David F. Tinsley (University of Puget Sound) Reflections of Childhood in Medieval Hagiographical Writing The Case of Hartmann von Aue's Der arme Heinrich I. Introduction Even the most cursory survey of scholarship on medieval childhood ...
Author: Albrecht Classen
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Earlier theses on the history of childhood can now be laid to rest and a fundamental paradigm shift initiated, as there is an overwhelming body of evidence to show that in medieval and early modern times too there were close emotional relations between parents and children. The contributors to this volume demonstrate conclusively on the one hand how intensively parents concerned themselves with their children in the pre-modern era, and on the other which social, political and religious conditions shaped these relationships. These studies in emotional history demonstrate how easy it is for a subjective choice of sources, coupled with faulty interpretations – caused mainly by modern prejudices toward the Middle Ages in particular – to lead to the view that in the past children were regarded as small adults. The contributors demonstrate convincingly that intense feelings – admittedly often different in nature – shaped the relationship between adults and children.
A particular concern, that has implications for the ways in which the public perceive medieval childhood, is the tendency for modern cinematic portrayals of medieval children to emphasise their innocence, their right to ...
Author: D. M. Hadley
Publisher: Oxbow Books
The nine papers presented here set out to broaden the recent focus of archaeological evidence for medieval children and childhood and to offer new ways of exploring their lives and experiences. The everyday use of space and changes in the layout of buildings are examined, in order to reveal how these impacted upon the daily practices and tasks of household tasks relating to the upbringing of children. Aspects of work and play are explored: how, archaeologically, we can determine whether, and in what context, children played board and dice games? How we may gain insights into the medieval countryside from the perspective of children and thus begin to understand the processes of reproduction of particular aspects of medieval society and the spaces where childrenÍs activities occurred; and the possible role of children in the medieval pottery industry. Funerary aspects are considered: the burial of infants in early English Christian cemeteries the treatment and disposal of infants and children in the cremation ritual of early Anglo-Saxon England; and childhood, children and mobility in early medieval western Britain, especially Wales. The volume concludes with an exploration of what archaeologists can draw from other disciplines _ historians, art historians, folklorists and literary scholars _ and the approaches that they take to the study of childhood and thus the enhancement of our knowledge of medieval society in general.
collapsing time and trying to reconstruct one late medieval version of “childhood” where in fact many “childhoods” existed during the long span of the Middle Ages and its various regions. An alternative the Shahar's overly broad ...
Author: Matthew Koval
This book shows that childhood was an essential element in the arguments and purposes of authors in medieval Poland from 1050-1300 CE. This role of childhood in medieval mindsets has salient parallels throughout Europe and this is also explored in this volume.
The issue is also discussed by H. Dawson, Unearthing Late Medieval Children, pp. 15–16. S. Shahar, Childhood in the Middle Ages, pp. 23–28. C. Heywood rightly commented on this in A History of Childhood; Children and Childhood in the ...
Author: Miriam Müller
This book explores the experience of childhood and adolescence in later medieval English rural society from 1250 to 1450. Hit by major catastrophes – the Great Famine and then a few decades later the Black Death – this book examines how rural society coped with children left orphaned, and land inherited by children and adolescents considered too young to run their holdings. Using manorial court rolls, accounts and other documents, Miriam Müller looks at the guardians who looked after the children, and the chattels and lands the children brought with them. This book considers not just rural concepts of childhood, and the training and schooling young peasants received, but also the nature of supportive kinship networks, family structures and the roles of lordship, to offer insights into the experience of childhood and adolescence in medieval villages more broadly.
Studies that dispute Ariès's approach are plentiful: see, e.g., Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London and The Ties That ... Recent research on medieval childhood includes Schultz, The Knowledge of Childhood in the German Middle Ages; ...
