Lessons and Legacies VI

Together these essays will inform the future of the Holocaust in scholarly research and in popular understanding.

Lessons and Legacies VI

In the courtroom and the classroom, in popular media, public policy, and scholarly pursuits, the Holocaust-its origins, its nature, and its implications-remains very much a matter of interest, debate, and controversy. Arriving at a time when a new generation must come to terms with the legacy of the Holocaust or forever lose the benefit of its historical, social, and moral lessons, this volume offers a richly varied, deeply informed perspective on the practice, interpretation, and direction of Holocaust research now and in the future. In their essays the authors-an international group including eminent senior scholars as well those who represent the future of the field-set the agenda for Holocaust studies in the coming years, even as they give readers the means for understanding today's news and views of the Holocaust, whether in court cases involving victims and perpetrators; international, national, and corporate developments; or fictional, documentary, and historical accounts. Several of the essays-such as one on nonarmed "amidah" or resistance and others on the role of gender in the behavior of perpetrators and victims-provide innovative and potentially significant interpretive frameworks for the field of Holocaust studies. Others; for instance, the rounding up of Jews in Italy, Nazi food policy in Eastern Europe, and Nazi anti-Jewish scholarship, emphasize the importance of new sources for reconstructing the historical record. Still others, including essays on the 1964 Frankfurt trial of Auschwitz guards and on the response of the Catholic Church to the question of German guilt, bring a new depth and sophistication to highly charged, sharply politicized topics. Together these essays will inform the future of the Holocaust in scholarly research and in popular understanding.

R ume der deutschen Geschichte

Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research, Evanston, IL 2004, 21-36; Kristin Kopp, Germany's Wild East: Constructing Poland as Colonial Space, Ann Arbor, MI 2012; Daniel Siemens, »Sword and Plough«: Settling Nazi ...

R  ume der deutschen Geschichte

Der »spatial turn« in der deutschen Geschichte. Die deutsche Geschichtsschreibung hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten einen spezifischen »spatial turn« erfahren. Insbesondere haben Historikerinnen und Historiker dabei die Funktion von Rassenideologie und (»Lebens«-)Raum im Zusammenhang mit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg analysiert. Später geriet auch die Nachkriegszeit in den Fokus, in der auch die Ideologien und Logiken des Kalten Kriegs in den Blick rückten. Die Beiträgerinnen und Beiträger des Bandes vereinen die Themen Raum, Ort, Grenzen, Landschaften, Territorialisierung, Umweltgeschichte und Stadtgeschichte. So arbeiten sie heraus, wie die verschiedenen Weltanschauungen und Ideen in der Moderne Deutschland geformt und umgeformt haben.

The Historiography of Genocide

For an excellent discussion see K. Jarausch, 'Unasked Questions: The Controversy about Nazi Collaboration among German Historians', in Lessons and Legacies, Vol. VI, ed. Diefendorf, pp. 190–208. C. Koonz, The Nazi Conscience (Cambridge, ...

The Historiography of Genocide

The Historiography of Genocide is an indispensable guide to the development of the emerging discipline of genocide studies and the only available assessment of the historical literature pertaining to genocides.

How Was It Possible

Jonathan Goldstein From Lessons and Legacies VI By early 1940, as a result of both Nazi and Soviet oppression, many thousands of Polish and Lithuanian Jews had fled into unoccupied Lithuania from Memel, from the regions of Poland that ...

How Was It Possible

As the Holocaust passes out of living memory, future generations will no longer come face-to-face with Holocaust survivors. But the lessons of that terrible period in history are too important to let slip past. How Was It Possible?, edited and introduced by Peter Hayes, provides teachers and students with a comprehensive resource about the Nazi persecution of Jews. Deliberately resisting the reflexive urge to dismiss the topic as too horrible to be understood intellectually or emotionally, the anthology sets out to provide answers to questions that may otherwise defy comprehension. This anthology is organized around key issues of the Holocaust, from the historical context for antisemitism to the impediments to escaping Nazi Germany, and from the logistics of the death camps and the carrying out of genocide to the subsequent struggles of the displaced survivors in the aftermath. Prepared in cooperation with the Jewish Foundation for the Righteous, this anthology includes contributions from such luminaries as Jean Ancel, Saul Friedlander, Tony Judt, Alan Kraut, Primo Levi, Robert Proctor, Richard Rhodes, Timothy Snyder, and Susan Zuccotti. Taken together, the selections make the ineffable fathomable and demystify the barbarism underlying the tragedy, inviting readers to learn precisely how the Holocaust was, in fact, possible.

