Large Volume Jet Injection

This mechanism significantly reduces the power and energy required to perform a given injection and, therefore, significantly increases the volume deliverable with a controllable injector.

Large Volume Jet Injection

Jet injection is a drug delivery technique that removes the requirement for a needle by providing the liquid drug with sufficient momentum to penetrate the skin, and deliver itself into the underlying tissue. Currently, only injectors driven through uncontrollable means (compressed springs or gas) are capable of delivering volumes greater than 0.3 mL. Controllably-actuated jet injectors have the advantage of control over the jet speed and, therefore, the depth and volume of delivery into tissue. This thesis presents a novel mechanism, the compound ampoule, which mechanically separates a jet injection into two phases. This mechanism significantly reduces the power and energy required to perform a given injection and, therefore, significantly increases the volume deliverable with a controllable injector. Before a compound ampoule could be successfully implemented, however, an improved understanding of the requirements for large volume jet injection was needed. This involved the development of a highly controllable, large volume, benchtop injector. This device was used to perform injections that were observed with high speed X-ray, and to perform a large volume tissue injection study using samples of post-mortem porcine tissue. These investigations explored the jet speed requirements of large volume injection and the effects of two phase administration. The results demonstrated that 1 mL can be successfully delivered into tissue in two phases, and that a second phase jet speed of at least 100 m/s is required for successful injection. In addition, the results demonstrated that the jet speed required for successful delivery is dependent on the injection volume. Based on what these studies revealed about large volume, two-phase jet injection, a compound ampoule was manufactured. This device demonstrated successful delivery of 1 mL into tissue samples. The success of this compound ampoule injector demonstrates the feasibility of the delivery of 1 mL with a clinically appropriate, voice coil driven jet injection device.

Fusion Science and Technology

increased , especially if high - conductivity material ( e.g. , Be in the near future for JET and in the long term for ITER ) is ... The gas injection system was able to deal with only small quantities of gas at relatively low pressure ...

Fusion Science and Technology


Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders

An outbreak of hepatitis B associated with jet injections in a weight reduction clinic. ... Current status and future prospects of needle-free liquid jet injectors. Nat. Rev. ... The effect of jet speed on large volume jet injection.

Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders

Provides the latest information on imaging technologies and transdermal delivery in skin disorders This important, timely book covers the latest understanding about today's major skin disorders, the development of imaging technologies for skin diagnosis, and the applications of micro/nano-technologies for the treatment of skin complications. It also places great emphasis on the critical role that interdisciplinary science occupies to achieve the requisite level of understanding of skin conditions and their management, which is essential to creating technologies that work. Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders starts by outlining the structural characteristics of skin and skin appendages. It then discusses the key pathways involved in skin growth and development. Clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and current clinical practices used to treat diseases affecting the skin are then introduced. Common preclinical models used for studying the mechanisms of diverse skin diseases, validation of novel therapeutic targets, and screening of new drugs to treat these diseases are also covered. The book examines the latest imaging technologies for understanding in vivo skin changes, as well as technologies such as high-resolution ultrasound imaging, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, high-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography, and emerging hybrid-imaging modalities. It concludes with chapters introducing emerging drug delivery technologies and potential future innovative developments. Presents up-to-date knowledge of the skin biology and pathologies Introduces advancements in the topic of imaging technology for tracing the drug delivery process, which is rarely systematically reported by other counterparts Covers the latest development in three inter-related directions of drug delivery, imaging, and skin disease intersect for skin research Provides an overview of the latest development of diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for skin diseases Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders will be of great interest to analytical chemists, materials scientists, pharmaceutical chemists, clinical chemists, biotechnologists, bioengineers, cosmetics industry, and dermatologists.

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Therapy Part 1

Hydroporation methods deliver DNA to the target by injecting a large volume of solution with significant force ( i.e. ... The development of a novel low volume ' high speed jet injector ' allows for the efficient delivery of small ...

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Therapy  Part 1

The field of non-viral vector research has rapidly progressed since the publication of the first edition. This new edition is expanded to two separate volumes that contain in-depth discussions of different non-viral approaches, including cationic liposomes and polymers, naked DNA and various physical methods of delivery, as well as a comprehensive coverage of the molecular biological designs of the plasmid DNA for reduced toxicity, prolonged expression and tissue or disease specific genes. New developments such as the toxicity of the non-viral vectors and recent advances in nucleic acid therapeutics are fully covered in these volumes.

