Lithium Metal Anodes and Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

Li-Rb (Lithium–Rubidium) in phase equilibria, crystallographic and thermodynamic data of binary alloys . Li-Mg-NdZr (Landolt-Börnstein –Group IV Physical Chemistry Volume 5H) (Ed Madelung, O) Predel B (1997b) Li–Pa (Lithium–Palladium).

Lithium Metal Anodes and Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

This book provides comprehensive coverage of Lithium (Li) metal anodes for rechargeable batteries. Li is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh g-1), low density (0.59 g cm-3), and the lowest negative electrochemical potential (−3.040 V vs. standard hydrogenelectrodes). Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during Li deposition/stripping inherent in these batteries have prevented their practical applications over the past 40 years. With the emergence of post Liion batteries, safe and efficient operation of Li metal anodes has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air batteries, Li-S batteries, and Li metal batteries which utilize intercalation compounds as cathodes. In this work, various factors that affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of Li anodes are analyzed. The authors also present the technologies utilized to characterize the morphology of Li deposition and the results obtained by modeling of Li dendrite growth. Finally, recent developments, especially the new approaches that enable safe and efficient operation of Li metal anodes at high current densities are reviewed. The urgent need and perspectives in this field are also discussed. The fundamental understanding and approaches presented in this work will be critical for the applicationof Li metal anodes. The general principles and approaches can also be used in other metal electrodes and general electrochemical deposition of metal films.

Magnesium Alloys as Degradable Biomaterials

Mg-Ca-Zr ternary alloys composition design, 185 fabrication, 187 heat treatment, 187 hot and cold working, 187 mechanical ... as degradable metallic biomaterials Mg-Li binary alloys, 286–290 Mg-Li quaternary and multielementary alloys, ...

Magnesium Alloys as Degradable Biomaterials

Magnesium Alloys as Degradable Biomaterials provides a comprehensive review of the biomedical applications of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys. Magnesium has seen increasing use in orthopedic and cardiovascular applications over the last decade, particularly for coronary stents and bone implants.The book discusses the basic concepts of biodeg

Magnesium Technology 2013

Qiang Li, Qudong Wang, Yingxin Wang, Xiaoqin Zeng, Wenjiang Ding, “Effect of Nd and Y addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Zn-Zr alloy” J. Alloys Comp. 427 (2007) 115—123. 18. Xiao Zhou, Haitao Zhou, ...

Magnesium Technology 2013

The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this volume is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium experts in the world. Papers reflect all aspects of the field including primary production to applications, recycling, basic research findings, and industrialization. Readers will find broad coverage of current topics, including alloys and their properties, cast products and processing, wrought products and processing, corrosion and surface finishing, ecology, and more. New and emerging applications in such areas as hydrogen storage are also examined.

High Plasticity Magnesium Alloys

Li JH, Jie WQ, Yang GY. Effect of gadolinium on microstructure and the mechanical properties of MgZn-Zr cast magnesium alloys. Rare Metal Materials and Engineering 2008;37(9):1587À91. Li Q, Wang QD, Wang YG, et al. Effect of Nd and Y ...

High Plasticity Magnesium Alloys

High Plasticity Magnesium Alloys focuses on the microstructure, mechanical properties and processing methods of magnesium alloy materials. The title offers theory and methods on high-plasticity magnesium alloys, including phase diagram construction, alloying and deformation. Four typical high-plasticity magnesium alloys are discussed through thermodynamic phase diagram construction and the characterization of their microstructure, mechanical properties and texture at as-cast, extruded, rolled and heat-treated states. Chapters update principle calculations for the effects of alloying elements, Mg-Gd-Zr medium strength and high-plasticity alloys, medium strength and high-plasticity Mg-Mn based alloys, medium strength and high-plasticity Mc-Sn based alloys, and Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Mn high-strength and high-plasticity magnesium alloys. This book presents the plasticity of magnesium alloys, and guides the design and development of new high-strength and high-plasticity magnesium alloys. It provides detailed solutions for practicing industrial engineers. Presents in-depth theory and research methods on high-plasticity magnesium alloys Considers the microstructure, mechanical properties and processing methods of high-performance magnesium alloys Shows the first principles needed to calculate the effects of various alloying elements Introduces the development of magnesium alloys with relatively high plasticity Characterizes the plasticity of polycrystalline metallic materials Provides detailed solutions for industrial engineers who need to use high-performance magnesium alloys

