Are Prosocial Children Also Compliant Children

This dissertation addressed the following questions: a) Are differences in prosocial behavior among preschoolers consistent from 4.5 to 6 years? b) Are differences in conscience and prosocial behavior in preschoolers associated? and c) Are ...

Are Prosocial Children Also Compliant Children

This dissertation addressed the following questions: a) Are differences in prosocial behavior among preschoolers consistent from 4.5 to 6 years? b) Are differences in conscience and prosocial behavior in preschoolers associated? and c) Are individual differences in these behaviors predicted by characteristics of the mother, child, and their relationship? The present short-term longitudinal study researched these questions using a diverse community sample of mothers and their children assessed when children were 4.5 years old (Time 1: N = 65) and again 18 months later at 6 years old (Time 2: N = 51). Children's prosocial behavior was observed during several naturalistic laboratory tasks at Time 1 and Time 2 along with assessments of maternal, child, and relational variables. Mother-child conversational quality was gathered at Time 1. Measures of children's conscience were gathered using observational measures of compliance and behavioral internalization as well as child and maternal reports at Time 2. Individual differences in prosocial behavior were consistent within assessments at each age and across time, and were significantly associated with child's age and temperamental qualities. However, individual differences in prosocial behavior and conscience were not associated amongst children at 6.5 years. Additionally, individual differences were not predicted by other measures, including attachment security, mother-child conversational discourse, and qualities of the caregiving emotional climate. These findings contribute to our understanding of the ontogeny of early sociomoral conduct. First, this study is one of the few to apply a person-centered approach to the development of individual differences in prosocial behavior across situations and results indicate that such an approach provides strong evidence for the emergence of prosocial dispositions in early childhood. Second, this study is one of the few to investigate the development of children's prosociality in relation to their conscience development. The results with this sample suggest that, at this age, the two are independent, distinct dimensions of sociomoral behavior. Third, while the dimensions of maternal caregiving quality were not influential at these ages, it is possible that caregiving influences may be more important at later ages. Additionally, other, more direct aspects of children's experiences of caregiving quality, such as maternal sensitivity, may warrant more attention in future research.

Nutrition and Behavior

Mendoza, S. P., Coe, C. L., Smotherman, W. P., Kaplan, J., and Levine, S., 1980, Functional consequences of attachment: A comparison of two species, in: Maternal Influences and Early Behavior (R. W. Bell and W. P. Smotherman, eds.), pp.

Nutrition and Behavior

After the appearance of the four-book series Human Nutrition: A Compre hensive Treatise, it became apparent to the editors that an important area of nutrition had been overlooked, namely, behavioral aspects of nutrition. There are two areas in which nutrition and behavior interact. On the one hand, mal nutrition may play a major role in determining behavior; alternatively, often aspects of behavior influence the eating habits of populations and individuals and thus affect their nutritional status. Volume 5 of this series speaks eloquently to both features of this important topic. Various aspects of the influence of behavior modification and nutrition have been explored by a number of qualified investigators. It is hoped that this volume will prove a valuable addition to the subjects covered in the other volumes. Roslyn B. Alfin-Slater David Kritchevsky Los Angeles and Philadelphia ix Contents Introduction: The Challenge of Nutrition and Environment as Determinants of Behavioral Development .................... . Janina R. Galler References ............................................. 5 Part I • Nutritional Deficiencies or Excesses Modifying Behavioral Outcome Chapter 1 Methological Requirements for Conceptually Valid Research Studies on the Behavioral Effects of Malnutrition David E. Barrett 1. Introduction ......................................... 9 2. Statistical-Conclusion Validity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . 3. Internal Validity ...................................... 14 4. External Validity ..................................... 16 5. Construct Validity of Putative Causes and Effects . . . . . . . . .. . . . 19 6. Conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 28 . . . .

The Effects of Early Adversity on Neurobehavioral Development

Tactile and nutritional aspects of maternal care: Specific regulators ofneuroendocrine function and cellular development. ... In R. W. Bell & W. P. Smotherman (Eds.), Maternal influences and early behavior (pp. 201-210).

The Effects of Early Adversity on Neurobehavioral Development

There has been a burgeoning of interest in the relation between biological development--particularly brain development--and behavioral development. This shift in focus does a better job of reflecting the whole child and all of development. Not surprisingly, many of the individuals who are concerned with the theoretical side of brain-behavior relations are also concerned with the more practical side. The chapters that comprise this 31st volume of the Minnesota Symposium series collectively capture the subtle dance between the biological and behavioral aspects of early adversity as it influences neurobehavioral development. Individuals interested in this volume represent the disciplines of developmental psychology and psychopathology, child psychiatry, toxicology, developmental and behavioral pediatrics, behavioral neurology, and special education.