Author: Theresa M. Kenney
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
The cult of the Christ Child flourished in late medieval Europe across lay and religious, as well as geographic and cultural boundaries. Depictions of Christ's boyhood are found throughout popular culture, visual art, and literature. The Christ Child in Medieval Culture is the first interdisciplinary investigation of how representations of the Christ Child were conceptualized and employed in this period. The contributors to this unique volume analyse depictions of the Christ Child through a variety of frameworks, including the interplay of mortality and divinity, the medieval conceit of a suffering Christ Child, and the interrelationships between Christ and other figures, including saints and ordinary children. The Christ Child in Medieval Culture synthesizes various approaches to interpreting the cultural meaning of medieval religious imagery and illuminates the significance of its most central figure.
This has been the goal of many medievalists, who have been nearly unanimous in insisting against Ariès, first, that “medieval society knew the age of childhood” and, second, that medieval “children were loved.” The evidence I have found ...
Author: James A. Schultz, Jr.
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
The text tells stories in which abandonment, abduction, and other kinds of dislocation are commonplace, but in which children nevertheless come of age in precisely the place for which they are destined by birth. Childhood differs profoundly for males and females as it does for saintly and secular figures. Within a secular context, childhood enjoys a special status. It is shaped, elaborated, and turned into a luxury object that helps distinguish courtly culture and that anticipates more modern attitudes. The Knowledge of Childhood in the German Middle Ages, 1100-1350 provides a wealth of information for students and scholars of medieval literature, medieval history, and cultural studies.
Other scholars have recognized the connection between medieval childhood and the medieval Christ Child as interrelated phenomena. In a wideranging essay on medieval childhood, originally published in 1978, David Herlihy argued that the ...
Author: Mary Dzon
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Beginning in the twelfth century, clergy and laity alike started wondering with intensity about the historical and developmental details of Jesus' early life. Was the Christ Child like other children, whose characteristics and capabilities depended on their age? Was he sweet and tender, or formidable and powerful? Not finding sufficient information in the Gospels, which are almost completely silent about Jesus' childhood, medieval Christians turned to centuries-old apocryphal texts for answers. In The Quest for the Christ Child in the Later Middle Ages, Mary Dzon demonstrates how these apocryphal legends fostered a vibrant and creative medieval piety. Popular tales about the Christ Child entertained the laity and at the same time were reviled by some members of the intellectual elite of the church. In either case, such legends, so persistent, left their mark on theological, devotional, and literary texts. The Cistercian abbot Aelred of Rievaulx urged his monastic readers to imitate the Christ Child's development through spiritual growth; Francis of Assisi encouraged his followers to emulate the Christ Child's poverty and rusticity; Thomas Aquinas, for his part, believed that apocryphal stories about the Christ Child would encourage youths to be presumptuous, while Birgitta of Sweden provided pious alternatives in her many Marian revelations. Through close readings of such writings, Dzon explores the continued transmission and appeal of apocryphal legends throughout the Middle Ages and demonstrates the significant impact that the Christ Child had in shaping the medieval religious imagination.
Playtime, Material Culture and Medieval Childhood', in D. M. Hadley and K. A. Hemer (eds), Medieval Childhood: Archaeological Approaches. Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past Monograph 3. Oxford: Oxbow, 39–56.
Author: Sally Crawford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Social Science
Real understanding of past societies is not possible without including children, and yet they have been strangely invisible in the archaeological record. Compelling explanation about past societies cannot be achieved without including and investigating children and childhood. However marginal the traces of children's bodies and bricolage may seem compared to adults, archaeological evidence of children and childhood can be found in the most astonishing places and spaces. The archaeology of childhood is one of the most exciting and challenging areas for new discovery about past societies. Children are part of every human society, but childhood is a cultural construct. Each society develops its own idea about what a childhood should be, what children can or should do, and how they are trained to take their place in the world. Children also play a part in creating the archaeological record itself. In this volume, experts from around the world ask questions about childhood - thresholds of age and growth, childhood in the material culture, the death of children, and the intersection of the childhood and the social, economic, religious, and political worlds of societies in the past.
3James Schultz, The Knowledge of Childhood in the German Middle Ages, 1100–1350 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995); Nicholas Orme, Medieval Children (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001); Barbara A.