Handbook

System La-O-Sr-Ti-Yb La-O-Ta-Ti-Zn La-O-Ti-Y-Zr Li-Mg-Mn-Na-O Li-Mg-Mn-Ni-O Li-Mg-Mn-Ni-O Li-Mg-Mn-Ni-O Li-Mg-Mn-Ni-O Li-Mg-Mn-Ni-O Li-Mg-Mn-Ni-O Li-Mg-Mn-Ni-O Li-Mg-Mn-O-P Li-Mg-Mn-O-Si Li-Mg-Mn-O-Ti Li-Mg-Mo-O-V Li-Mg-Mo-O-V ...

Handbook

The aim of this reference work is to provide the researcher with a comprehensive compilation of all up to now crystallographically identified inorganic substances in only one volume. All data have been processed and critically evaluated by the "Pauling File" editorial team using a unique software package. Each substance is represented in a single row containing information adapted to the number of chemical elements.

Aluminium Alloys

Al - Li Alloys : Processing - Structure - Property Relationship in a High Strength Spray Formed Al - Cu - Li - Mg - Ag - Zr Alloy C.Banjongprasert !, S.C. Hogg ?, 1.G. Palmer ' , and P.S. Grant ' Department of Materials , University of ...

Aluminium Alloys

Aluminium is a well established modern lightweight engineering and functional material with a unique combination of specific properties like strengh, formability, durability, conductivity, corrosion resistance, etc. It is present in many intelligent solutions in established markets like building, transport, packaging, printing, and many others, in our fast moving modern society. The various aluminium alloys can be processed quite efficiently in large quantities by conventional fabrication routes, as well as in special sophisticated forms and material combinations for highly innovative high-tec solutions and applications. This book contains latest information about all these aspects in form of the refereed papers of the II th International Conference on Aluminium Alloys "ICAA", where world-wide experts from academia and engineers from industry present latest results and new ideas in fundamental as well as applied research. Since 22 years the ICAA series provides scientists and engineers with a complete overview over the latest scientific and technological developments, featuring profound technology-based overviews and new innovative perspectives. This book is a reference for the scientific community as well as for the aluminium industry working on aluminium alloy development, processing and application issues. It gives a global perspective on the current focus of international research with emphasis on in-depth understanding of specific properties and applications of conventional and advanced aluminium alloys.

Reaction Kinetics and the Development and Operation of Catalytic Processes

The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of zirconium oxide pellets MEL-706 (supplied by MEL Chemicals), 3-4 mm long and 2 mm in diameter, calcined for 2h at ... V-Mg-O and Mg-Dy-Li-Cl-O catalysts were prepared as reported in [14].

Reaction Kinetics and the Development and Operation of Catalytic Processes

Reaction Kinetics and the Development and Operation of Catalytic Processes is a trendsetter. The Keynote Lectures have been authored by top scientists and cover a broad range of topics like fundamental aspects of surface chemistry, in particular dynamics and spillover, the modeling of reaction mechanisms, with special focus on the importance of transient experimentation and the application of kinetics in reactor design. Fundamental and applied kinetic studies are well represented. More than half of these deal with transient kinetics, a new trend made possible by recent sophisticated experimental equipment and the awareness that transient experimentation provides more information and insight into the microphenomena occurring on the catalyst surface than steady state techniques. The trend is not limited to purely kinetic studies since the great majority of the papers dealing with reactors also focus on transients and even deliberate transient operation. It is to be expected that this trend will continue and amplify as the community becomes more aware of the predictive potential of fundamental kinetics when combined with detailed realistic modeling of the reactor operation.

Essential Readings in Magnesium Technology

Table I. Current Status of Bi S - Mn Al-Ca-Ce-Li-Mn-Si-Zn subset of the Table III: Additional selected ternary Mg-Systems ... 17 components (Ag, Al, Ca, Ce, Cu, Fe, Gd, Li, Mg, Mn, Nd, Sc, Si, Sr, Y, Zn and Zr) and a ...

