Modelling Tropospheric Volcanic Aerosol

Anja Schmidt's thesis is a unique and comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of tropospheric volcanic aerosol on the atmosphere, climate, air quality and human health.

Modelling Tropospheric Volcanic Aerosol

Anja Schmidt's thesis is a unique and comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of tropospheric volcanic aerosol on the atmosphere, climate, air quality and human health. Using a state-of-the-art global microphysics model, the thesis describes and quantifies the impact of volcanic sulphur emissions on global aerosol, clouds and the radiative forcing of climate. The advanced model enables the first ever estimate of the impact of the emissions on aerosol microphysical properties such as particle number concentrations and sizes, and therefore a considerably improved ability to quantify the climate and air quality effects. There are several important discoveries in this thesis. Firstly, it is shown that continuously degassing volcanoes exert a major effect on global clouds and climate. Secondly, the impact of the 1783 Laki eruption in Iceland is re-examined to show that this long-lasting flood lava eruption would have had major effects on clouds and climate. Thirdly, by combining her research on volcanism, atmospheric science and epidemiology, she shows that a present-day Laki-like eruption would seriously affect European air quality and cause over 100000 premature deaths in the first year.

Volcanism and Global Environmental Change

A multidisciplinary volume describing the effects of volcanism on the environment, past and present, for researchers and advanced students.

Volcanism and Global Environmental Change

A multidisciplinary volume describing the effects of volcanism on the environment, past and present, for researchers and advanced students.

Remote Sensing and Global Climate Change

Nevertheless volcanic eruptions, coupled with longer residence times, considerably enhance the potential impact of ... Investigations of a global impact of tropospheric aerosols have largely been confined to modelling efforts rather ...

Remote Sensing and Global Climate Change

Experts report the state of the art in the study of global climate change using remote sensing techniques. Topics covered include the principles of remote sensing, the management of data, data requirements in climatology, the principles of modelling, the input of data into models, and the application of remote sensing to the atmosphere, ice and snow, seas and land. The book is highly topical given the current great public and scientific awareness of possible man-made changes to the climate. It is essential reading for anyone new to the field, and invaluable as a reference work to those already working in it.

Volcanic Plumes

To better understand the fate of volcanic halogen emissions in the troposphere and their atmospheric chemistry impacts, two 1D or box models of the volcanic plume halogen chemistry were developed, ...

Volcanic Plumes

Volcanoes release plumes of gas and ash to the atmosphere during episodes of passive and explosive behavior. These ejecta have important implications for the chemistry and composition of the troposphere and stratosphere, with the capacity to alter Earth's radiation budget and climate system over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Volcanogenic sulphur dioxide reacts to form sulphate aerosols, which increase global albedo, e.g., by reducing surface temperatures, in addition to perturbing the formation processes and optical properties of clouds. Released halogen species can also deplete stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Volcanic degassing, furthermore, played a key role in the formation of Earth’s atmosphere, and volcanic plumes can affect air quality, pose hazards to aviation and human health, as well as damage ecosystems. The chemical compositions and emission rates of volcanic plumes are also monitored via a range of direct-sampling and remote-sensing instrumentation, in order to gain insights into subterranean processes, in the respect of the magmatic bodies these volatiles exsolve from. Given the significant role these gases play in driving volcanic activity, e.g., via pressurisation, the study of volcanic plumes is proving to be an increasingly fruitful means of improving our understanding of volcanic systems, potentially in concert with observations from geophysics and contributions from fluid dynamical modelling of conduit dynamics. This Special Issue is aimed at presenting the state of the art of the multidisciplinary science concerning all aspects of volcanic plumes, of relevance to the volcanology, climatology, atmospheric science, and remote sensing communities.

The Atmospheric Sciences

Models were developed suggesting that heterogeneouschemical reactionswere responsible for convertingrelatively ... It wasthenproposed that heterogeneous reactions might beoccurring on the surfacesof volcanicaerosols that formin the ...