Author: Eve Salisbury
Category: Literary Criticism
This book addresses portrayals of children in a wide array of Chaucerian works. Situated within a larger discourse on childhood, Ages of Man theories, and debates about the status of the child in the late fourteenth century, Chaucer’s literary children—from infant to adolescent—offer a means by which to hear the voices of youth not prominently treated in social history. The readings in this study urge our attention to literary children, encouraging us to think more thoroughly about the Chaucerian collection from their perspectives. Eve Salisbury argues that the child is neither missing in the late Middle Ages nor in Chaucer’s work, but is,rather, fundamental to the institutions of the time and central to the poet’s concerns.
11 Trevisa , On the properties of things ; Orme , From Childhood , pp . 91 , 95-6 . 12 Orme , From Childhood , pp . 93-4 , 95-7 . 13 Ibid . , pp . 84-5 . 14 On family size and infancy , see Orme , Medieval Children , pp . 52-68 .
Author: S. H. Rigby
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Essays in this collection examine the lifestyles and attitudes of the gentry in late-medieval England. Through surveys of the gentry's military background, administrative and political roles, social behavior, and education, the reader is provided with an overview of how the group's culture evolved and how it was disseminated.
47; see also Shahar, Childhood in the Middle Ages, p. 95. 55 E. Sears, The Ages of Man: Medieval Interpretations of the Life Cycle (Princeton, 1986); J.A. Burrow, The Ages of Man: A Study in Medieval Writing and Thought (Oxford, 1986).
Author: Hugh Cunningham
This book investigates the relationship between ideas about childhood and the actual experience of being a child, and assesses how it has changed over the span of five hundred years. Hugh Cunningham tells an engaging story of the development of ideas about childhood from the Renaissance to the present, taking in Locke, Rosseau, Wordsworth and Freud, revealing considerable differences in the way western societites have understood and valued childhood over time. His survey of parent/child relationships uncovers evidence of parental love, care and, in the frequent cases of child death, grief throughout the period, concluding that there was as much continuity as change in the actual relations of children and adults across these five centuries. For undergraduate courses in History of the Family, European Social History, History of Children and Gender History.
Thus, Nicholas Orme, in the introduction to his 2001 study of Medieval Children: 'it cannot be over-emphasised that there is nothing to be said for Ariès's view of childhood in the middle ages, nor indeed of a major shift in its history ...
Author: Phyllis Gaffney
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Literary Criticism
Examining the portrayal of childhood and youth in a large sample of medieval French verse narratives, this study analyzes representations of childhood in two genres: chansons de geste, or Old French epic poems, and romances. Phyllis Gaffney identifies differences in, and relationships between, portrayals of the young in the two genres, and demonstrates the significance of developments in twelfth- and thirteenth-century poetry for changing cultural perspectives on childhood and youth.
Most important , he argued that childhood was a social construction and that historians should take children and their ... Children were almost totally absent from medieval paintings , and where they were depicted they looked much like ...
Author: William A. Corsaro
Publisher: Pine Forge Press
Category: Social Science
′The provision of many amusing examples from Corsaro′s own research experience with children make his book a thoroughly enjoyable read as well as a valuable critical sociological analysis of childhood′ - Sociology The Sociology of Childhood is the Second Edition of a text that has been universally acclaimed as the best book on the subject available today. It is the only text that thoroughly covers children and childhood from a sociological perspective. The second edition retains the same quality coverage of social theories of childhood, the consideration of children and childhood in historical and cultural perspective, children′s peer cultures from preschool through preadolescence, and the social problems of children. The book has been updated to include new research, information, and discussions on the latest social indicators regarding children in the United States and around the world. Key Features New chapter on up-to-date methods of research for studying children. New chapters on theory, cultural change, and children′s peer cultures. New section on children′s rights including a description and discussion of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Updated chapter on the Future of Childhood addresses current policy debates and changing demographics related to children in today′s societies. Contains many examples of children′s actual play and behavior. Provides photographs and charts that capture the complexity and diversity of children′s lives. The Sociology of Childhood is highly recommended for use as the core text in courses on the sociology of children and childhood, as well as for parents, teachers, and other adults interested in the social lives and development of children. It can also be used in early education, child development, and child psychology courses, and as a supplemental text in the area of family studies. William A. Corsaro is the Robert H. Shaffer Class of 1967 Endowed Professor of Sociology at Indiana University, Bloomington, where he teaches courses on the sociology of childhood, childhood in contemporary society, and ethnographic research methods. Corsaro is the author of Friendship and Peer Culture in the Early Years (1985) and "We′re Friends, Right": Inside Kids′ Culture (2003). He was a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow in Bologna, Italy, in 1983-84 and a Fulbright Senior Specialist Fellow in Trondheim, Norway, in 2003. His research has been featured on NPR, the BBC in London, and in the New Yorker.
