Natural Small Molecule Drugs from Plants

This book discusses 120 types of natural, small-molecule drugs derived from plants.

Natural Small Molecule Drugs from Plants

This book discusses 120 types of natural, small-molecule drugs derived from plants. They are grouped into 7 parts according their clinical uses, such as drugs for cardiovascular diseases, for metabolic diseases, for neuropsychiatric diseases, for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, anti-tumor drugs, and drugs for parasites and bacterial infection. Each chapter systematically summarizes one drug, including its physicochemical properties, sources, pharmacological effects and clinical applications. To help readers understand the drug better, the research and pharmacological activity for each drug is also described, which serves as a salutary lesson for future drug development. Written by frontline researchers, teachers and clinicians working in field of pharmacy and pharmacology it provides an overview of natural, small-molecule drugs derived from plants for researchers in the field.

Phytomedicine

In Natural small molecule drugs from plants (pp. 537–544). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8022-7_89. Wang, Z., Li, L., & Du, G. H. (2018). Homoharringtonine (HHT). In Natural small molecule drugs from plants (pp.

Phytomedicine

Phytomedicine: A Treasure of Pharmacologically Active Products from Plants aims to present updated knowledge of plant-based medicines in terms of their research and development, production, and utilization, from the viewpoint of sustainability and by using the latest technologies. The book explores different phytometabolites on a mass scale, coupled with the efficacy, performance and applicability on target organisms to treat curable and fatal diseases. Readers will find a coherent package of phytotherapeutic information regarding inclusive assortment of research based, scientific amplitude of metabolites from the plant world encompassing various action plans. Information is presented sequentially regarding phytochemistry, biological activity and the serviceable aspects of bioactive compounds. The book also addresses various advancements and achievements of novel drugs from plants using molecular and enzymatic activities, and various technological tools in an ecofriendly fashion. Discusses phytotherapeutic properties for a wide range of medical conditions, including anti-pyretic, anti-infective, anti-malarial, Anti-AIDS, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous, immune-modulatory applications Includes a discussion of synergistic effects of formulations and antagonistic drug interactions Addresses advancements and achievements of novel plant-based drugs using molecular, enzymatic activities and various technological tools in an eco-friendly fashion

Handbook on Drugs from Natural Sources

This book contains development of new drugs from plants, work on some Thai medicinal plants, plant growth based on Jasmonates, marine sterols, bleomycin and its derivatives, drugs from cannabinoids, bioactive compounds from nature, fungi ...

Handbook on Drugs from Natural Sources

Natural products have played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing human diseases. Natural product medicines have come from various materials including terrestrial plants, terrestrial microorganisms, organisms etc. Historical experiences with plants as therapeutic tools have helped to introduce single chemical entries in modern medicine. About 40% of the drugs used are derived from natural sources. Most are pure substances which are isolated from various organisms & used directly or after chemical modification. Natural products will continue to be important in three areas of drug discovery: as targets for production by biotechnology as a source of new lead compounds of novel chemical structure and as the active ingredients of useful treatments derived from traditional systems. Biotechnology will contribute more new natural products for medicinal use. Plants provide a fertile source of natural products many of which are clinically important medicinal agents. Natural products have traditionally provided most of the drugs in use. Despite the achievements of synthetic chemistry and the advances towards rational drug design, natural products continue to be essential in providing medicinal compounds and as starting points for the development of synthetic analogues. With the increasing power of screening programs and the increasing interest in the reservoir of untested natural products, many future drug developments will be based, at least in part, on natural products. The major contents of the book are plant products produced in cell culture , application of genetic engineering to the production of pharmaceuticals , anti transpirants and plant growth regulators based , the potential and the problems of marine natural products, marine sterols, plants as a source of anti-inflammatory substances, anti hepatotoxic principles in oriental medicinal plants, immune stimulants of fungi and higher plants, amanita muscaria in medicinal chemistry, ergot alkaloids and their derivatives in medicinal chemistry and therapy, development of drugs from cannabinoids, etc. This book contains development of new drugs from plants, work on some Thai medicinal plants, plant growth based on Jasmonates, marine sterols, bleomycin and its derivatives, drugs from cannabinoids, bioactive compounds from nature, fungi and higher plants, biological active compounds from British Marine, microbial phytotoxins as herbicides and many more. This book will be very helpful to its readers, upcoming entrepreneurs, scientists, existing industries, technical institutions, druggist etc.

