Lords and Towns in Medieval Europe

This volume is the first publication to draw upon the mass of information provided by the Historic Towns Atlases in order to explore comparative questions in medieval urban history.

Lords and Towns in Medieval Europe

This volume is the first publication to draw upon the mass of information provided by the Historic Towns Atlases in order to explore comparative questions in medieval urban history. The volume addresses the wider question of comparative urban studies, the processes that determined the morphological formation of towns, and the symbolic meaning of large-scale town plans in their cultural context. Also included are the reflections of Rheinland-Pfalz, a German medieval scholar who has produced many historic maps.

Lords and Towns in Medieval Europe

The European Historic Towns Atlas Project Howard B. Clarke, Anngret Simms. of a lord's drive to modernize his territory. The foundation of new towns was part of the political organization of space and the focus on small towns has made ...

Lords and Towns in Medieval Europe

This volume is based on possibly the biggest single Europe-wide project in urban history. In 1955 the International Commission for the History of Towns established the European historic towns atlas project in accordance with a common scheme in order to encourage comparative urban studies. Although advances in urban archaeology since the 1960s have highlighted the problematic relationship between the oldest extant town plan and the actual origins of a town, the large-scale cadastral maps as they have been made available by the European historic towns atlas project are still necessary if we want to understand the evolution of the physical form of our towns. By 2014 the project consisted of over 500 individual publications from over 18 different countries across Europe. Each atlas comprises at least a core-map at the scale of 1:2500, analytical maps and an explanatory text. The time has come to use this enormous database that has been compiled over the last 40 years. This volume, itself based on a conference related to this topic that was held in the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin in 2006, takes up this challenge. The focus of the volume is on the question of how seigneurial power influenced the creation of towns in medieval Europe and of how this process in turn influenced urban form. Part I of the volume addresses two major issues: the history of the use of town plans in urban research and the methodological challenges of comparative urban history. Parts II and III constitute the core of the book focusing on the dynamic relationship between lordship and town planning in the core area of medieval Europe and on the periphery. In Part IV the symbolic meaning of town plans for medieval people is discussed. Part V consists of critical contributions by an archaeologist, an art historian and an historical geographer. By presenting case studies by leading researchers from different European countries, this volume combines findings that were hitherto not available in English. A comparison of the English and German bibliographies, attached to this volume, reveals some interesting insights as to how the focus of research shifted over time. The book also shows how work on urban topography integrates the approaches of the historian, archaeologist and historical geographer. The narrative of medieval urbanization becomes enriched and the volume is a genuine contribution to European studies.

Power Profit and Urban Land

Recently, there has been an upsurge of research interest in this field in many countries, and this volume brings together a representative collection of studies, most of which have not been published before, into the patterns and ...

Power  Profit  and Urban Land

Land was a crucial resource in pre-industrial Europe, and questions of urban landownership and usage must be considered key issues in medieval and early modern urban history. Recently, there has been an upsurge of research interest in this field in many countries, and this volume brings together a representative collection of studies, most of which have not been published before, into the patterns and significance of urban landownership from early medieval town origins to the 19th century in northern Europe. Twelve experts in the field address issues such as landownership and the origins of towns; the development of an urban land market; economic, social, political and cultural functions of urban land within the wider patterns of landownership; private, public and corporate landownership; towns as landowners; legal aspects of urban landownership and land rent; the laying-out and development of plots; the role of the sovereign and the state and the motives and mentalities of urban landowners and tenants. Methodological questions such as the reconstruction of plots and patterns of landownership, retrospective analysis and comparative studies are also covered.

The Medieval City

An introduction to the life of towns and cities in the medieval period, this book shows how medieval towns grew to become important centers of trade and liberty.

