This book explores a range of contemporary conflicts in which culture has become an explicit issue: ethnic nationalism, religious fundamentalism, the militarization of civilian life, opposition movements in authoritarian states, political ...
Author: Kay B. Warren
Category: Social Science
This book explores a range of contemporary conflicts in which culture has become an explicit issue: ethnic nationalism, religious fundamentalism, the militarization of civilian life, opposition movements in authoritarian states, political resistance to redistributive reforms, and racism in racial democracies. The authors show that one cannot understand current conflicts or crises without studying long-term patterns of social, political and cultural change. At issue throughout the book is how anthropologists and comparative political scientists conceptualize the interplay of culture and politics. The result is a volume that offers readers a sophisticated introduction to new currents in cultural analysis, demonstrates realms of convergence and continuing debate between the two disciplines, and offers focused analyses of contemporary conflicts from the perspective of those caught up in them. The case studies for this volume focus on communities and movements in Guatemala, Brazil, Israel, Iran, Egypt, South Africa, the Philippines and Northern Ireland.
For an exception, which takes some account of instances in which mass violence was likely, but did not occur, ... NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006), 8; David Laitin, Nations, States, and Violence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, ...
Author: Max Bergholz
Publisher: Cornell University Press
During two terrifying days and nights in early September 1941, the lives of nearly two thousand men, women, and children were taken savagely by their neighbors in Kulen Vakuf, a small rural community straddling today’s border between northwest Bosnia and Croatia. This frenzy—in which victims were butchered with farm tools, drowned in rivers, and thrown into deep vertical caves—was the culmination of a chain of local massacres that began earlier in the summer. In Violence as a Generative Force, Max Bergholz tells the story of the sudden and perplexing descent of this once peaceful multiethnic community into extreme violence. This deeply researched microhistory provides provocative insights to questions of global significance: What causes intercommunal violence? How does such violence between neighbors affect their identities and relations? Contrary to a widely held view that sees nationalism leading to violence, Bergholz reveals how the upheavals wrought by local killing actually created dramatically new perceptions of ethnicity—of oneself, supposed "brothers," and those perceived as "others." As a consequence, the violence forged new communities, new forms and configurations of power, and new practices of nationalism. The history of this community was marked by an unexpected explosion of locally executed violence by the few, which functioned as a generative force in transforming the identities, relations, and lives of the many. The story of this largely unknown Balkan community in 1941 provides a powerful means through which to rethink fundamental assumptions about the interrelationships among ethnicity, nationalism, and violence, both during World War II and more broadly throughout the world.
Nations, States and Violence. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lange, M. 2010. “State Formation, Consolidation, and the Security Challenge: Exploring the Causes of State Incapacity in South Asia,” pp. 51–73 in South AsiaVs Weak States ...
Author: John L. Campbell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Social Science
Without nation-states Covid-19, climate change, international cyberattacks, and other threats would go unchecked. In The World of States, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall challenge the view that nation-states have lost their relevance in the context of globalization and rising nationalism. The book traces how states evolved historically, how contemporary states differ from one another, and the interactions between them. States today confront a host of challenges, but two features make some states more effective than others: institutional arrangement and national identity. The second edition has been updated to discuss why the BRICS countries (with the exception of China) are no longer the rising powers they were once thought to be; the effects of Brexit on the European Union; the legacy of the Trump administration for US politics and hegemony; and how the coronavirus may upset the world of states going forward.
Violence Random Systematic Intragroup Subordinate resistance Non–State-sponsored by dominant against subordinate groups State-sponsored against subordinate groups War between independent nations Potentially oppressive violence figure ...
Author: Ann E. Cudd
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Social Science
Analyzing Oppression presents a new, integrated theory of social oppression, which tackles the fundamental question that no theory of oppression has satisfactorily answered: if there is no natural hierarchy among humans, why are some cases of oppression so persistent? Cudd argues that the explanation lies in the coercive co-opting of the oppressed to join in their own oppression. This answer sets the stage for analysis throughout the book, as it explores the questions of how and why the oppressed join in their oppression. Cudd argues that oppression is an institutionally structured harm perpetrated on social groups by other groups using direct and indirect material, economic, and psychological force. Among the most important and insidious of the indirect forces is an economic force that operates through oppressed persons' own rational choices. This force constitutes the central feature of analysis, and the book argues that this force is especially insidious because it conceals the fact of oppression from the oppressed and from others who would be sympathetic to their plight. The oppressed come to believe that they suffer personal failings and this belief appears to absolve society from responsibility. While on Cudd's view oppression is grounded in material exploitation and physical deprivation, it cannot be long sustained without corresponding psychological forces. Cudd examines the direct and indirect psychological forces that generate and sustain oppression. She discusses strategies that groups have used to resist oppression and argues that all persons have a moral responsibility to resist in some way. In the concluding chapter Cudd proposes a concept of freedom that would be possible for humans in a world that is actively opposing oppression, arguing that freedom for each individual is only possible when we achieve freedom for all others.