The Behavior of Human Infants

W. R. Holloway, Jr., M. J. Dollinger and W. H. Deneberg, Parturition in the rat: description and assessment, in: "Maternal Influences and Early Behavior," R.W. Bell and W. P. Smotherman, eds., Spectrum, New York (1980). 3.

The Behavior of Human Infants

The present workshop started with various requests on behalf of several participants: some of us suggested the desirability of having only a free discussion, leaving papers aside: others would have preferred to stick to papers, though enlarging the discussion of each of them to more general topics. Further, intermediate positions were also present. From these different proposals came the hypothesis that a common frame or red line to all of our discussions on behavioural development would be to see what could be done by an interexchange of differing but converging disciplines in favour of children, and in particular of children with psychic handicaps, in terms of preven tion and cure. At the end of three days of prolonged meetings, where each paper was given and extensively discussed, one feels that a number of referral points have emerged. On the one side the plas ticity of behaviour, on the other is reciprocity (between mother and child, father and child and perhaps we should add between mother and father). The third point, which perhaps has been only partially covered, concerns the relationship between these two variables, i. e. in terms of treatment of a child, the potential plasticity of his behaviour can be used to his great advantage if it is related to the historical common needs of the reciprocal relationship, for example, between the child and his parents.

Handbook of Neurobehavioral Genetics and Phenotyping

Maternal mediation of early experience. In: Bell RW, Smotherman WP (Eds.), Maternal Influences and Early Behavior. Spectrum, New York, pp. 201–210. Spitz RA 1945. Hospitalism; an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in ...

Handbook of Neurobehavioral Genetics and Phenotyping

The Handbook of Behavioral Genetics and Phenotypingrepresents an integrative approach to neurobehavioural genetics;worldwide experts in their field will review all chapters. Advancedoverviews of neurobehavioural characteristics will add immensevalue to the investigation of animal mutants and provide uniqueinformation about the genetics and behavioural understanding ofanimal models, under both normal and pathological conditions.Cross-species comparisons of neurobehavioural phenotypes will pavethe way for an evolutionary understanding of behaviour. Moreover, while biological sciences are progressing towards aholistic approach to investigate the complexity of organisms (i.e.,“systems biology” approach), an integrated analysis ofbehavioural phenotyping is still lacking. The Handbook ofBehavioral Genetics and Phenotyping strengthens the cross-talkwithin disciplines that investigate the fundamental basis ofbehaviour and genetics. This will be the first volume in whichtraditionally distant fields including genomics, behaviour,electrophysiology, neuroeconomics, and computational neuroscience,among others, are evaluated together and simultaneously accountedfor during discussions of future perspectives.

Psychobiology of Stress

Early perceptual experience and the development of social preference in squirrel monkeys . In : " Maternal influences and early behavior ” . ( Eds . R.W. Dell and W.P. Smotherman ) . MTP Press , Lancaster , pp . 253-270 .

Psychobiology of Stress

From a historical point of view the first studies on the response of the organism to stressful situations in general, and on the psychobiology of stress in particular, are probably those of Cannon and de la Paz, the physiologists who showed in 1911 that the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic system are involved in emergency situations. Cannon noted that the venous blood of cats frightened by barking dogs contained adrenaline, a response of the organism which was prevented by adrenalectomy or by section of the splanchnic nerve innervating the adrenal medulla. Cannon suggested that the adrenal medulla was acting in concert with the sympathetic nervous system, so that both systems were activated during stress. The role of the sympathetic system in response to stressful events was later emphasized by the experiments carried out by Maickel et al. (1967) and by Mason (1968): these authors clearly showed that stressors activate the sympathetic system causing it to release adrenaline and noradrenaline. This line of research may be contrasted with that carried out by Hans Selye, centered on of the adrenal cortex in the stress response. Selye's findings and theories originated the role the so-called hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal cortex (HPA) model of stress: in short, during stress adrenocorticotropic hormone is released from cells of the anterior pituitary and elicits secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.

Origins of the Social Mind

Bard KA (1994) Evolutionary roots of intuitive parenting: maternal competence in chimpanzees. Early Dev Parenting 3:19–28 Bard ... In: Bell RW, Smotherman WP (eds) Maternal influences and early behavior. Spectrum, New York, pp 285–309 ...