The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies

Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Elias, R. (1998). Triumph of Hope: From Theresienstadt and Auschwitz to Israel. New York: John Wiley.

The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies

Few scholarly fields have developed in recent decades as rapidly and vigorously as Holocaust Studies. At the start of the twenty-first century, the persecution and murder perpetrated by the Nazi regime have become the subjects of an enormous literature in multiple academic disciplines and a touchstone of public and intellectual discourse in such diverse fields as politics, ethics and religion. Forward-looking and multi-disciplinary, this handbook draws on the work of an international team of forty-seven outstanding scholars. The handbook is thematically divided into five broad sections. Part One, Enablers, concentrates on the broad and necessary contextual conditions for the Holocaust. Part Two, Protagonists, concentrates on the principal persons and groups involved in the Holocaust and attempts to disaggregate the conventional interpretive categories of perpetrator, victim, and bystander. It examines the agency of the Nazi leaders and killers and of those involved in resisting and surviving the assault. Part Three, Settings, concentrates on the particular places, sites, and physical circumstances where the actions of the Holocaust's protagonists and the forms of persecution were literally grounded. Part Four, Representations, engages complex questions about how the Holocaust can and should be grasped and what meaning or lack of meaning might be attributed to events through historical analysis, interpretation of texts, artistic creation and criticism, and philosophical and religious reflection. Part Five, Aftereffects, explores the Holocaust's impact on politics and ethics, education and religion, national identities and international relations, the prospects for genocide prevention, and the defense of human rights.

Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust

Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research, Evanston, Illinois 2004. 13 Article 8, Charter of the International Militar Tribunal, 6 October 1945, quoted in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals ...

Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust

The ultimate proof of the ongoing massacre of the Jews and how the Allies found out.

KL

Feminist Interpretations of Women in the SS,” in Lessons and Legacies VI, ed. Diefendorf, Evanston, 2004, 300–321. Heß, C., J. Hörath, D. Schröder, and K. Wünschmann (eds.), Kontinuitäten und Brüche. Neue Perspektiven auf die Geschichte ...

KL

The first comprehensive history of the Nazi concentration camps In a landmark work of history, Nikolaus Wachsmann offers an unprecedented, integrated account of the Nazi concentration camps from their inception in 1933 through their demise, seventy years ago, in the spring of 1945. The Third Reich has been studied in more depth than virtually any other period in history, and yet until now there has been no history of the camp system that tells the full story of its broad development and the everyday experiences of its inhabitants, both perpetrators and victims, and all those living in what Primo Levi called "the gray zone." In KL, Wachsmann fills this glaring gap in our understanding. He not only synthesizes a new generation of scholarly work, much of it untranslated and unknown outside of Germany, but also presents startling revelations, based on many years of archival research, about the functioning and scope of the camp system. Examining, close up, life and death inside the camps, and adopting a wider lens to show how the camp system was shaped by changing political, legal, social, economic, and military forces, Wachsmann produces a unified picture of the Nazi regime and its camps that we have never seen before. A boldly ambitious work of deep importance, KL is destined to be a classic in the history of the twentieth century.

Different Horrors Same Hell

Feminist Interpretations of Women in the SS,” in Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research, ed. Jeffry M. Diefendorf (Evanson, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2004), 300–321. For a fascinating discussion of the ...

Different Horrors  Same Hell

Different Horrors, Same Hell brings together a variety of essays demonstrating the breadth of contributions that feminist theory and gender analysis make to the study of the Holocaust. The collection provides new perspectives on central works of Holocaust scholarship and representation, from the books of Hannah Arendt and Ruth Kl�ger to films such as Claude Lanzmann's Shoah and Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List. Interviews with survivors and their descendants draw new attention to the significance of women's roles and family structures during and in the aftermath of the Holocaust, and interviews and archival research reveal the undercurrents of sexual violence within the Final Solution. As Doris Bergen shows in the book's first chapter, the focus on women's and gender issues in this collection "complicates familiar and outworn categories, and humanizes the past in powerful ways."