Even this account of his infancy , penned by Bernard Gui not quite fifty years after Thomas's death , is a marvelous example of the rich riddles that the sparse but powerful medieval writings on children ( many of which echo current ...
Author: Marcia J. Bunge
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
A survey of Christian writings about children covers 2,000 years of history and literature and features a wide variety of theologians commenting on the subject.
High infant mortality seems to have induced in medieval and renaissance parents more of a sense of sorrow than of callousness over the loss of life. Even the medieval lullabies speak of the tenuousness of the child's existence (Hanawalt ...
Author: Willem Koops
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
In 1900, Ellen Key wrote the international bestseller The Century of the Child. In this enormously influential book, she proposed that the world's children should be the central work of society during the twentieth century. Although she never thought that her "century of the child" would become a reality, in fact it had much more resonance than she could have imagined. The idea of the child as a product of a protective and coddling society has given rise to major theories and arguments since Key's time. For the past half century, the study of the child has been dominated by two towering figures, the psychologist Jean Piaget and the historian Philippe Ariès. Interest in the subject has been driven in large measure by Ariès's argument that adults failed even to have a concept of childhood before the thirteenth century, and that from the thirteenth century to the seventeenth there was an increasing "childishness" in the representations of children and an increasing separation between the adult world and that of the child. Piaget proposed that children's logic and modes of thinking are entirely different from those of adults. In the twentieth century this distance between the spheres of children and adults made possible the distinctive study of child development and also specific legislation to protect children from exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Recent students of childhood have challenged the ideas those titans promoted; they ask whether the distancing process has gone too far and has begun to reverse itself. In a series of essays, Beyond the Century of the Child considers the history of childhood from the Middle Ages to modern times, from America and Europe to China and Japan, bringing together leading psychologists and historians to question whether we unnecessarily infantilized children and unwittingly created a detrimental wall between the worlds of children and adults. Together these scholars address the question whether, a hundred years after Ellen Key wrote her international sensation, the century of the child has in fact come to an end.
Medieval and Renaissance Authors and Texts 2. Leiden: Brill, 2008. ... In Medieval Childhood: Archaeological Approaches, Childhood in the Past Monograph Series 3, edited by Dawn Hadley and Katie Hemer, 1–25. Oxford: Oxbow, 2014.
Author: Susan Irvine
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Childhood & Adolescence in Anglo-Saxon Literary Culture counters the generally received wisdom that early medieval childhood and adolescence were an unremittingly bleak experience. The contributors analyse representations of children and their education in Old English, Old Norse and Anglo-Latin writings, including hagiography, heroic poetry, riddles, legal documents, philosophical prose and elegies. Within and across these linguistic and generic boundaries some key themes emerge: the habits and expectations of name-giving, expressions of childhood nostalgia, the role of uneducated parents, and the religious zeal and rebelliousness of youth. After decades of study dominated by adult gender studies, Childhood & Adolescence in Anglo-Saxon Literary Culture rebalances our understanding of family life in the Anglo-Saxon era by reconstructing the lives of medieval children and adolescents through their literary representation.