Essential Readings in Magnesium Technology

This is a compilation of the best papers in the history of Magnesium Technology, a definitive annual reference in the field of magnesium production and related light metals technologies. The volume contains a strong topical mix of application and fundamental research articles on magnesium technology. Section titles: 1.Magnesium Technology History and Overview 2.Electrolytic and Thermal Primary Production 3.Melting, Refining, Recycling, and Life-Cycle Analysis 4.Casting and Solidification 5.Alloy and Microstructural Design 6.Wrought Processing 7.Modeling and Simulation 8.Joining 9.Corrosion, Surface Treatment, and Coating

U S Geological Survey Professional Paper

Ce , Na , Y , Ti , Mn , Tí , Ce , Zr , Na , Ce , Y , Na , Mn , Ce , v , Y , Zr , Al , Na , Mg Na , Y , Li V ondary apatite . The secondary apatite occurs in cryptocrystal phate. 0.05-0.1 ....... 0.01-0.05 . Li Ce , Na Mn , Na Nd ...

U S  Geological Survey Professional Paper


Geological Survey Professional Paper

Cr , Cu , Ga , Fe , La , Mn , Mo , Nd , Ni , Pb , Sc , Sn , Sr , Ti , V , and Dunton , Y , Yb , and Zr . Geologic ... Plant ash only : Ag . 3 Atomic absorp- Geologic materials , soils , and plant ash : Cd , Li , Mg , Na , and Zn . Ward ...

Geological Survey Professional Paper


Nuclear Science Abstracts

Specimens were tested at temperatures up to 600 ° C in a natural lithium circulation corrosion testing apparatus . ... A review is presented dealing with problems associated with various methods for testing Al- Cu - Mg and Al - 20 - Mg ...

Nuclear Science Abstracts


Applications of Nanocomposite Materials in Orthopedics

To overcome this limitation, alloying addition is done using Y, Li, Nd, and Zr. Mg-Dy alloy poses very high corrosion resistance and also Dy has high solubility in Mg with up to 10Dy addition to the Mg matrix.

Applications of Nanocomposite Materials in Orthopedics

Applications of Nanocomposite Materials in Orthopedics provides a solid understanding of recent developments in the field of nano-composites used in orthopedics. The book covers joint replacement, the load bearing capability of fractured bones, bone soft tissue regeneration, hard tissue replacement, artificial bone grafting, bone repair, bone tissue transplantations, and related topics, thus helping readers understand how to resolve problems associated with bone fracture and orthopedic surgery. A variety of nanocomposite materials are discussed, with their properties and preparation methods given. Outlines the use of nanotechnology for bone tissue transplantation Describes nanocomposites for bone grafting and artificial bones, also including their properties Includes discussions on tissue engineering of bone and tissue regeneration and transplantation Describes many composite materials and their preparation methods

Magnesium Technology 2019

The current status of PanMg (version 2018) comprises the 26 elements Ag–Al–C–Ca–Ce–Cu–Dy–Fe–Gd– La–LiMg–Mn–Nd–Ni–O–P–Pr–Sc–Se–Si–Sn–Sr–Y–Zn– Zr. The CALPHAD modeling of total 165 binary, 103 ternary, and 16 quaternary systems is ...

Magnesium Technology 2019

The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers represent all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. Magnesium Technology 2019 covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; and structural applications. In addition, there is coverage of new and emerging applications.

Insight into Designing Biocompatible Magnesium Alloys and Composites

3.2.1.5 Zirconium (Zr) Zirconium (Zr) has a solubility of 3.8 wt% in Mg and is a powerful grain refiner [46]. It improves corrosion properties of magnesium and Mg alloys [47]. Li et al.

Insight into Designing Biocompatible Magnesium Alloys and Composites

This book critically summarizes the effects of various suitable alloying elements and particulate reinforcements on mechanical and degradation properties of pure Mg and Mg alloys targeting biomedical applications. The suitability of alloying elements and particulate reinforcements are discussed based on their levels of toxic effects on human body. First attempt is made to study and discuss on the various available synthesizing techniques for fabrication of both impermeable and porous Mg materials. Further, more emphasis on development of new magnesium matrix nanocomposites (MMNC) is made owing to the similarities between natural bone and MMNCs as bio-“nanocomposite”. The information on synthesis, toxicity of alloying elements and reinforcements and their effects on mechanical and degradation properties of pure Mg will enable the researchers to effectively design Mg alloys and composites targeting biomedical applications.