Origins of the Social Mind

Includes social cognition in birds and nonhuman primates as well as various aspects of social cognition in human children

Maternal Influences on Fetal Neurodevelopment

Maternal Influences on Fetal Neurodevelopment: Clinical and Research Aspects advances the field by discussing a wide range of issues impacting several neurodevelopmental disorders.

Maternal Influences on Fetal Neurodevelopment

Novel Approaches into the Origins of Neurodevelopmental Disorders: The Fetal Physiology Foundation Over the past two decades, autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is defined by behavior and was once believed to be rare, became recognized in increasing numbers of children and recently received distinction as an “epidemic” [1]. While numbers of affected children have steadily increased, our knowledge is still ins- ficient to explain autism’s diverse causes and broad range of presentations. Despite remarkable progress in research, available medical diagnostic testing applies only to a small minority of affected children. Thus, scientifically based explanations with which physicians can diagnose and treat the majority of children with autism and advise their parents are quite limited. Our society and scientific community were unprepared for the rise in autism, which explains our present inability to understand most of its causes. Researchers in neurodevelopmental disorders have long been aware of other disorders that, despite extensive efforts, have not yielded clear genetic or environmental origins, and autism has become symbolic of the need for new approaches to research into these complex conditions. Although autism has captured our attention in recent years, the prevalence of other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention de- cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder, among others, also has been increasing [2–4].

Compatible and Incompatible Relationships

during the first year of life. In R. Bell & W. Smotherman (Eds.), Maternal influences and early behavior. Jamaica, NY: Spectrum. Bruner, J. (1977). Early social interaction and language acquisition. In H. R. Schaffer (Ed.), ...

Compatible and Incompatible Relationships

Several years ago, two of my colleagues and I had the opportunity to interview Fritz Heider-perhaps the most influential theorist in the field of social psychology (Harvey, Ickes, & Kidd, 1976). During our interview, Heider affirmed a belief that had guided his career since the 1920s, the belief that the study of human relationships is the most important task in which social scientists can engage. Although many social scientists would profess to share this belief, it is nonetheless true that the study of human relationships has been one of the most neglected tasks in the history of the social sciences-including psychology. What Heider found in the 1920s-that most psychologists acknowledged the importance of studying human relationships but at the same time tended to focus their own research on more "tractable" topics such as memory and cognition-is still very much evident in the 1980s. Even within the more specific domain of social psychology, a majority of researchers still choose to address those hybrid topics ("social cognition," "social categorization and stereotyping," "person memory," etc. ) that relate most directly to traditional areas of psychological research. Still other researchers, while choosing to study such important interpersonal phenomena as altruism, aggression, conflict, and interpersonal attraction, tend to focus so exclusively on these isolated and abstracted phenomena that they fail to provide a more inclusive view of the relationships in which these phenomena occur.

Primate Ontogeny Cognition and Social Behaviour

New York : Wiley Horvat , J. R. , Coe , C. L. & Levine , S. ( 1980 ) Infant development and maternal behavior in captive chimpanzees . In Maternal Influences and Early Behavior , ed . R. W. Bell & W. P. Smotherman , pp . 285–309 .

Primate Ontogeny  Cognition and Social Behaviour

This volume presents a comprehensive review of the current research in the field of primate thinking, learning and behavioural development. Recent theories of the ways in which primates perceive their world are integrated with the ways that they behave and communicate about each other and their environment. Many different species in both the wild and in captivity are discussed with coverage from the social development of neonates to the behaviour of adults. The common theme to the contributions is an attempt to understand how primates perceive, learn about and manipulate their social and physical environment.

Early Experiences and Early Behavior

The overall approach is one of constructive criticism, in that specific problems in methodology and conceptualization are highlighted and promising new approaches are suggested and illustrated. The book is divided into two parts.

Early Experiences and Early Behavior

Early Experiences and Early Behavior: Implications for Social Development discusses the problems associated with determining the effects of early experiences on later behavior, with emphasis on social development, both in humans and in animals. The overall approach is one of constructive criticism, in that specific problems in methodology and conceptualization are highlighted and promising new approaches are suggested and illustrated. The book is divided into two parts. Part I deals with methodological, theoretical, and conceptual problems: Recurring problems of methodology and definition are specified; a thorough review of the animal literature in early experiences studies over the past quarter of a century pinpoints certain areas of progress among many other areas where advances have been sparse; and two newer approaches are discussed and supported, namely behavioral metamorphosis and the interactional-developmental approach. Part II presents two case studies which serve to exemplify a variety of older and newer approaches to the investigation of the effects of early experiences on social development.