The Atmospheric Sciences

Technology has propelled the atmospheric sciences from a fledgling discipline to a global enterprise. Findings in this field shape a broad spectrum of decisions--what to wear outdoors, whether aircraft should fly, how to deal with the issue of climate change, and more. This book presents a comprehensive assessment of the atmospheric sciences and offers a vision for the future and a range of recommendations for federal authorities, the scientific community, and education administrators. How does atmospheric science contribute to national well-being? In the context of this question, the panel identifies imperatives in scientific observation, recommends directions for modeling and forecasting research, and examines management issues, including the growing problem of weather data availability. Five subdisciplines--physics, chemistry, dynamics and weather forecasting, upper atmosphere and near-earth space physics, climate and climate change--and their status as the science enters the twenty-first century are examined in detail, including recommendations for research. This readable book will be of interest to public-sector policy framers and private-sector decisionmakers as well as researchers, educators, and students in the atmospheric sciences.

Climate Change

This model calculates both atmosphere and ocean, and accounts interactively for volcanic aerosol radiative forcing. ... The atmospheric model has a grid spacing of 2.5 longitude by 2 latitude and 24 vertical levels.

Climate Change

Earth's climate is always changing. As the debate over the Earth's climate has grown, the term "climate change" has come to refer primarily to changes we've seen over recent years and those that are predicted to be coming, mainly as a result of human behavior. Climate Change: Observed Impacts on Planet Earth, Second Edition, serves as a broad, accessible guide to the science behind this often political and heated debate by providing scientific detail and evidence in language that is clear to both the climatologist and the non-specialist. The book contains 35 chapters on all scientific aspects of climate change, written by the world's authority of each particular subject. It collects the latest information on all of these topics in one volume. In this way, readers can make connections between the various topics covered in the book, leading to new ways of solving problems and looking at related issues. The book also contains major references and details for further research and understanding on all issues related to climate change, giving a clear indication of a looming crisis in global warming and climate change. Provides an up-to-date account of the current understanding of climate change and global warming Includes 23 updated chapters and 12 new chapters Includes coverage on modeling climate change, geological history of climate change, and on engineering aspects of climate change Written by the world’s leading experts on the issues related to climate change

Climate Change

Those models might simplify description of atmospheric and/or ocean processes [55], or mimic radiative effect of volcanic aerosol by decreasing of solar constant [56]. In the present study, to illustrate mechanisms of volcanic impacts ...

Climate Change

The climate of the Earth is always changing. As the debate over the implications of changes in the Earth's climate has grown, the term climate change has come to refer primarily to changes we've seen over recent years and those which are predicted to be coming, mainly as a result of human behavior. This book serves as a broad, accessible guide to the science behind this often political and heated debate by providing scientific detail and evidence in language that is clear to both the non-specialist and the serious student. * provides all the scientific evidence for and possible causes of climate change in one book * written by expert scientists working in the field * logical, non-emotional conclusions * a source book for the latest findings on climate change

Atmospheric Aerosols

Thus, more skillful observations of volcanic aerosols are needed which combined with better representation of volcanic aerosol properties in climate models can help improve the attribution of contribution due to volcanic aerosols to ...

Atmospheric Aerosols

This book includes basic knowledge and understanding on the characteristics of aerosols over the continent and oceanic regions, their composition, residence times, sinks and size distributions, and their effects in the radiative transfer and climate of Earth.

Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space Atmospheric Correction

For the stratosphere (up to 30 km) two seasonal models (summer and winter) have been suggested, including the effects of volcanic eruptions [228]: i.e. background aerosol and moderate or severe eruptions.

Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space  Atmospheric Correction

The monograph being proposed for the English-speaking research community is concentrated on the atmospheric correction of satellite images as a part of thematic interpretation procedures while processing remote sensing data. For linguistic reasons a large section of the community may have been unaware of the progress made in Russia in this field of science and technology. Meanwhile, Russia was the first country to launch the first artificial satellite in 1957 and to obtain from space for the first time spectra of the Earth's atmosphere in the 1960's. New applications of the radiation transfer theory for the atmosphere underlying surface system appeared first in Russia in the 1970's. Direct and in verse problems of the atmospheric optics were then formulated giving the scientific basis for studies of natural resources from space. Since that time new mathematical treatments for the atmospheric correction procedures have been widely developed in Russia, including both analytical and numerical tech niques to simulate spectral, angular, and spatial distributions of the outgoing radiation in visual and infrared regions. The authors of the book were at the beginning of the scientific approach. A wide range of mathematical im provements to elaborate polinomial approximations for dependencies between atmospheric radiation field and parameters of space surveying was due to the necessity to process satellite images in real time using special software of ex isted computer means for the studies.