DNA Pharmaceuticals

The volume of jet-injected fluids is positively correlated with the pressure used for jet injection, so higher pressure is used to apply larger volumes. Figure 7.1 Schematic representation of the Swiss-Injector (A) and its 134 7 ...

DNA Pharmaceuticals

With its focus on a completely novel class of pharmaceuticals, this book collates the hitherto scarce literature about DNA drug formulation keenly desired by biotechnologists, molecular biologists and pharmacists, as well as those working in the biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. As such, this volume presents a wide range of gene delivery systems needed for different therapeutic applications. It fills the gap between research and clinical trials and describes pharmaceutical fundamentals for the development of efficient DNA pharmaceuticals.

A Contact Force Sensor for Medical Jet Injection

Under normal forces of 4 to 8 N, the BioInstrumentation Lab's jet injector achieved percent volume delivery of 89.1 ± 5.1%, whereas with normal forces of 0 to 4 N, the percent volume delivery was 68.9 ± 12.7%.

A Contact Force Sensor for Medical Jet Injection

Medical jet injection, in which a narrow fluid drug stream is propelled into the skin without a needle, was first conceived in the 1940s [1]. However, a major drawback of most injectors is the lack of controllability of jet parameters. Recent work at the BioInstrumentation Laboratory at MIT has resulted in a tunable, high-performance linear Lorentz-force jet injector which allows for careful control of many injection variables. The sensor presented in this thesis further improves the ability to quantify and control contact forces between the injection nozzle and tissue. This sensor uses a three-spoke flexure system with full-bridge strain gauge assemblies mounted on each flexural arm to measure both normal and lateral forces applied to the nozzle. The design, fabrication, calibration, and validation for the sensor are detailed along with results for preliminary tissue injections into ex vivo porcine tissue. These preliminary tests showed higher percent volume delivery to the tissue with an elevated normal force. Under normal forces of 4 to 8 N, the BioInstrumentation Lab's jet injector achieved percent volume delivery of 89.1 ± 5.1%, whereas with normal forces of 0 to 4 N, the percent volume delivery was 68.9 ± 12.7%.

Thermal Hydraulics of Water Cooled Nuclear Reactors

When the vapor jet injection is made into a large amount of subcooled liquid, condensation is characterized by an unstable boundary and changes in transient velocity profile. Evaluation of heat exchange between the vapor flow and liquid ...

Thermal Hydraulics of Water Cooled Nuclear Reactors

Thermal Hydraulics of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors reviews flow and heat transfer phenomena in nuclear systems and examines the critical contribution of this analysis to nuclear technology development. With a strong focus on system thermal hydraulics (SYS TH), the book provides a detailed, yet approachable, presentation of current approaches to reactor thermal hydraulic analysis, also considering the importance of this discipline for the design and operation of safe and efficient water-cooled and moderated reactors. Part One presents the background to nuclear thermal hydraulics, starting with a historical perspective, defining key terms, and considering thermal hydraulics requirements in nuclear technology. Part Two addresses the principles of thermodynamics and relevant target phenomena in nuclear systems. Next, the book focuses on nuclear thermal hydraulics modeling, covering the key areas of heat transfer and pressure drops, then moving on to an introduction to SYS TH and computational fluid dynamics codes. The final part of the book reviews the application of thermal hydraulics in nuclear technology, with chapters on V&V and uncertainty in SYS TH codes, the BEPU approach, and applications to new reactor design, plant lifetime extension, and accident analysis. This book is a valuable resource for academics, graduate students, and professionals studying the thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear power plants and using SYS TH to demonstrate their safety and acceptability. Contains a systematic and comprehensive review of current approaches to the thermal-hydraulic analysis of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors Clearly presents the relationship between system level (top-down analysis) and component level phenomenology (bottom-up analysis) Provides a strong focus on nuclear system thermal hydraulic (SYS TH) codes Presents detailed coverage of the applications of thermal-hydraulics to demonstrate the safety and acceptability of nuclear power plants

Well Completion Design

The pressure for water injection will have to be added to the turbine pressure drop and therefore a large volume, ... Jet pumps (sometimes called eductors or ejectors when installed in topside equipment) are the only form of artificial ...