Die modern Nationsbildung im europäischen Vergleich (Göttingen, 2005); Breuilly, J. J., Nationalism and the State ... and Violence (oxford, 2007); Hale, H. e., The Foundations of Ethnic Politics: Separatism of States and Nations in ...
Author: Mark Hewitson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The German Empire before 1914 had the fastest growing economy in Europe and was the strongest military power in the world. Yet it appeared, from a reading of many contemporaries' accounts, to be lagging behind other nation-states and to be losing the race to divide up the rest of the globe. This book is an ambitious re-assessment of how Wilhelmine Germans conceived of themselves and the German Empire's place in the world in the lead-up to the First World War. Mark Hewitson re-examines the varying forms of national identification, allegiance and politics following the creation and consolidation of a German nation-state in light of contemporary debates about modernity, race, industrialization, colonialism and military power. Despite the new claims being made for the importance of empire to Germany's development, he reveals that the majority of transnational networks and contemporaries' interactions and horizons remained intra-European or transatlantic rather than truly global.
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of Western substate nationalism by drawing on a wide range of case studies which include Catalonia, Scotland, Wales, the Basque Country, Northern Ireland, Quebec and Indian nations in North ...
Author: Montserrat Guibernau
Category: Political Science
Guibernau offers a comparative analysis of nationalist movements in nations without states.
This extraordinary collection of essays recasts prevailing understandings of the role of violence in the formation of the modern world.
Author: Fernando Coronil
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
This extraordinary collection of essays recasts prevailing understandings of the role of violence in the formation of the modern world. By illuminating the links between exceptional ruptures and the routine maintenance of social order, the collection expands and redefines our understanding of political violence. By means of a combination of detailed historical studies and imaginative reflection, this book explores the often unrecognized violent foundations of modern nations. Focusing on the relations between the state and the domestic order, it directs attention to contests over the establishment and representation of meanings and addresses the impact of state-centered categories and narratives on the organization and collective remembering of violence. The essays cover a wide range of regions, time periods, and processes, including the Middle East, South Asia, Latin America, the United States, and Europe, and span violent uprisings as well as the quotidian administration of the law. As its title suggests,States of Violencebrings together the stable and the transient, the institutional and the experiential, the state sanctioned and the insurgent, inviting recognition of the multiple intersections of practices of governance and processes of feeling. "Few scholars have managed as effectively as these to denature the place of violence in modern social life and thought. They make it abundantly plain that the frank brutality, often associated with colonial contexts, is inseparable from less acknowledged forms of "peaceful violence" that pervade much of our contemporary political life." -Jean Comaroff, Bernard E. and Ellen C. Distinguished Service Professor, University of Chicago Fernando Coronil, a Venezuelan citizen, is Associate Professor of Anthropology and History at the University of Michigan and Director of the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Program. His research focuses on contemporary historical transformations in Latin America and on theoretical issues concerning the state, modernity, and postcolonialism. His numerous publications includeThe Magical State: Nature, Money, and Modernity in Venezuela; "Beyond Occidentalism: Towards Non-Imperial Geohistorical Categories"; and the introductory essay inCuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar, by Fernando Ortiz. He is completing a book on the coup against President Chávez of Venezuela. Julie Skurskiteaches in the Departments of Anthropology and History at the University of Michigan and is the Associate Director of the Doctoral Program in Anthropology and History. Her research concerns the intersections of national, racial, and gender relations in Latin America, with a focus on popular religiosity. Her publications include "The Ambiguities of Authenticity in Latin America: Doña Bárbara and the Construction of National Identity," inBecoming National, G. Eley and R. Suny, eds. She is currently completingCivilizing Barbarism, a book on gender, mestizaje, and the state in Venezuela.
This pattern is not limited to the United States. It can be seen in other nations as well. While many Americans perceive the U.S. public school system to be one of the most violent in the world, many other nations around the world are ...