Magnesium and Its Alloys as Implant Materials

... 159 Mg-Ca-Zn 19, 102, 131 MgCl 151 Mg-Gd 108, 137 Mg-Gd-Zn 106, 108 Mg-intermetallic 10 Mg-Li-Al 42, 123 Mg-Li-Al-RE 42, 44 Mg-Nd 109 MgO 13, 130 Mg-re 88, 102, 106, 108, 110-115, 143 Mg-RE-Zn 106, 137 Mg-Y 108, 111, 143 Mg-Y-Ca-Zr ...

Magnesium and Its Alloys as Implant Materials

Despite their tremendous potential, Mg and its alloys are not yet used in biomedical applications. This book aims to provide scientific insights into the challenges of the materials, and give an overview of the research regarding their mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and biological performances. The authors intend to put the reader into the position to accurate discern the proper Mg-based material for his/her applications and to choose the proper improvement strategy to his/her cause. To this aim, the manuscript is structured as follow: in Section 2, the main challenges hampering the use of magnesium in biomedical applications and the common improvement strategies are listed. In Section 3, the most investigated Mg alloys are reported in separate sub-sections, detailing their mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and biotoxicity. High-pure and ultra-high-pure Mg, Al-based Mg alloys, Zn-based Mg alloys, Ca-based alloys and RE-based Mg alloys have been considered. In Section 4, the alloys’ performances with respect to the challenges is summarized providing the reader with useful information and suggestions on the potentially most suited choice. Finally, in Section 5, an outlook portraying the authors’ opinion of the future development of the field will be provided. This book will allow biomedical engineers, surface scientists, material scientists, implant manufacturers and companies working on implant approval an overview of the state-of-the-art technologies adopted so far to overcome the drawbacks of Mg for biomedical applications. Particular emphasis is put on explaining the link between mechanical, corrosion and biocompatible properties of Mg and its alloys as well as their pros and cons. In doing so, the authors intend to put the reader into the position to accurate discern the proper Mg-based material for his/her applications and to choose the proper improvement strategy to his/her cause.

THERMEC 2006

While in Al–Cu–LiMg–Ag–Zr alloys the effects of alloying elements such as Li, Ag, Mg, and Zr on precipitation microstructures and mechanical properties have been investigated; to date there has been no attempt either to evaluate the ...

THERMEC 2006

The present set of volumes comprises selected papers from the 5th International Conference on the Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials – THERMEC’2006 - held from July 4-8, 2006 in Vancouver, Canada.

Geochemical Atlas of Eastern Barents Region

Barents - Pechora Ural and Novaya Baltic shield megaplate and Timan Russian plate Zemlya fold belts West - Siberian ... Na , P La , Mg , Mn , P , Ni Mn , Ni , P , Rb , Sc , Si LOI , Mn , Mo , P , Ni Li , Mg , Mn , P , Ni , Pt V , Zr Na ...

Geochemical Atlas of Eastern Barents Region

From 1999 to 2003 a multipurpose regional geochemical mapping project, was carried out in Finland, and the NW-part of Russia. An important aim of the project is to define the anthropogenic impact in relation to the natural variations in regional geochemical baselines of heavy metals and other elements over a large area containing several of the largest industrial emitters in Europe but also some of its most pristine areas. Terrestrial moss, the organic layer, stream waters, and the C-horizon soil samples were collected from1085 sites in Russia and 288 sites in Finland, giving an average density of one site per 1000 km2. Both total and aqua regia extractable element concentrations were determined from 2 mm fraction of minerogenic samples, and total concentrations of organic soil samples and terrestrial moss were measured after strong acid leach, bioavailable concentrations of organic layer soil samples were measured, too. Concentrations of more than 50 elements, radionuclides, and other parameters were determined. Different extraction methods were used in order to study the speciation and bioavailability of the elements./pbrbrpMaps showing the distribution of 48 elements and other parameters are included in this atlas. The anomaly patterns of minerogenic C-horizon data are strongly controlled by element distributions in the bedrock. Stream water data are mainly controlled by geological formations and structures both for major and trace elements, but in some cases the influence of anthropogenic activities could be detected as elevated heavy metal concentrations. Anomaly patterns from moss data reflect mainly anthropogenic activities, but in areas such as mountains and tundra the geogenic dust also has a strong influence. It was not possible to detect any long distance airborne transport of heavy metals from industrialized areas to clean arctic regions.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

At the Alrich end of the Al–LiZr system, two binary phases, AlLi (δ) and Al3 Zr(β), exist in equilibrium with the ... The presence of two light elements (Li and Mg) and the introduction of additional strengthening phases contribute to ...