The Medieval City

An introduction to the life of towns and cities in the medieval period, this book shows how medieval towns grew to become important centers of trade and liberty. Beginning with a look at the Roman Empire's urban legacy, the author delves into urban planning or lack thereof; the urban way of life; the church in the city; city government; urban crafts and urban trade, health, wealth, and welfare; and the city in history. Annotated primary documents like Domesday Book, sketches of street life, and descriptions of fairs and markets bring the period to life, and extended biographical sketches of towns, regions, and city-dwellers provide readers with valuable detail. In addition, 26 maps and illustrations, an annotated bibliography, glossary, and index round out the work. After a long decline in urban life following the fall of the Roman Empire, towns became centers of trade and of liberty during the medieval period. Here, the author describes how, as Europe stabilized after centuries of strife, commerce and the commercial class grew, and urban areas became an important source of revenue into royal coffers. Towns enjoyed various levels of autonomy, and always provided goods and services unavailable in rural areas. Hazards abounded in towns, though. Disease, fire, crime and other hazards raised mortality rates in urban environs. Designed as an introduction to life of towns and cities in the medieval period, eminent historian Norman Pounds brings to life the many pleasures, rewards, and dangers city-dwellers sought and avoided. Beginning with a look at the Roman Empire's urban legacy, Pounds delves into Urban Planning or lack thereof; The Urban Way of Life; The Church in the City; City Government; Urban Crafts and Urban Trade, Health, Wealth, and Welfare; and The City in History. Annotated primary documents like Domesday Book, sketches of street life, and descriptions of fairs and markets bring the period to life, and extended biographical sketches of towns, regions, and city-dwellers provide readers with valuable detail. In addition, 26 maps and illustrations, an annotated bibliography, glossary, and index round out the work.

Medieval Towns Trade and Travel

Describes town life in medieval times and many aspects of the life of medieval traders, who traveled long distances to bring trade items to the towns.

Medieval Towns  Trade  and Travel

Describes town life in medieval times and many aspects of the life of medieval traders, who traveled long distances to bring trade items to the towns.

Medieval Europe 395 1270 AD

It was willingly believed in the Middle Ages that conditions were unchanging. By revolting against their feudal lords cities simply wished to destroy or limit some local tyranny; it was not their ambition to destroy feudal society, ...

Medieval Europe 395 1270 AD

At the end of the fourth century the Roman Empire still comprised the entire basin of the Mediterranean. In Europe its continental limits were the Rhine and the Danube; in Asia, an undefined frontier, modified constantly by wars with the Armenians and Persians, followed the eastern slope of the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea) to the foot of the Caucasus Mountains and extended into Armenia around Lake Van, thence in an almost straight line to the Red Sea, crossing the Tigris below Tigranocerta, and the Euphrates at its junction with the Chaboras at Circesium. On the south, Egypt up to and beyond the first cataract, and the northern slope of Africa, with Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Mauritania, belonged to Rome, which possessed in the valley of the Nile and in the modern Tunis the wheat granaries that supplied the hungry people of the two capitals. On the west the Atlantic Ocean formed the horizon of the ancients, who imagined beyond it the mysterious land of the blessed ones. On the north the island of Britannia belonged to the Empire, with the exception of the mountainous region of Caledonia, which retained its independence, as did Hibernia, or Ireland...

Medieval Europe from 395 to 1270

It was willingly believed in the Middle Ages that conditions were unchanging. By revolting against their feudal lords cities simply wished to destroy or limit some local tyranny; it was not their ambition to destroy feudal society, ...

Medieval Europe from 395 to 1270


Shapers of Urban Form

These charters provided a contract between the lord and his townspeople for the benefit of both parties. The subdivision of the space within medieval towns into individual narrow plots facing a street was repeated all over Europe, ...

Shapers of Urban Form

People have designed cities long before there were urban designers. In Shapers of Urban Form, Peter Larkham and Michael Conzen have commissioned new scholarship on the forces, people, and institutions that have shaped cities from the Middle Ages to the present day. Larkham and Conzen collect new essays in "urban morphology," the people-centered predecessor to contemporary theories of top-down urban design. Shapers of Urban Form focuses on the social processes that create patterns of urban forms in four discrete periods: Pre-modern, early modern, industrial-era and postmodern development. Featuring studies of English, American, Western and Eastern European, and New Zealand urban history and urban form, this collection is invaluable to scholars of urban design and town planning, as well as urban and economic historians.

Women in Early Medieval Europe 400 1100

Wherever women moved to the urban frontiers of Europe , they escaped the restriction of the old , agrarian ties that had bound them in place . But then , so did men . The incentives granted by lords of towns to their inhabitants - such ...