The Holocaust

57 See Hyman Enzer and Sandra Solotaroff - Enzer ( eds ) , Anne Frank : Reflections on Her Life and Legacy ( Urbana and ... Editions Gallimard , 1983 ) ; Deborah Dwork , paper at ' Lessons and Legacies VI : The Presence of the Holocaust ...

The Holocaust

Despite the massive literature on the Holocaust, our understanding of it has traditionally been influenced by rather unsophisticated early perspectives and silence. This book summarizes and criticizes the existing scholarship on the subject and suggests new ways by which we can approach its study. It addresses the use of victim testimony and asks important questions: What function does recording the past serve for the victim? What do historians want from it? Are these two perspectives incompatible? It also examines the perpetrators of the Holocaust, and compares them to those responsible for other acts of genocide and ethnic cleansing in the early years of the twentieth century. In addition, it looks at the bystanders--examining the complexity and ambiguity at the heart of contemporary reaction.

The Book Smugglers

Eynikayt (Moscow), April 6, 1944. ———. A. Sutzkever: Selected Poetry and Prose. ... “Vi Z. Kalmanovitch iz umgekumen.” Yidishe kultur (New York), no. 10 (October 1945): 52–53. ... In Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents ...

The Book Smugglers

The Book Smugglers is the nearly unbelievable story of ghetto residents who rescued thousands of rare books and manuscripts-first from the Nazis and then from the Soviets-by hiding them on their bodies, burying them in bunkers, and smuggling them across borders. It is a tale of heroism and resistance, of friendship and romance, and of unwavering devotion-including the readiness to risk one's life-to literature and art. And it is entirely true. Based on Jewish, German, and Soviet documents, including diaries, letters, memoirs, and the author's interviews with several of the story's participants, The Book Smugglers chronicles the daring activities of a group of poets turned partisans and scholars turned smugglers in Vilna, "The Jerusalem of Lithuania." The rescuers were pitted against Johannes Pohl, a Nazi "expert" on the Jews, who had been dispatched to Vilna by the Nazi looting agency, Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg, to organize the seizure of the city's great collections of Jewish books. Pohl and his Einsatzstab staff planned to ship the most valuable materials to Germany and incinerate the rest. The Germans used forty ghetto inmates as slave-laborers to sort, select, pack, and transport the materials, either to Germany or to nearby paper mills. This group, nicknamed "the Paper Brigade," and informally led by poet Shmerke Kaczerginski, a garrulous, street-smart adventurer and master of deception, smuggled thousands of books and manuscripts past German guards. If caught, the men would have faced death by firing squad at Ponar, the mass-murder site outside of Vilna. To store the rescued manuscripts, poet Abraham Sutzkever helped build an underground book-bunker sixty feet beneath the Vilna ghetto. Kaczerginski smuggled weapons as well, using the group's worksite, the former building of the Yiddish Scientific Institute, to purchase arms for the ghetto's secret partisan organization. All the while, both men wrote poetry that was recited and sung by the fast-dwindling population of ghetto inhabitants. With the Soviet "liberation" of Vilna (now known as Vilnius), the Paper Brigade thought themselves and their precious cultural treasures saved-only to learn that their new masters were no more welcoming toward Jewish culture than the old, and the books must now be smuggled out of the USSR. Thoroughly researched by the foremost scholar of the Vilna Ghetto-a writer of exceptional daring, style, and reach-The Book Smugglers is an epic story of human heroism, a little-known tale from the blackest days of the war.

The Holocaust and Historical Methodology

For an excellent discussion see Konrad Jarausch, “Unasked Questions: The Controversy about Nazi Collaboration among German Historians,” in Lessons and Legacies, VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research, ed. Jeffrey Diefendorf (Evanston ...

The Holocaust and Historical Methodology

This book is timely and necessary and often extremely challenging. It brings together an impressive cast of scholars, spanning several academic generations. Anyone interested in writing about the Holocaust should read this book and consider the implications of what is written here for their own work. There seems to me little doubt that Holocaust history writing stands at something of a cross roads, and the ways forward that this volume points to are extremely thought provoking. -- Tom Lawson, University of Winchester.

Gender Politics and Mass Dictatorship

3, 6. 3. Ibid., p. 8. 4. Jie-Hyun Lim, 'Historiographical Perspectives on “Mass Dictatorship” ', Totalitarian ... Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2004), pp.

