. This comprehensive reader is designed as a primary text for introductory courses on social stratification and as a supplementary text for advanced courses on social classes, occupations, labor markets, or social mobility. The following types of questions and debates are addressed in the six sections of the reader:Forms and Sources of Stratif ication: What are the major forms of inequality in human history? Can the ubiquity of inequality be attributed to individual differences in talent or ability? Is some form of inequality an inevitable feature of human life? The Structure of Contemporary Stratification: What are the principal fault lines or social cleavages that define the contemporary class structure? Have these cleavages strengthened or weakened with the transition to modernity and postmodernity? Generating Stratification: How frequently do individuals move into new classes, occupations, or income groups? Is there a permanent underclass? To what extent are occupational outcomes determined by such forces as intelligence, effort, schooling, aspirations, social contacts, and individual luck? The Consequences of Stratification: How are the life-styles, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals shaped by their class locations? Are there identifiable class cultures in past and present societies? Ascriptive Processes: What types of social processes and state policies serve to maintain or alter racial, ethnic, and sex discrimination in labor markets? Have these forms of discrimination weakened or strengthened with the transition to modernity and postmodernity?The Future of Stratification: Will stratification systems take on completely new and distinctive forms in the future? How unequal will these systems be? Is the concept of social class still useful in describing postmodern forms of stratification? Are stratification systems gradually shedding their distinctive features and converging towards some common (i.e., postmodern) regime?The volume offers essential reading for undergraduates who need an introduction to the field, for graduate students who wish to broaden their understanding of stratification research, and for advanced scholars who seek a basic reference guide. Although most of the selections are middle-range theoretical pieces suitable for introductory courses, the anthology also includes advanced contributions on the cutting edge of research. The editor outlines a modified study plan for undergraduate students requiring a basic introduction to the field.

Gender Sexuality and Meaning

This volume offers a representative selection of Sally McConnell-Ginet's publications on language, gender and sexuality, which circle around the following themes: language users are actively engaged in making meanings, both as speakers and ...

Gender  Sexuality  and Meaning

This volume offers a representative selection of Sally McConnell-Ginet's publications on language, gender and sexuality, which circle around the following themes: language users are actively engaged in making meanings, both as speakers and listeners; languages and socio-political institutions constrain, but do not determine, communicative possibilities; attention to language deepens understanding of gender and sexuality, including connections to ethnicity, class, race, and other dimensions of social identity and inequality.