Naturally Occurring Small Molecules For Disease And Cancer Treatment Therapeutic Benefits In Combination Therapy

The book provides an overview of the significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of herbal medicines in combination with other drugs; the author's evaluation of the combination therapy in cancer treatment; and a recent discovery of ...

Naturally Occurring Small Molecules For Disease And Cancer Treatment  Therapeutic Benefits In Combination Therapy

Western drugs and target medicines for disease treatment come with undesirable side effects that have limited their use in patients for an extended period of time. It is warranted to develop a treatment strategy with alternative medicines to reduce toxicity relating to drugs, in particular, cancer drugs. Thus, a combination therapy with herbal medicines provides a more effective treatment method for hard-to-treat diseases. The recent breakthroughs in naturally occurring small molecules from herbal medicines have provided experimental evidence and are clinically significant in treatment strategies.This unique volume presents the recent developments in the field of herbal medicines for the treatment of diseases and cancer. Recent progress on small molecules isolated from herbal medicines that exhibit therapeutic benefits in humans is highlighted. The book provides an overview of the significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of herbal medicines in combination with other drugs; the author's evaluation of the combination therapy in cancer treatment; and a recent discovery of crocodile tissue extract with pharmacological properties.

Small Molecule Screens to Identify Inhibitors of Infectious Disease

For developing countries the identification and use of endogenous medicinal plants as cures against cancers has become attractive. Books on drug discovery will play vital role in the new era of disease treatment using natural products.

Small Molecule Screens to Identify Inhibitors of Infectious Disease


Pharmacological Advances in Natural Product Drug Discovery

Molecular Biology Reports, 39(6), 7213. Du, G.-H. (2018). Natural small molecule drugs from plants. Springer Nature America, Inc. Elmore, S. (2007). Apoptosis: A review of programmed cell death. Toxicologic Pathology, 35(4), ...

Pharmacological Advances in Natural Product Drug Discovery

Pharmacological Advances in Natural Product Drug Discovery, Volume 87 in the Advances in Pharmacology series, presents the latest pharmacological research progresses of 8 medicinal compounds from natural products, including salvianolic acid, tanshinone, paeonol, chlorogenic acid, astragaloside, icariin, ganoderan, and febrifugine. Specific chapters to this new release include Potential Role of Paeonol on Atherosclerosis Related Cells, A Review on Salvianolic Acid, Pharmacological Advances of Tanshinones, the Natural Product of Salvia Miltiorrhiza, Pharmacological Action and Potential Targets Analysis of Major Pharmacological Effects of Chlorogenic Acid, Modern TCM: Identifying and Defining the "Medicinal Mix", Pharmacological Advances in Astragaloside IV Derived from Astragalus Membranaceus, and much more. Includes the authority and expertise of leading contributors in natural product pharmacology Provides the latest pharmacological research progresses of eight medicinal compounds from natural products Presents a thorough discussion on the compatibility of traditional medicines

Naturally Occurring Small Molecules for Disease and Cancer Treatment

Principles of pharmacology of cancer drug treatment -- Plant molecules -- Herbal medicines -- Therapeutic uses of small molecules -- Mechanism of action -- Integration and control of the human body during treatment -- Cytotoxic plant ...

Naturally Occurring Small Molecules for Disease and Cancer Treatment


Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 44

Drug Deliv 23(4):1374–1378. https://doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2015.1041580 Du G-H (2018) Natural small molecule drugs from plants. Springer, Singapore: https://doi. org/10.1007/978-981-10-8022-7 Düzgüneş N, Gregoriadis G (2005) ...

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 44

This book covers nanotechnology based approaches for improving the therapeutic efficacy of natural products. It critically explores lipid nanoarchitectonics, inorganic particles and nanoemulsion based tools for delivering them. With its chapters from eminent experts working in this discipline, it is ideal for researchers and professionals working in the area.

Innovative Approaches for Nanobiotechnology in Healthcare Systems

Docetaxel-loaded chitosan microspheres as a lung targeted drug delivery system: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15(3), ... Natural Small Molecule Drugs from Plants.

Innovative Approaches for Nanobiotechnology in Healthcare Systems

Innovative and fusion technologies have shown an incredible ability to improve various aspects of society, such as healthcare systems. Nanobiotechnology is one such technology that is being applied to medical equipment and treatment approaches. Many pharmaceutical and medical companies have begun to count on medical nanotechnology due to its abundant applications and practical uses. Innovative Approaches for Nanobiotechnology in Healthcare Systems is a pivotal reference source that provides insights into a comprehensive collection of novel techniques used for the development of safe drugs using the available resources for diverse deadly diseases. This book discusses the various platforms of nanobiotechnology that are utilized in various fields. It is expected that bionanosytems will play a crucial role in the treatment of human diseases and the improvement of existing healthcare systems. This book is ideal for scientists, biotechnologists, microbiologists, medical professionals, entrepreneurs, policymakers, researchers, academicians, and students.