Gender Politics and Mass Dictatorship

Unique in comparative scope, this volume brings together global scholarship on gender. Thirteen international experts explore the gendered mobilization of men and women in twentieth century European and Asian mass dictatorships and colonial empires, examining both mobilization 'from above' and self-empowerment 'from below'.

The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies

In J. M. Diefendorf (Ed.), Lessons and legacies VI: New currents in holocaust research (pp. 300–321). Evanston: Northwestern University Press. past years of perpetrator research into lessons Jeftic, A. (2019). Social aspects of memory.

The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies

This encyclopaedia provides a comprehensive overview of major theories and approaches to the study of peace and conflict across different humanities and social sciences disciplines. Peace and conflict studies (PCS) is one of the major sub-disciplines of international studies (including political science and international relations), and has emerged from a need to understand war, related systems and concepts and how to respond to it afterward. As a living reference work, easily discoverable and searchable, the Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies offers solid material for understanding the foundational, historical, and contemporary themes, concepts, theories, events, organisations, and frameworks concerning peace, conflict, security, rights, institutions and development. The Palgrave Encyclopaedia of Peace and Conflict Studies brings together leading and emerging scholars from different disciplines to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource on peace and conflict studies ever produced.

Germany On Their Minds

The Legacy of German Jewry. New York: Fordham University Press, 2007. Goschler, Constantin. “German Compensation to Jewish Nazi Victims.” In Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research, 373–412.

Germany On Their Minds

Throughout the 1930s and early 1940s, approximately ninety thousand German Jews fled their homeland and settled in the United States, prior to that nation closing its borders to Jewish refugees. And even though many of them wanted little to do with Germany, the circumstances of the Second World War and the postwar era meant that engagement of some kind was unavoidable—whether direct or indirect, initiated within the community itself or by political actors and the broader German public. This book carefully traces these entangled histories on both sides of the Atlantic, demonstrating the remarkable extent to which German Jews and their former fellow citizens helped to shape developments from the Allied war effort to the course of West German democratization.

Holocaust History and the Readings of Ka Tzetnik

In Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research, edited by Jeffrey M. Diefendorf, 6:475–86. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2004. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By.

Holocaust History and the Readings of Ka Tzetnik

Holocaust History and the Readings of Ka-Tzetnik provides the first extensive exploration of the reception of Ka-Tzetnik's work and the role that his books have played in the larger discussion of the Holocaust and its memorialization around the world. Including contributions from an international and interdisciplinary group of experienced scholars, the book examines the literary merits, historical context and public resonance of Ka-Tzetnik's stories. It also places his novels in the context of post-WWII debates about how the memories and testimonies of the victims of the Holocaust can be represented and made publicly accessible through literature. There is also detailed coverage of key topics, like Holocaust memory and sexual violence in the concentration camps, and thorough historical analysis of key works like House of Dolls included throughout. This is an important study for all scholars and students with an interest in the Holocaust and Holocaust literature.

The Scientification of the Jewish Question in Nazi Germany

6 See Dieter Schiefelbein, Das “Institut zur Erforschung der Judenfrage Frankfurt am Main. ... Institut zur Erforschung der Judenfrage in Frankfurt am Main between 1939 and 1945, in: Jeffry M. Diefendorf, ed., Lessons and Legacies VI.

The Scientification of the  Jewish Question  in Nazi Germany

During the time of the Third Reich a vibrant "Jew research” arose. In its core it combined religious and racial studies to reinvigorate Christian anti-Judaism and to substantiate the political measures against the Jews on a new scientific basis.

The Time Left Between Us

In Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research, edited by Jeffrey M. Diefendorf, 300–321. Evanston il: Northwestern University Press, 2004. Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1940.

The Time Left Between Us

A blend of memoir, history, and oral storytelling, The Time Left between Us bridges the gap between the generation who fought World War II and the generation who has forgotten it. Alicia DeFonzo takes an unplanned visit to the Normandy beaches while staying in Paris. Her grandfather “Del” (Anthony DelRossi) had fought in World War II, and she becomes distraught after realizing how little she knows about the war and his experiences, which until then had remained largely unspoken. Across landscapes and lifetimes DeFonzo retraces her beloved grandfather’s tour through World War II Europe. The eighty-four-year-old DelRossi recounts stories as an army combat engineer surviving major campaigns, including Normandy, St. Lo, the Bulge, Hürtgenwald, and Remagen, then liberating concentration camps. In this braided narrative, we see DeFonzo’s childhood in a traditional Italian American family with an erratic Marine Corps father and a beloved grandfather. Spanning ten years, DeFonzo’s travels and research take an unexpected detour after she inherits a Nazi Waffen-SS diary from her grandfather, and, in her final trip, returns to Germany to confront the diary owner’s family. DeFonzo’s and her grandfather’s stories merge when Del undergoes open-heart surgery and Alicia must be the one to safeguard the past. Both nostalgic and gripping, The Time Left between Us is a meditation on how deeply connected the past is to the present and how the truth—and what we remember of it—are fragmented.