Comparative Psychology

Ultrasonic behavior and mother–infant interactions in rodents. In R. W. Bell & W. P. Smotherman (Eds.), Maternal influences and early behavior (pp. 105–133). New York: Spectrum Publications. Smotherman, W. P., & Robinson, S. R. (1987).

Comparative Psychology

This textbook introduces the student to evolutionary and developmental approaches to the study of animal behavior. It can be used as a core textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in Comparative Psychology, Animal Behavior, and Evolutionary Psychology.

Adolescent Psychopathology and the Developing Brain

In W. P. Smotherman & R. W. Bell (Eds.), Maternal influence and early behavior. New York: Spectrum. Sohlstrom, A., Carlsson, C., & Uvnas-Moberg, K. (2000). Effects of oxytocin treatment in early life on body weight and corticosterone in ...

Adolescent Psychopathology and the Developing Brain

Recent advances in our understanding of the human brain suggest that adolescence is a unique period of development during which both environmental and genetic influences can leave a lasting impression. To advance the goal of integrating brain and prevention science, two areas of research which do not usually communicate with one another, the Annenberg Public Policy Center's Adolescent Risk Communication Institute held a conference with the purpose of producing an integrated volume on this interdisciplinary area. Presenters/chapter contributors were asked to address two questions: What neurodevelopmental processes in children and adolescents could be altered so that mental disorders might be prevented? And what interventions or life experiences might be able to introduce such changes? The book has a 5-part structure: biological and social universals in development; characteristics of brain and behavior in development; effects of early maltreatment and stress on brain development; effects of stress and other environmental influences during adolescence on brain development; and reversible orders of brain development. The twenty chapters include contributions from some of the most well-known researchers in the area.

Handbook of Peer Interactions Relationships and Groups First Edition

Prediction of Peer Relations from Mother–Infant Relationships The question of maternal influence on early peer relations ... the 2-year-old children of well mothers showed more negative affect but also more prosocial behavior with peers ...

Handbook of Peer Interactions  Relationships  and Groups  First Edition

This comprehensive, authoritative handbook covers the breadth of theories, methods, and empirically based findings on the ways in which children and adolescents contribute to one another's development. Leading researchers review what is known about the dynamics of peer interactions and relationships from infancy through adolescence. Topics include methods of assessing friendship and peer networks; early romantic relationships; individual differences and contextual factors in children's social and emotional competencies and behaviors; group dynamics; and the impact of peer relations on achievement, social adaptation, and mental health. Salient issues in intervention and prevention are also addressed.

Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior

Early maternal rejection and separation has been shown in animal studies to cause morphological changes in brain structure that are often not identifiable until adulthood.80 To determine whether the normal development and changes that ...

Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior

Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior, Second Edition is fully updated to include recent research, studies, and publications examining the integration of the biological view with mainstream social, psychological, and environmental views in influences in criminality and criminal behavior. The first edition of the book was written with the belief, grounded in research, that something vital can be discovered when we assess all the factors related to the causes of crime, including biology. Since the first edition published, it has become broadly accepted that biology is certainly a factor in criminal behavior, albeit a singular piece to the puzzle. Increased collaborations between scientists and criminologists has led to a much stronger understanding of the intricacies of biology’s role in behavior. As well, more criminologists have biological backgrounds. As the science involved became more complex, so too did this text. This second edition considers the more recent and integrated research that is being conducted today to show the interaction between the environment and a person’s biology that lead to our behavior. It has even been shown that the environment acts on, and actually changes the functions, of some genes. The book begins with basic scientific principles and advances to introduce the reader to the more in-depth discussions of various biological influencers. Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior, Second Edition is written primarily for social science and law students who wish to understand this exciting area. The book offers a greater understanding of this rapidly growing field so that its lessons can help to inform policy, treatments, rehabilitation and the law.

Transitions to Parenthood

Relationships ofhuman mothers with their infants duringthe firstyear of life:Effects ofprematurity. In R.W. Bell and W.P. Smotherman (Eds.), Maternal influences and early behavior. Holliswood, NY: Spectrum.

Transitions to Parenthood

In this unusual but exciting look at a complex topic, family scholars offer a vast array of insights into the multiple consequences, concerns, and characteristics of parenthood. The transition to parenthood--the most critical step in individual and family life cycles--is thoroughly examined from a social psychological perspective. Cultural and ethnic factors are considered as major influences in the transition to parenthood, as are changing patterns in the work force, the consequences of the gender revolution, and altered patterns of marriage and divorce--all of which have shattered the traditional ways of parenting. Family theorists, practitioners, and parents are strongly encouraged to further research and discuss the necessary elements and available options involved in facing the changes brought on by parenthood.