Approaching Complex Diseases

In Natural small molecule drugs from plants, 237–242. Singapore: Springer. 19. Liabsuetrakul, T., T. Choobun, K. Peeyananjarassri, and Q.M. Islam. 2018. Prophylactic use of ergot alkaloids in the third stage of labour.

Approaching Complex Diseases

This volume – for pharmacologists, systems biologists, philosophers and historians of medicine – points to investigate new avenues in pharmacology research, by providing a full assessment of the premises underlying a radical shift in the pharmacology paradigm. The pharmaceutical industry is currently facing unparalleled challenges in developing innovative drugs. While drug-developing scientists in the 1990s mostly welcomed the transformation into a target-based approach, two decades of experience shows that this model is failing to boost both drug discovery and efficiency. Selected targets were often not druggable and with poor disease linkage, leading to either high toxicity or poor efficacy. Therefore, a profound rethinking of the current paradigm is needed. Advances in systems biology are revealing a phenotypic robustness and a network structure that strongly suggest that exquisitely selective compounds, compared with multitarget drugs, may exhibit lower than desired clinical efficacy. This appreciation of the role of polypharmacology has significant implications for tackling the two major sources of attrition in drug development, efficacy and toxicity. Integrating network biology and polypharmacology holds the promise of expanding the current opportunity space for druggable targets.

Bangangstatin A and B Two New Tryptophan polyketide Hybrids Kamerchalasin a Novel Isoindole Alkaloid and Further New Secondary Metabolites from Cameroonian Medicinal Plant associated Fungi

For centuries medicine and natural products have been closely linked through the use of traditional medicines.

Bangangstatin A and B  Two New Tryptophan polyketide Hybrids  Kamerchalasin  a Novel Isoindole Alkaloid and Further New Secondary Metabolites from Cameroonian Medicinal Plant associated Fungi

For centuries medicine and natural products have been closely linked through the use of traditional medicines. Plants, insects, microorganisms and marine organisms exhibit complex interactions with the environment and produce small molecules (natural products) useful for their survival. Natural products have served mankind as the source of drugs, and higher plants provided most of these therapeutic agents. Today, natural products (their derivatives and analogs) still represent over 50% of all drugs in clinical use, with higher plant-derived natural products representing ca. 25% of the total. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the people in developing countries of the world rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care, and about 85% of traditional medicine involves the use of plant extracts. This means that about 3.5 to 4 billion people in the world rely on plants as sources of drugs. Clinical, pharmacological, and chemical studies of these traditional medicines, which were derived predominantly from plants, were the basis of most early medicines such as the famous analgesic morphine (1) isolated from opium, the latex produced by cutting the seed pods of poppy, Papaver somniferum and the world-famous aspirin (2) with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. The latter is a derivative of salicylic acid, which was first isolated from willow trees Salix sp. And has been modified to improve the activity and reduce side-effects. Aspirin (2) is one of the best-known examples for the prosperous interaction of natural and synthetic products chemistry.

Lactose and Lactose Derivatives

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.92766 carboxylic acids used as building blocks in organic synthesis. In: Wang X, Chen J, Quinn PJ, editors. ... Natural Small Molecule Drugs from Plants. Beijing: Springer; 2018.

Lactose and Lactose Derivatives

Lactose is a unique disaccharide found exclusively in the milk of mammals. This sugar has a crucial role in nourishing newborn and young mammals; however, some adults have difficulties in fully metabolizing lactose. Despite lactose intolerance in the population, the dairy industry produces 400,000 tons of crystalline lactose worldwide. The food and pharmaceutical industries use lactose as well as lactose derivatives in a wide variety of products. This book reviews some aspects of lactose properties and synthesis as well as recent advances in the recovery of lactose and lactose derivatives from cheese whey.

Green Extraction and Valorization of By Products from Food Processing

In G.-H. Du (Ed.), Natural Small Molecule Drugs from Plants (pp. 199–204). Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978-981-10-8022-7_32. Zuorro, A., & Lavecchia, R. (2012). Spent coffee grounds as a valuable source of phenolic compounds and ...