The Holocaust Corporations and the Law

... Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2004), 401. 6. Wilson, Writing History, 37. 7. Note that group representation is now also possible before the International ...

The Holocaust  Corporations  and the Law

The Holocaust, Corporations, and the Law explores the challenge posed by the Holocaust to legal and political thought by examining issues raised by the restitution class action suits brought against Swiss banks and German corporations before American federal courts in the 1990s. Although the suits were settled for unprecedented amounts of money, the defendants did not formally assume any legal responsibility. Thus, the lawsuits were bitterly criticized by lawyers for betraying justice and by historians for distorting history. Leora Bilsky argues class action litigation and settlement offer a mode of accountability well suited to addressing the bureaucratic nature of business involvement in atrocities. Prior to these lawsuits, legal treatment of the Holocaust was dominated by criminal law and its individualistic assumptions, consistently failing to relate to the structural aspects of Nazi crimes. Engaging critically with contemporary debates about corporate responsibility for human rights violations and assumptions about “law,” she argues for the need to design processes that make multinational corporations accountable, and examines the implications for transitional justice, the relationship between law and history, and for community and representation in a post-national world. Her novel interpretation of the restitution lawsuits not only adds an important dimension to the study of Holocaust trials, but also makes an innovative contribution to broader and pressing contemporary legal and political debates. In an era when corporations are ever more powerful and international, Bilsky’s arguments will attract attention beyond those interested in the Holocaust and its long shadow.

The Holocaust and World War II

6 Cesare Barbieri Courier, (Hartford, The Cesare Barbieri Center of Italian Studies, 1980), p. 20. ... for the Holocaust in Italy," Lessons and Legacies VI ed. by Jeffry M.Diefendorf, (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2004), pp.

The Holocaust and World War II

The Holocaust and World War II: In History and In Memory is a thematic volume of nineteen articles based on papers presented at the 9th Middle Tennessee State University International Holocaust Studies Conference in October, 2009. It focuses on the connection between World War II and the Holocaust as it was lived as well as how it is remembered, commemorated and taught. It is interdisciplinary in terms of subject and content, and it explores a variety of methodological approaches to the topic, including historical analysis, pedagogy, oral testimony, literary criticism and museology. The volume features three articles written by the conference’s featured speakers. Two of them were authored by the keynote speaker, internationally acclaimed historian Gerhard L. Weinberg. Arguably the world’s foremost authority on WWII, Weinberg is the author of A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II and several other prize-winning books. He contributes “World War II: A Brief History” and an article titled “Roosevelt, Truman and the Holocaust” that evaluates the difficult decisions concerning the Holocaust made by two American presidents. The second featured speaker, Raffael Scheck, author of Hitler’s African Victims: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940, contributes an article titled “Racial Hatred: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940” to this volume. Scheck’s essay places the experiences of these black French African prisoners of war into the broader context of the treatment of black people by the Nazis. The remaining sixteen articles, contributed by prominent scholars from North America, Europe and Asia, represent a broad spectrum of disciplines, methodological approaches, and points of view concerning the Holocaust and the Second World War. The editors believe this anthology will be both an important acquisition for libraries and a useful tool for scholars, teachers, researchers and general readers interested in the World War II era as well as in the Holocaust.

Monsters in the Mirror

A female guard plans to teach her a lesson by putting her to work that night in the guard's house. ... Women in the SS,” in Jeffrey Diefendorf, ed., Lessons and Legacies VI: New Currents in Holocaust Research (Evanston, IL, ...

Monsters in the Mirror

This collection provides readers with a comprehensive overview of postwar representations of Nazism in popular culture, documenting and critiquing their enormous impact and importance. * Includes images depicting Nazi-themed comics and magazine covers * Index of key terms define unfamiliar terms for general readers