Well Completion Design

Completions are the conduit between hydrocarbon reservoirs and surface facilities. They are a fundamental part of any hydrocarbon field development project. The have to be designed for safely maximising the hydrocarbon recovery from the well and may have to last for many years under ever changing conditions. Issues include: connection with the reservoir rock, avoiding sand production, selecting the correct interval, pumps and other forms of artificial lift, safety and integrity, equipment selection and installation and future well interventions. * Course book based on course well completion design by TRACS International * Unique in its field: Coverage of offshore, subsea, and landbased completions in all of the major hydrocarbon basins of the world. * Full colour

Immunotherapy of Cancer

Low-volume jet injection is another mechanical method of plasmid DNA delivery (46). This requires a simple, hand-held injector to deliver plasmid DNA under high pressure into the desired tissue. It is more effective than syringe ...

Immunotherapy of Cancer

Expert bench and clinical scientists join forces to concurrently review both the state-of-the-art in tumor immunology and its clinical translation into promising practical treatments. The authors explain in each chapter the scientific basis behind such therapeutic agents as monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and T-cells, and illustrate their clinical manipulation to combat cancer. Additional chapters address statistical analysis-both of clinical trials and assay evaluations-methods for the discovery of antigens, adoptive T cell therapy, and adaptive and innate immunity. The challenges in clinical trial design, the need for biomarkers of response-such as novel imaging techniques and immunologic monitoring-and the new advances and directions in cancer immunotherapy are also fully examined.

Diesel Engine Management

5 1 Injection-orifice geometry 2 Seat geometry 3 Blind-hole geometry 1 Mechanical jet examination Fig. ... Even where there is a large amount of whirl, the individual injection jets must not intermingle, otherwise fuel would be injected ...

Diesel Engine Management

This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems.

Inviscid Analysis of Jet Injection Between Two Moving Streams

An analytical method is developed for determining the flow interaction when a two-dimensional jet is injected between two moving streams.

Inviscid Analysis of Jet Injection Between Two Moving Streams

An analytical method is developed for determining the flow interaction when a two-dimensional jet is injected between two moving streams. The jet is flowing out of channel and is turned as it enters between the external streams. The local velocity variation resulting from the flow interaction provides a static pressure variation along the jet bounding streamlines that is a priori unknown. Hense, the flow must be obtained by coupling the three flow regions (the jet and the free stream on either side) along the jet boundaries. Both external streams have the same total pressure, which is different from that in the jet. The solution is for the condition that the total pressure in the jet does not differ from the free-stream value by a large amount compared with the free-stream dynamic head. Results are given for the shape of the jet boundaries for various injection configurations.

Petroleum Management

More recently , Abrasijet * abrasive jetting service has broadened jet gun work to include perforating and fracture initiation . High Injection Rate Acidizing These large volume treatments have increased production and slowed decline ...

Petroleum Management


Gene Delivery to Mammalian Cells

Hence a delivery system, jet injection, has been designed to deliver medications without the use of a needle. ... It involves a rapid injection of a large volume of naked DNA(e.g., 5 lg of DNAin 1.6 mLof saline solution for a 20 g mouse ...

Gene Delivery to Mammalian Cells

Experienced researchers describe in step-by-step detail methods that have proven most useful in delivering genes to mammalian cells. Volume 1 focuses on gene delivery by a variety of chemical and physical methods, including ultrasound, biolistics, peptides, PNA clamps, liposomes, microinjection, electroporation, particle bombardment, dendrimers, and hydrodynamics. Volume 2 details procedures for delivering genes to cells in vitro and in vivo, including the use of lentiviral vectors.

Vaccinology

The variability of adverse reactions at the injection site caused by liquid jet injection is thought to arise from the large dosing volume (tens to hundreds of microliters) and nozzle orifice diameter [1] and the device's inability to ...