Author: Susan J. Paik
Publisher: Information Age Pub Incorporated
Eleven American academics and researchers contribute ten chapters illustrating how large-scaled, empirical studies can inform efforts to gain insight and improve educational productivity. Each chapter demonstrates creative exploitation of valuable national and international databases to explore ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of sc
This volume investigates both violent conflicts and non-violent conflict behavior.
Author: Egbert Jahn
Publisher: Springer Nature
Category: Political Science
This volume investigates both violent conflicts and non-violent conflict behavior. It addresses a variety of topics, including responsibility and guilt in connection with war, violent conflicts, and terrorist attacks; conflict escalation in disputed areas such as the South China Sea, Syria, and Ukraine; war as an instrument of the United States’ and Russia's global peace policy, and the experiences with non-violent conflict strategies in the Indian independence movement. Furthermore, it presents country studies on Switzerland and Catalonia. Peaceful interethnic relations in multilingual states in Switzerland are examined and juxtaposed against independence movements, such as in Catalonia. Current political challenges faced by the European Union, e.g. divergent refugee policies and the Brexit, are also discussed.
Yet considering how much violence and inequality results from these legal mandates, Jacqueline Stevens asks whether we might be making the wrong assumptions. Would a world without such laws be more just?
Author: Jacqueline Stevens
Publisher: Columbia University Press
As citizens, we hold certain truths to be self-evident: that the rights to own land, marry, inherit property, and especially to assume birthright citizenship should be guaranteed by the state. The laws promoting these rights appear not only to preserve our liberty but to guarantee society remains just. Yet considering how much violence and inequality results from these legal mandates, Jacqueline Stevens asks whether we might be making the wrong assumptions. Would a world without such laws be more just? Arguing that the core laws of the nation-state are more about a fear of death than a desire for freedom, Jacqueline Stevens imagines a world in which birthright citizenship, family inheritance, state-sanctioned marriage, and private land ownership are eliminated. Would chaos be the result? Drawing on political theory and history and incorporating contemporary social and economic data, she brilliantly critiques our sentimental attachments to birthright citizenship, inheritance, and marriage and highlights their harmful outcomes, including war, global apartheid, destitution, family misery, and environmental damage. It might be hard to imagine countries without the rules of membership and ownership that have come to define them, but as Stevens shows, conjuring new ways of reconciling our laws with the condition of mortality reveals the flaws of our present institutions and inspires hope for moving beyond them.
In 1999,the United Nations Special Rapporteur on violence against women developed criteria forassessing state compliance with obligations of due diligence; thelistincluded the ratification of international humanrights instruments; ...
Author: Benedetta Faedi Duramy
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Category: Social Science
Women in Haiti are frequent victims of sexual violence and armed assault. Yet an astonishing proportion of these victims also act as perpetrators of violent crime, often as part of armed groups. Award-winning legal scholar Benedetta Faedi Duramy visited Haiti to discover what causes these women to act in such destructive ways and what might be done to stop this tragic cycle of violence. Gender and Violence in Haiti is the product of more than a year of extensive firsthand observations and interviews with the women who have been caught up in the widespread violence plaguing Haiti. Drawing from the experiences of a diverse group of Haitian women, Faedi Duramy finds that both the victims and perpetrators of violence share a common sense of anger and desperation. Untangling the many factors that cause these women to commit violence, from self-defense to revenge, she identifies concrete measures that can lead them to feel vindicated and protected by their communities. Faedi Duramy vividly conveys the horrifying conditions pervading Haiti, even before the 2010 earthquake. But Gender and Violence in Haiti also carries a message of hope—and shows what local authorities and international relief agencies can do to help the women of Haiti.
Armies without Nations was a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title for 2005.
Author: Robert H. Holden
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Public violence, a persistent feature of Latin American life since the collapse of Iberian rule in the 1820s, has been especially prominent in Central America. Robert H. Holden shows how public violence shaped the states that have governed Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Linking public violence and patrimonial political cultures, he shows how the early states improvised their authority by bargaining with armed bands or montoneras. Improvisation continued into the twentieth century as the bands were gradually superseded by semi-autonomous national armies, and as new agents of public violence emerged in the form of armed insurgencies and death squads. World War II, Holden argues, set into motion the globalization of public violence. Its most dramatic manifestation in Central America was the surge in U.S. military and police collaboration with the governments of the region, beginning with the Lend-Lease program of the 1940s and continuing through the Cold War. Although the scope of public violence had already been established by the people of the Central American countries, globalization intensified the violence and inhibited attempts to shrink its scope. Drawing on archival research in all five countries as well as in the United States, Holden elaborates the connections among the national, regional, and international dimensions of public violence. Armies Without Nations crosses the borders of Central American, Latin American, and North American history, providing a model for the study of global history and politics. Armies without Nations was a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title for 2005.