Green Extraction and Valorization of By Products from Food Processing

Generating of agricultural wastes and by-products during the production, processing and consumption of agricultural commodities is unavoidable and over the last decades, an increased public interest has been shown in the challenge of food wastage. Apart from its significant quantities, the physicochemical characteristics of the various agricultural waste and by-products denote that there is immense potential for their reuse, recycle, and valorisation through various different processes. Green Extraction and Valorization of By-Products from Food Processing provides an overview about the valorization or reuse of agricultural wastes and by-products during the production, processing and consumption of agricultural commodities. Waste disposal and by-product management in food processing industry pose problems in the areas of environmental protection and sustainability. However, they could be a great source of valuable nutraceuticals, which can be used to deal with the prospects of feeding fast growing population in 21st century. Features: Gives detailed guidance and presents case-studies about valorization of food wastes and by-products Shows the main conventional and innovative extraction techniques for food waste and by-products valorization Provides an estimated idea regarding the recovery of high-added value compounds Discusses the recovery of high-added value compounds Perspectives originated from the enormous amounts of food related materials that are discharged worldwide and the existing technologies, which promise the recovery, recycling and sustainability of high-added value ingredients inside food chain will be discussed in this book. This book is of value to academics, research institutes, and food industry engineers particularly the research and development professionals who are looking for effective management and utilization of food processing wastes and byproducts. In addition, it is suitable for undergraduate, post- graduate students, research scholars, postdoctoral fellows and faculty members from universities and colleges who pursue academic careers in Food Technology, Food Biotechnology, Fermentation and Bioengineering, Bioprocess Technology, Food science and Technology.

A Tale of Two Drugs Discovered from Natural Products

Approximately 50% of currently available drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been discovered from natural products derived from plants, animals, or microorganisms.

A Tale of Two Drugs Discovered from Natural Products

Approximately 50% of currently available drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been discovered from natural products derived from plants, animals, or microorganisms. Although the pharmaceutical industry has focused modern discovery efforts on screening synthetic libraries, natural products may be a continuing source for new drug discovery. This thesis provides two examples of pharmaceutical agents that were discovered from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The first, in Part I of this thesis, describes the identification of a single small molecule activator (Alda-341) of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) common to several TCM extracts for the treatment of radiation-induced injuries. The second, in Part II, describes a complex natural mixture (SA100) accepted as an FDA Botanical Investigational New Drug (IND) that was evaluated in a Phase 1b clinical study in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

Process Design Integration and Intensification

More importantly, the use of these natural pharmaceuticals has recently experienced a strong revitalization [2]. Compared to this, only the ... In the field of cancer treatment, 47% off all small molecule drugs are plant based [8].

Process Design  Integration  and Intensification

With the growing emphasis on enhancing the sustainability and efficiency of industrial plants, process integration and intensification are gaining additional interest throughout the chemical engineering community. Some of the hallmarks of process integration and intensification include a holistic perspective in design, and the enhancement of material and energy intensity. The techniques are applicable for individual unit operations, multiple units, a whole industrial facility, or even a cluster of industrial plants. This book aims to cover recent advances in the development and application of process integration and intensification. Specific applications are reported for hydraulic fracturing, palm oil milling processes, desalination, reactive distillation, reaction network, adsorption processes, herbal medicine extraction, as well as process control.

Engineering the Plant Factory for the Production of Biologics and Small Molecule Medicines

Many of the modern drugs against various ailments are also based on the chemical structures of such plant derived chemical products. During the period of 2005–2007 the Food and Drug Administration introduced 13 new drugs of natural ...

Engineering the Plant Factory for the Production of Biologics and Small Molecule Medicines

Plant gene transfer achieved in the early ‘80s paved the way for the exploitation of the potential of gene engineering to add novel agronomic traits and/or to design plants as factories for high added value molecules. For this latter area of research, the term "Molecular Farming" was coined in reference to agricultural applications in that major crops like maize and tobacco were originally used basically for pharma applications. The concept of the “green biofactory” implies different advantages over the typical cell factories based on animal cell or microbial cultures already when considering the investment and managing costs of fermenters. Although yield, stability, and quality of the molecules may vary among different heterologous systems and plants are competitive on a case-to-case basis, still the “plant factory” attracts scientists and technologists for the challenging features of low production cost, product safety and easy scale up. Once engineered, a plant is among the cheapest and easiest eukaryotic system to be bred with simple know-how, using nutrients, water and light. Molecules that are currently being produced in plants vary from industrial and pharmaceutical proteins, including medical diagnostics proteins and vaccine antigens, to nutritional supplements such as vitamins, carbohydrates and biopolymers. Convergence among disciplines as distant as plant physiology and pharmacology and, more recently, as omic sciences, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, increases the options of research on the plant cell factory. “Farming for Pharming” biologics and small-molecule medicines is a challenging area of plant biotechnology that may break the limits of current standard production technologies. The recent success on Ebola fighting with plant-made antibodies put a spotlight on the enormous potential of next generation herbal medicines made especially in the name of the guiding principle of reduction of costs, hence reduction of disparities of health rights and as a tool to guarantee adequate health protection in developing countries.