Vaccinology

Covering all aspects of vaccine research and development in one volume, this authoritative resource takes a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing not only on basic science, but also on the many stages required to commercialize and navigate the regulatory requirements for human application, both in the United States and Europe. Reviews in detail the process of designing a vaccine, from the initial stages of antigen discovery to human application Includes evaluation of vaccine efficacy and safety Details clinical trial design, including regulatory requirements Discusses the emerging field of active cellular immunotherapy Vaccinology: Principles and Practice provides an invaluable resource for clinicians, scientific and medical researchers, lecturers and postdoctoral fellows working in the field of vaccines.

Non viral Gene Therapy

at depths of up to 10 mm in targeted tissues after delivery by a high-speed jet injector and transfection efficiencies were ... This method involves high-pressure injection of a large volume of solution containing the DNA of interest.

Non viral Gene Therapy

Presents information on non-viral gene-delivery techniques, covering a spectrum of disciplines that include chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, and pharmacokinetics. This work is useful to researchers and engineers in genetic engineering, molecular medicine, biochemical engineering, and biotechnology.

Advances in Flow Analysis

In order for wall - jet hydrodynamics to be followed , the wall opposite the detector should be sufficiently far from the ... The large volume of the cell electrolyte solution compared to the injected volume allows many injections ...

Advances in Flow Analysis

This first book to cover different injection techniques not only provides a comprehensive overview of methodologies and instrumentation, it also covers recent advances in flow method analysis, with an appendix listing additional databases, instrumentation and methods on the Internet. A definite must-have for every chemist working in this field.

Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development

Specification summary of the three types of high-pressure injection methods Single tube Double tube Methodology Triple tube CCP-L JSG ... 20 20 40 40 40 40 Cutting pressure (MPa) Injection volume (l/m) Water - - 70 50 50 50 t Table 4.

Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development

This book presents 09 keynote and invited lectures and 177 technical papers from the 4th International Conference on Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, held on 28-29 Nov 2019 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The papers come from 35 countries of the five different continents, and are grouped in six conference themes: 1) Deep Foundations; 2) Tunnelling and Underground Spaces; 3) Ground Improvement; 4) Landslide and Erosion; 5) Geotechnical Modelling and Monitoring; and 6) Coastal Foundation Engineering. The keynote lectures are devoted by Prof. Harry Poulos (Australia), Prof. Adam Bezuijen (Belgium), Prof. Delwyn Fredlund (Canada), Prof. Lidija Zdravkovic (UK), Prof. Masaki Kitazume (Japan), and Prof. Mark Randolph (Australia). Four invited lectures are given by Prof. Charles Ng, ISSMGE President, Prof.Eun Chul Shin, ISSMGE Vice-President for Asia, Prof. Norikazu Shimizu (Japan), and Dr.Kenji Mori (Japan).

Diabetes for Dummies

Figure 10-3: A jet injection device. A large quantity of insulin is taken into the injection device, enough for multiple treatments. The amount of insulin to be delivered is measured, usually by rotating one part of the device while the ...

Diabetes for Dummies

Bestseller! Features new information on metabolic syndrome Take control of your diabetes and live well Don't just survive – thrive! That's the message of this state-of-the-art guide to diabetes management, now updated to include the latest advances in therapy for diabetes and its complications. From causes, symptoms, and side effects to treatments and diet, this book delivers sound advice on staying fit and feeling great. Understand and manage diabetes Choose a diet plan that suits you Prevent long-term complications Care for someone who has diabetes Manage high blood pressure, cholesterol, and kidney problems ". . . diabetic patients . . . should arm themselves with sugar cubes, glucose tablets, boiled sweets . . . but also with a copy of Diabetes For Dummies . . ." —Dr Thomas Stuttaford, The Times ". . . combines clarity with depth and detail . . ." —Yoga and Health magazine

Fundamentals of Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

When referencing rate control of the injection system, the most meaningful definition is the quantity of fuel ... When the nozzle valve begins to lift, a small narrow, low-volume spray jet is injected first into the combustion chamber.

Fundamentals of Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

"Jones & Bartlett Learning CDX Automotive"--Cover

A Manual of Marine Engineering

... the air - pump only about half the size that would be requisite for jet condensation ; but , as a rule , a surface condenser is arranged so as to be worked as a jet condenser , and consequently the air - pump must be large enough to ...

A Manual of Marine Engineering