Sounding the Troposphere from Space

Data will be assimilated in an atmospheric transport model, being driven by meteorological analysis. ... 10th June 1997 as a result of 10 days of 50% enhanced methane emissions Stratospheric and tropospheric volcanic aerosol retrieval.

Sounding the Troposphere from Space

It is now possible to determine concentrations of trace constituents and pollutants in the lower atmosphere from space, a development which heralds a new era for tropospheric chemistry. The authors describe how to develop and validate methods for determining tropospheric trace constituents from satellite data, to encourage the use of these data by atmospheric chemists, and to explore the undoubted synergism which will develop between satellite and ground-based measurements, and will eventually give rise to a permanent observation system for the troposphere. The book comprises several comprehensive overviews, prepared by acknowledged experts in the field, together with a series of individual reports from investigators whose work represents the cutting edge of the subject. A variety of results, giving global distributions of several species and their modelling are reported. Most results stem from ESA satellite data, but there is also an account of the North American work in this field which has mainly concentrated on global distributions of ozone. It is fair to say that the field, as it develops, will revolutionize the way in which atmospheric chemistry is done. This timely book provides a good introduction for anyone with an interest in the future of the troposphere.

Guide to Global Aerosol Models

3.2.6 Volcanic Contamination , Stratospheric / Tropospheric Exchange Following volcanic injection of aerosols and aerosol precursor gases into the stratosphere , the aerosol reaches a peak concentration about three months after the ...

Guide to Global Aerosol Models

The purpose of this work (G-065) is to describe, in a convenient form, a standard guide to a set of existing reference global aerosol models. The guide contains tables, plots and other information describing the properties of atmospheric aerosols, both natural and manmade.

Climate System Modeling

Both sulfates and nitrates are often found in the form of ammonium salts in the troposphere, owing to the fact that ... Volcanic aerosols Major volcanic eruptions on occasion generate a global layer of sulfuric acid aerosols in the ...

Climate System Modeling

Climate Systems Modeling presents an interdisciplinary and comprehensive study of the dynamics of the whole global system. As a comprehensive text it will appeal to students and researchers concerned with any aspect of climatology and the study of related topics in the broad earth and environmental sciences.

An assessment model for atmospheric composition

curve near 25°C. Tropospheric water vapor is assumed to respond instantaneously to changes in tropospheric ... The aerosol optical depth of the non-volcanically perturbed stratosphere is ~ 0.005 and is dominated by sulfuric acid ...

An assessment model for atmospheric composition


Atmospheric Aerosols

The size-distribution curves of N(a), S(a), and V(a) obtained for the three Antarctic aerosol models are compared in the ... 6.4.12 Stratospheric Volcanic Aerosols BG aerosols are often sampled at low stratospheric levels during the ...

Atmospheric Aerosols

The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation.

Remote Sensing of Volcanoes and Volcanic Processes

Integrating Observation and Modelling D.M. Pyle, T.A. Mather, J. Biggs ... Stratospheric sulphate aerosol formed after injection of SO2 by explosive volcanic eruptions can have global or hemispheric impacts (e.g. Robock 2000) ...

Remote Sensing of Volcanoes and Volcanic Processes

This volume focuses on how advances in both remote sensing and modelling can be brought together to improve our understanding of the behaviour of active volcanoes. It includes review papers, papers reporting technical advances and case studies showing how the integration of remote-sensing observations with models can be put to good use.

A Climate Modelling Primer

Tropospheric aerosols and clouds The influence of volcanic aerosols on climate has long been recognized , but the influence of tropospheric aerosols associated with industrial pollution and fossil fuel and biomass burning has only ...