Women in Early Medieval Europe  400 1100

Sample Text

The Cambridge Medieval History Series volumes 1 5

There were many private wars, but more frequently between lord and lord than between lord and town; the citizens combined for common defence in times of such constant turbulence and to consider difficulties arising from their two great ...

The Cambridge Medieval History Series volumes 1 5


Wales and the Welsh in the Middle Ages

We now know that about a hundred settlements in Wales have a claim to be called towns at some time in the Middle Ages, and it is believed that their combined population could have amounted to at least a tenth of the whole population.

Wales and the Welsh in the Middle Ages

This book honours the achievement of J. Beverley Smith during a notable career as a teacher and writer of history, and an editor in the service of his profession. The essays are contributed by fellow historians from across Britain and include some of the country’s outstanding scholars. ‘Wales and the Welsh in the Middle Ages’ has three overlapping themes that offer new insights: (1) the politics and political culture of Wales, from early kingdoms and the succession of their rulers, the clash of Welsh, French and English cultures and the inter-relationships forged, two of hitherto puzzling chronicle sources associated with the abbeys of Cwmhir and Neath, to the implications of the Edwardian conquest as revealed by later medieval poetry and the reputation of Welsh soldiers in English armies; (2) the comparative study of law, the economy and society, not only in English, Welsh and Marcher contexts but also drawing comparisons with Spain and Brittany, opportunities for social advancement in town and country, including the patronage of church building, with illustrative narratives at St David’s cathedral, Grosmont and Newton Nottage in south Wales, and Llanidloes in central Wales; and (3) the emergence of approaches to the study of medieval Wales in the early twentieth century that added new strands to our understanding of Wales’s history, taking William Rees as a pioneer example. And each theme is seen in a wide historical context. A memoir of Beverley Smith and a list of his writings complete the book.

World History Module based Learning Iii 2002 Ed

The lords or the king of the host country provided guards to protect the merchants from robbers . ... By the eleventh century , many towns of Medieval Europe had grown in power and wealth . Most towns developed on the sites ...

World History Module based Learning Iii  2002 Ed


An Economic History of Medieval Europe

The medieval town, by contrast, was essentially a market centre, and the larger the town the more far-reaching was its nexus of ... of a lord. Towns had a communal organisatiOn — as also did many villages, but they were freer than rural ...

An Economic History of Medieval Europe

A clear and readable account of the development of the European economy and its infrastructure from the second century to 1500. Professor Pounds provides a balanced view of the many controversies within the subject, and he has a particular gift for bringing a human dimension to its technicalities. He deals with continental Europe as a whole, including an unusually rich treatment of Eastern Europe. For this welcome new edition -- the first in twenty years -- text and bibliography have been reworked and updated throughout, and the book redesigned and reset.

Medieval Europe

But the greater part of the land is divided between servile villagecommunities, who give up perforce a large proportion of their working-days to the cultivation of the lord's demesne. The tendency of feudal law is to treat these ...

Medieval Europe

In history there is, strictly speaking, no end and no beginning. Each event is the product of an infinite series of causes, the starting-point of an infinite series of effects. Language and thought, government and manners, transform themselves by imperceptible degrees; with the result that every age is an age of transition, not fully intelligible unless regarded as the child of a past and the parent of a future. Even so the species of the animal and vegetable kingdoms shade off one into another until, if we only observe the marginal cases, we are inclined to doubt whether the species is more than a figment of the mind. Yet the biologist is prepared to defend the idea of species; and in like manner the historian holds that the distinction between one phase of culture and another is real enough to justify, and, indeed, to demand, the use of distinguishing names. In the development of single communities and groups of communities there occurs now and again a moment of equilibrium, when institutions are stable and adapted to the needs of those who live under them; when the minds of men are filled with ideas which they find completely satisfying; when the statesman, the artist, and the poet feel that they are best fulfilling their several missions if they express in deed and work and language the aspirations common to the whole society. Then for a while man appears to be the master of his fate; and then the prevailing temper is one of reasoned optimism, of noble exaltation, of content allied with hope. The spectator feels that he is face to face with the maturity of a social system and a creed. These moments are rare indeed; but it is for the sake of understanding them that we read history. All the rest of human fortunes is in the nature of an introduction or an epilogue.