... basis for the extensive contemporary literature on the legal and ethical responses to and justifications and criticisms of the very real torture that has been (and surely continues to be) used by the United States and other nations.
Author: Jeremy Arnold
Publisher: SUNY Press
Explores the concept of "moral horror" as the experience of living amidst unjustifiable state violence.
... Deploring the acts of violence against persons engaging in humanitarian efforts on behalf of the United Nations , States , and non - governmental organizations , Noting with deep regret and concern the continuing reports of ...
Category: United States
Contains a diverse compilation of major speeches, congressional testimony, policy statements, fact sheets, and other foreign policy information from the State Dept.
Release on 2006 | by UNICEF. Innocenti Research Centre
The Committee proposes that States may wish to seek technical assistance from, among others, UNICEF and UNESCO ... Notes 1 United Nations Secretary-General's Study on Violence 11 Corporal punishment was condemned in a series of against ...
Author: UNICEF. Innocenti Research Centre
Publisher: United Nations Publications
The present publication contains the eight General Comments issued by the Committee by September 2006, and the CD-ROM accompanying the text includes all the Concluding Observations adopted by the Committee between 1993 and 2006 in relation to State Parties reports presented by all countries of the world. The CD-ROM also includes the status of ratification of the Convention and its two Optional Protocols, as well as the text of the reservations and/or declarations made by States Parties at the time of signature and ratification of those legal instruments.
Release on 1983 | by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs
It is almost as if states , including so - called " free based campaign against religion in a process that stretches ... For the most part Israel finds itself on the " most violent " list not for her however , nations on this list no ...
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs
The book contains a Foreword by Peter Maurer, President of International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). This book addresses sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against women from an international law point of view.
Author: Bharat H. Desai
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book addresses sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against women from an international law point of view. It identifies the reasons behind SGBV against women with a specific focus on cultural practices that try to justify it and highlights the legal challenges related to the topic for both national and international justice systems. The seven chapters of the book are: i) Introduction ii) SGBV a global concern; iii) International legal protection; iv) Role of international institutions; v) Role of cultural factors and vi) Challenges vii) Conclusions. In the light of concerted global efforts to bring to an end, or at least severely contain SGBV against women, the book provides a future roadmap to the United Nations system, States, international institutions, multidisciplinary scholars, civil society organizations and other global actors. The book contains a Foreword by Peter Maurer, President of International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
Let us turn to the politics of violent nationalism, or bottom-up nationalism, now; the type of nationalism that makes ... of different nations does not determine conflict; most states exhibit this mixture of nations without violence.
Author: Colin Flint
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Political Science
This new updated edition of Introduction to Geopolitics presents the overarching themes of geopolitical structures and agents in an engaging and accessible manner, which requires no previous knowledge of theory or current affairs. Using new pertinent case studies and guided exercises the title explains the contemporary global power of the United States and the challenges it is facing, the persistence of nationalist conflicts, migration, cyberwar, terrorism, and environmental geopolitics. Case studies of the rise of the so-called Islamic State, the South China Sea disputes, the Syrian civil war, the Korean conflict, and Israel-Palestine emphasize the multi-faceted nature of conflict. The book raises questions by incorporating international and long term historical perspectives and introduces readers to different theoretical viewpoints, including feminist contributions. The new edition features expanded sections on network geopolitics and non-state actors, a new section on geopolitics of transnational business, cyberwar, an interpretation of ISIS within historical geopolitical trends, as well as expanded discussion of the relevance of Boserup and neo-Malthusians to environmental geopolitics. Introduction to Geopolitics will provide its readers with a set of critical analytical tools for understanding the actions of states as well as non-state actors acting in competition over resources and power. Both students and general readers will find this book an essential stepping-stone to a deeper and critical understanding of contemporary conflicts.
to create a universal condemnation of violence towards women as a violation of their human rights, ... large-scale surveys published by Council of Europe member states between 1995 and 2006 (United Nations General Assembly 2006: 68).
Author: G. Allwood
Category: Social Science
Combining fresh, critical insights from a feminist and anti-racist perspective, this is an excellent synthesis of some of the most important issues on the French public policy agenda. It provides detailed analysis and broad contextualization of debates on employment, parity, domestic violence, abortion, prostitution, and Islamic headscarves.