A Climate Modelling Primer

As a consequence of recent increased awareness of the social and political dimensions of climate, many non-specialists discover a need for information about the variety of available climate models. A Climate Modelling Primer, Third Edition explains the basis and mechanisms of all types of current physically-based climate models. A thoroughly revised and updated edition, this book assists the reader in understanding the complexities and applicabilities of today’s wide range of climate models. Topics covered include the latest techniques for modelling the coupled biosphere-ocean-atmosphere system, information on current practical aspects of climate modelling and ways to evaluate and exploit the results, discussion of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs), and interactive exercises based on Energy Balance Model (EBM) and the Daisyworld model. Source codes and results from a range of model types allows readers to make their own climate simulations and to view the results of the latest high resolution models. The accompanying CD contains: A suite of resources for those wishing to learn more about climate modelling. A range of model visualisations. Data from climate models for use in the classroom. Windows and Macintosh programs for an Energy Balance Model. Selected figures from the book for inclusion in presentations and lectures. Suitable for 3rd/4th year undergraduates taking courses in climate modelling, economic forecasting, computer science, environmental science, geography and oceanography. Also of relevance to researchers and professionals working in related disciplines with climate models or who need accessible technical background to climate modelling predictions.

Atmospheric Transmittance radiance Computer Code LOWTRAN 5

AEROSOL MODELS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Vertical Distribution in the Lower Atmosphere 3.3 Effects of Humidity Variations on Aerosol Properties 3.4 ... 10.1 Composition of Background Stratospheric Aerosols 3.10.2 Volcanic Aerosol Models 3.

Atmospheric Transmittance radiance  Computer Code LOWTRAN 5

This report describes a computer code for predicting atmospheric transmittance and the thermal radiation emitted by the atmosphere and earth from 350 to 40,000 per cm at a spectral resolution of 20 per cm. The program is based on the LOWTRAN 4 (1978) computer code. New altitude and relative-humidity dependent aerosol models and new fog models are included in the code. In addition, the new code structure consists of a main program and 19 subroutines. The computer code contains representative (geographical and seasonal) atmospheric models and representative aerosol models with an option to replace them with user-derived or measured values. The program can be run in one of two modes, namely, to compute only atmospheric transmittance or both atmospheric transmittance and radiance for any given slant path geometry.

Aerosol Effects on Climate

Under normal circumstances most of the atmospheric aerosol resides in the troposphere with a globally averaged optical ... The volcanic aerosol simulations are somewhat of a success story in the climate modeling field because they have ...

Aerosol Effects on Climate

There is now a growing awareness that, in addition to the well publicized influence of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases on the warming of the earth's atmosphere, aerosol particles may also play an important role in forcing climate change. This volume brings together previously unavailable data and interpretative analyses, derived from studies in both the U.S. and U.S.S.R., which review, update, and assess aerosol-related climatic effects.

Atmospheric Transmittance radiance

2 VOLCANIC AEROSOL MODELS There are two volcanic size distribution models : a''fresh volcanic model " which represents the size distribution of aerosols shortly after a volcanic eruption ; and an " aged volcanic model " representing the ...

Atmospheric Transmittance radiance


Climatic Changes Since 1700

Boundary conditions in these models include external forcings from greenhouse gases, volcanic eruptions, solar irradiance changes, volcanic aerosols, tropospheric aerosols, and land surface properties. This book is an exception as we ...

Climatic Changes Since 1700

The proposed book is not only a tribute to the work of Brückner (and indeed also a personal tribute, since Brückner wrote his book at the Institute of Geography of the University of Bern), but references to Brückner’s book are also a conceptual tool in the proposed book, though used sparingly and thoughtfully. Apart from providing historical context, references may facilitate introducing some complex topics, for instance by first presenting Brückner’s view and then complementing the picture with today’s understanding. References can be used for contrast: Comparing Brückner’s methods and data with today’s research concepts makes the progress in the field easily understandable. The enormous growth of information since Brükner’s time allows a much more detailed perspective on some scientific problems. Or references can be used to highlight similarity. Some aspects have not changed over time. Finally, the book complements Brückner’s studies by adding the arguably most interesting and certainly most relevant period, the past 120 years.