The History of Medieval Europe

Their denser population enabled them to organize more effectually; their trade and industry gave them more money with which to buy concessions from the lord. Indeed, it was the existence of walled towns, where runaway serfs could find a ...

The History of Medieval Europe


A History of Business in Medieval Europe 1200 1550

This in turn has traditionally caused historians to view the growth of German cities as essentially violent ... in this model of essentially turbulent interaction is that many German towns won independence from their lords in the ...

A History of Business in Medieval Europe  1200 1550

This book reviews business in medieval western Europe, probing its Roman and Christian heritage to discover the economic and political forces that shaped its organization.

Lord of the Sacred City The Episcopus exclusus in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany

In his article on the relationship between the Duke of Guelders and his towns , Gerard Nijsten writes , “ Forms of culture ... and Royal Anointing : an Early Medieval Syndrome , ” in Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe ( London ...

Lord of the Sacred City  The Episcopus exclusus in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany

This volume provides a new perspective on civic history by focussing on the precarious position and power of the German bishop. While the author explores the decline of episcopal power, culminating in physical expulsion, he also sheds light on the bishop's remarkable survival through the ministrations of episcopal ritual.

Life in a Medieval City

Medieval history comes alive in Frances and Joseph Gies’s Life in a Medieval City, used as a research resource by George R. R. Martin in creating the world of A Game of Thrones.

Life in a Medieval City

From acclaimed historians Frances and Joseph Gies comes the reissue of their classic book on day-to-day life in medieval cities, which was a source for George R.R. Martin’s Game of Thrones series. Evoking every aspect of city life in the Middle Ages, Life in a Medieval City depicts in detail what it was like to live in a prosperous city of Northwest Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The year is 1250 CE and the city is Troyes, capital of the county of Champagne and site of two of the cycle Champagne Fairs—the “Hot Fair” in August and the “Cold Fair” in December. European civilization has emerged from the Dark Ages and is in the midst of a commercial revolution. Merchants and money men from all over Europe gather at Troyes to buy, sell, borrow, and lend, creating a bustling market center typical of the feudal era. As the Gieses take us through the day-to-day life of burghers, we learn the customs and habits of lords and serfs, how financial transactions were conducted, how medieval cities were governed, and what life was really like for a wide range of people. For serious students of the medieval era and anyone wishing to learn more about this fascinating period, Life in a Medieval City remains a timeless work of popular medieval scholarship.

Organizations Individualism and Economic Theory

Towns constituted the new organizations of medieval Europe. Many English towns were founded by local lords, who saw an opportunity to make money through taxing trade. However, competition among towns reduced the tax burden, ...

Organizations  Individualism and Economic Theory

Most economic theory is based on the assumption that economies grow in a linear fashion. Recessions, depressions and (financial) crises are explained by policy mistakes. However, economic development has historically been uneven, and this state of affairs continues today. This book argues that twentieth century economic theory has marginalized individualism and organizational variety, and puts forward the case for a pluralist approach. This book represents a unique synthesis of business theory and economic theory, which pinpoints the problems with many current mainstream theories and sets out new agendas for research. Here, Maria Brouwer argues that market competition is not about adapting to changes from outside, but is driven by human motivation and goal directed behavior. This gives managerial skills, which do not traditionally have a significant place in mainstream economic theory, a key role. It also highlights the need for organizations that have a motivational culture and appreciate human capital. This differs from the traditional view of the firm as a production function dictated by technology. Brower argues that organizations should be depicted as voluntary associations of people that pursue goals of their own, while firms compete on markets, where relative performance determines their fate. This argument builds on older theories of innovation and market competition that live on in business school curricula, and paints a picture of an economy directed by individuals and firms. This signals a bold departure from standard economic thinking.

The Archaeology of Medieval Towns Case Studies from Japan and Europe

Yet, as the shokuhō political structure succeeded in imposing stability from above, and the feudal lords were located in ... Interestingly, the interim nature of the European medieval castle town is similar to the development of large ...

The Archaeology of Medieval Towns  Case Studies from Japan and Europe

In recent years, major new archaeological discoveries have redefined the development of towns and cities in Japan. This fully illustrated book provides a sampler of these findings for a western audience. The new discoveries from Japan are set in context of medieval archaeology beyond Japan by accompanying essays from leading European specialists.