Molecular Pharming

A single volume collection that surveys the exciting field of plant-made pharmaceuticals and industrial proteins This comprehensive book communicates the recent advances and exciting potential for the expanding area of plant biotechnology ...

Molecular Pharming

A single volume collection that surveys the exciting field of plant-made pharmaceuticals and industrial proteins This comprehensive book communicates the recent advances and exciting potential for the expanding area of plant biotechnology and is divided into six sections. The first three sections look at the current status of the field, and advances in plant platforms and strategies for improving yields, downstream processing, and controlling post-translational modifications of plant-made recombinant proteins. Section four reviews high-value industrial and pharmacological proteins that are successfully being produced in established and emerging plant platforms. The fifth section looks at regulatory challenges facing the expansion of the field. The final section turns its focus toward small molecule therapeutics, drug screening, plant specialized metabolites, and plants as model organisms to study human disease processes. Molecular Pharming: Applications, Challenges and Emerging Areas offers in-depth coverage of molecular biology of plant expression systems and manipulation of glycosylation processes in plants; plant platforms, subcellular targeting, recovery, and downstream processing; plant-derived protein pharmaceuticals and case studies; regulatory issues; and emerging areas. It is a valuable resource for researchers that are in the field of plant molecular pharming, as well as for those conducting basic research in gene expression, protein quality control, and other subjects relevant to molecular and cellular biology. Broad ranging coverage of a key area of plant biotechnology Describes efforts to produce pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in plants Provides reviews of recent advances and technology breakthroughs Assesses realities of regulatory and cost hurdles Forward looking with coverage of small molecule technologies and the use of plants as models of human disease processes Providing wide-ranging and unique coverage, Molecular Pharming: Applications, Challenges and Emerging Areas will be of great interest to the plant science, plant biotechnology, protein science, and pharmacological communities.

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

2018, 8,4829. [CrossRef] [PubMed] Wangchuk, P.; Loukas, A. Techniques and Technologies for the Biodiscovery of Novel Small Molecule Drug Lead Compounds From Natural Products. In Natural Products and Drug Discovery; Mandal, S.C., Mandal, ...

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs. This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Bioactive Molecules and Medicinal Plants

The correlation between the ethnomedical usage of medicinal plants and modern medicines discovered from those ... Some natural products obtained from plants can be used as small-molecule drug precursors, which can be converted into the ...

Bioactive Molecules and Medicinal Plants

This book on medicinal plant biotechnology covers recent developments in this field. It includes a comprehensive up-to-date survey on established medicinal plants and on molecules which gained importance in recent years. No recently published book has covered these carefully selected topics. The contributing scientists have been selected on the basis of their involvement in the related plant material as evident by their internationally recognised published work.

Hypostatin a New Small Molecule Inhibitor of Plant Cell Expansion is Glyco activated in Vivo

Natural variation in humans in the response to a bioactive or drug-like small organic molecule is defined as pharmacogenetic variation.

Hypostatin  a New Small Molecule Inhibitor of Plant Cell Expansion  is Glyco activated in Vivo

Natural variation in humans in the response to a bioactive or drug-like small organic molecule is defined as pharmacogenetic variation. Studies have shown that variation in both drug metabolism genes and drug target loci can cause inter-individual variation in drug response. For example, sequence differences in UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), which glycosylate xenobiotics, can affect drug sensitivity by affecting rates of drug detoxification. Although this subject has been explored extensively in humans, the biological pervasiveness of pharmacogenetic variation had not been systematically examined. If pervasive, pharmacogenetic variation in model systems could be used for both functional studies and to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of this important form of natural variation. To examine this question, 8 geographically diverse Arabidopsis accessions were screened on a 10,000 member chemical library. I focused on new inhibitors of cell expansion in the etiolated hypocotyl. In total, 742 chemicals (7.4%) caused greater than 20% inhibition of hypocotyl cell expansion. 11 weak polymorphic chemicals were uncovered, as well as a strong polymorphic hypocotyl cell expansion inhibitor, named hypostatin. My work has firmly established the existence of pharmacogenetic variation in Arabidopsis.