All have been used to draw detailed pictures of medieval childhood and child - rearing . Only recently have historians begun to consider how children participated in and were affected by events in the broader world .
Author: Joel Thomas Rosenthal
In 1962, the scholar Philippe Aries suggested that, needing a psychological barrier against high infant mortality rates, medieval parents largely regarded their children with indifference. This idea is now seen as false, as medieval parents had affection for their children, who enjoyed the right to play, and were protected against abuse and neglect by society and the law. Here, ten historians present challenging essays in response to recent debates on medieval childhood.
Consequently, she argues that, 'Whether the view of childhood was positive or negative, there can be no question but that, in the Middle Ages, childhood was perceived as a separate stage in human life, with its own quality and ...
Author: Shiho Main
What can Jungian psychology contribute to understanding children and childhood? Childhood Re-imagined considers Carl Jung's psychological approach to childhood and argues that his symbolic view deserves a place between the more traditional scientific and social-constructionist views of development. Divided into four sections this book covers: Jung on development theoretical and methodological discussion the Developmental School of analytical psychology towards a Jungian developmental psychology. This book discusses how Jung's view of development in terms of individuation is relevant to child development, particularly the notion of regression and Jung's distinction between the child archetype and the actual child. It shows how Jung's understanding of the historically controversial notion of recapitulation differs from that of other psychologists of his time and aligns him with contemporary, post-modern critiques of development. The book goes on to investigate Fordham's notion of individuation in childhood, and the significance of this, together with Jung's approach, to Jungian developmental psychology and to wider interdisciplinary issues such as children's rights. Main also examines the plausibility and usefulness of both Jung's and Fordham's approaches as forms of qualitative psychology. Through its detailed scholarly examination of Jungian texts and concepts Childhood Re-imagined clarifies the notion of development used within analytical psychology and stimulates discussion of further connections between analytical psychology and other contemporary discourses. It will be of particular interest to those involved in analytical psychology, Jungian studies and childhood studies.
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Press, 1981), translation cited in C. N. L. Brooke, The Medieval Idea of Marriage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 140. 2 The Manchester Guardian, 9 March 1885, p. 5. 3 Eleanor Rathbone, Child ...
Author: Loretta A. Dolan
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Nurture and Neglect: Childhood in Sixteenth-Century Northern England addresses a number of anomalies in the existing historiography surrounding the experience of children in urban and rural communities in sixteenth-century northern England. In contrast to much recent scholarship that has focused on affective parent-child relationships, this study directly engages with the question of what sixteenth-century society actually constituted as nurture and neglect. Whilst many modern historians consider affection and love essential for nurture, contemporary ideas of good nurture were consistently framed in terms designed to instil obedience and deference to authority in the child, with the best environment in which to do this being the authoritative, patriarchal household. Using ecclesiastical and secular legal records to form its basis, hitherto an untapped resource for children’s voices, this book tackles important omissions in the historiography, including the regional imbalance, which has largely ignored the north of England and generalised about the experiences of the whole of the country using only sources from the south, and the adult-centred nature of the debate in which historians have typically portrayed the child as having little or no say in their own care and upbringing. Nurture and Neglect will be of particular interest to scholars studying the history of childhood and the social history of England in the sixteenth-century.
(Warsaw: Hevrat Ahiasaf, 1897); Israel Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages (1896; reprint Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1960), and Solomon Schechter, “The Child in Jewish Literature,” in Studies in Judaism ser.1 ...
Author: Don S. Browning
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
While children figure prominently in religious traditions, few books have directly explored the complex relationships between children and religion. This is the first book to examine the theme of children in major religions of the world. Each of six chapters, edited by world-class scholars, focuses on one religious tradition and includes an introduction and a selection of primary texts ranging from legal to liturgical and from the ancient to the contemporary. Through both the scholarly introductions and the primary sources, this comprehensive volume addresses a range of topics, from the sanctity of birth to a child's relationship to evil, showing that issues regarding children are central to understanding world religions and raising significant questions about our own conceptions of children today.