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

The formation of metastable and equilibrium phases in binary Al–Li, ternary Al–Li–Mg and Al–Li–Cu, and quaternary Al–Cu–Li–Mg alloys has been studied by using a variety of experimental techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, electrical resistivity, X-ray diffraction, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy and 3D atom probe measurements. Al3Li (δ′) is the strengthening phase in binary Al–Li and ternary Al–Li–Mg alloys. Mg reduces the solubility of Li in Al and also substitutes for Li in δ′. The characteristics of θ′ (and θ) and T1 phases in Al–Li–Cu alloys and the composition limits where these phases are formed are well understood. For low Li contents (1.4–1.5%). Formation of T1 is promoted by small additions of Ag and Mg and by cold work prior to artificial aging. Zr forms the metastable β′ (Al3Zr) phase, which has an appreciable effect on retarding recrystallization besides providing nucleation sites for composite δ′ particles. Sc and Yb additions behave in a similar way; the added advantage is improved creep strength. The available information from phase equilibria studies of Al–Li–Cu–Mg alloys is somewhat limited, but sufficient to give an indication of the desirable solution treatment and aging temperatures and the phases formed at these temperatures. 3D atom probe studies suggest the involvement of Mg atoms in the formation of clusters which lead to the formation of the T1 phase, during artificial ageing of aging of quenched Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys. All these aspects are covered in detail, with specific reference to different commercial and semi-commercial Al–Li alloys, wherever possible.

Propellants and Explosives

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 H He Li Be Mg Na K Ca Sr Rb Y Sc Ti Zr V Nb Cr Mo Mn Tc Fe Ru Co Rh Ni Pd Cu Ag Zn Cd Ga In Al B C Si Ge Sn N P S O F As Se Sb Te I Br Cl Ne Ar Kr Xe Figure 10.1 Elements in the periodic ...

Propellants and Explosives

This third edition of the classic on the thermochemical aspects of the combustion of propellants and explosives is completely revised and updated and now includes a section on green propellants and offers an up-to-date view of the thermochemical aspects of combustion and corresponding applications. Clearly structured, the first half of the book presents an introduction to pyrodynamics, describing fundamental aspects of the combustion of energetic materials, while the second part highlights applications of energetic materials, such as propellants, explosives and pyrolants, with a focus on the phenomena occurring in rocket motors. Finally, an appendix gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of aerodynamics and heat transfer, which is a prerequisite for the study of pyrodynamics. A detailed reference for readers interested in rocketry or explosives technology.

Metallocenes in Regio and Stereoselective Synthesis

Table 2 Comparison of carbometallation reactions involving Al - Zr and Mg - Zr reagents Metal Acyclic processes ... In this section , the reaction profiles of those of alkylzinc and alkyllithium reagents will be delineated both for ...

Metallocenes in Regio  and Stereoselective Synthesis

Metallocene is a well known sandwich complex with two cyclopentadienyl ligands such as ferrocene. Recently, such metallocene compounds have been found to be very characteristic and they have become very important, not only in the area of organic synthesis, but also in polymerization in industry. Metal complexes with one cyclopentadienyl ligand have also become popular as half sandwich complexes. The number of researchers in the field of metallocenes has increased rapidly. However, the origin of the characteristic reactivity of metallocenes is not fully understood. In this volume, the chemistry of metal complexes with at least one cyclopentadienyl ligand is comprehensively covered by leading experts. Reactions discussed here are (i) natural product synthesis, (ii) catalytic asymmetric synthesis, (iii) cyclization reactions, (iv)catalytic reactions, (iv) polymerization reactions and (v) carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions. The reader will have access to useful information about the current state of metallocene chemistry.