Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

This volume of the Handbook of Neuroanatomy is concerned with nitric oxide synthase. In this volume different research areas are presented together, which adds up to the first major review volume on the localization of nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system. The subjects range from developmental aspects in vertebrates to a functional neuroanatomy of the nervous system in vertebrates. This presentation gives an impressive look on the overwhelming presence of NOS in animal organism and the significance of NO - cGMP signaling. By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system. In addition the effects if injuries on the expression of NOS are summarized in a number of models, which has not been done before. The frame of the book is a classical neuroanatomic description of the localization of NOS. Several authors give detailed advice to prevent pitfalls which may occur when different methods to locate NOS are used. In addition, several chapters detail the target structures for NO while describing the localization of NOS at the same time. All these points together make this volume very timely, i.e. overviewing a decade of NO research.

Nitric Oxide in Health and Disease

A single-volume review of the role of nitric oxide in health and disease, and a practical guide to biomedical research in this area.

Nitric Oxide in Health and Disease

A single-volume review of the role of nitric oxide in health and disease, and a practical guide to biomedical research in this area.

Nitric Oxide and the Peripheral Nervous System

This volume provides an overview of nitric oxide (NO) in the peripheral nervous system.

Nitric Oxide and the Peripheral Nervous System

This volume provides an overview of nitric oxide (NO) in the peripheral nervous system. It covers aspects ranging from the molecular biology and distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, through the physiological and pathophysiological roles of NO in various nitrergic systems.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

This volume of the Handbook of Neuroanatomy is concerned with nitric oxide synthase. In this volume different research areas are presented together, which adds up to the first major review volume on the localization of nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system. The subjects range from developmental aspects in vertebrates to a functional neuroanatomy of the nervous system in vertebrates. This presentation gives an impressive look on the overwhelming presence of NOS in animal organism and the significance of NO - cGMP signaling. By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system. In addition the effects if injuries on the expression of NOS are summarized in a number of models, which has not been done before. The frame of the book is a classical neuroanatomic description of the localization of NOS. Several authors give detailed advice to prevent pitfalls which may occur when different methods to locate NOS are used. In addition, several chapters detail the target structures for NO while describing the localization of NOS at the same time. All these points together make this volume very timely, i.e. overviewing a decade of NO research.

Nitric Oxide in the Nervous System

Together, these reviews will lead to further work explaining the varied functions of NO. Key Features * Describes how and why NO is produced in the nervous system * Examines all that is known of NOs role as a neurotransmitter * Explores ...

Nitric Oxide in the Nervous System

The gas nitric oxide (NO) has burst upon neuroscience only recently, and yet it has permeated into almost every avenue of current research. The unique properties of this novel messenger have revolutionized our way ofthinking about neurotransmission. These special properties have also lead neuroscientists to invoke NO to explain many previously unexplained phenomena in neurobiology. Fortunately, the development of numerous pharmacological agents is now allowing thesehypotheses to be tested. This volume will provide a synopsis of what is now known about NO. How and where NO is produced, how it acts at the molecular level to activate the synthesis of cGMP, and the possible targets of cGMP in the nervous system are reviewed. The roles of theNO/cGMP signal transduction pathway in the central and peripheral nervous systems, in glial cells, and in neuropathology are then explored. Together, these reviews will lead to further work explaining the varied functions of NO. Key Features * Describes how and why NO is produced in the nervous system * Examines all that is known of NOs role as a neurotransmitter * Explores cellular actions and physiological roles in the brain and peripheral nervous system Covers NOs molecular synthesis to its role in neuropathology

Nitric Oxide

This volume provides a novel insight to the evolutionary and comparative aspects of nitric oxide- nitric oxide synthase system as a central regulator of invertebrate and vertebrate homeostasis.

Nitric Oxide

This volume provides a novel insight to the evolutionary and comparative aspects of nitric oxide- nitric oxide synthase system as a central regulator of invertebrate and vertebrate homeostasis. By critically selecting and summarizing the ever–increasing number of original studies, these presentations review a variety of important signalling and modulatory roles played by nitric oxide at molecular, cell, organ and organ system levels. It addresses not only specialists and graduate students in the field, but also all biologists concerned with how this unique, gaseous, pleiotropic molecule has been employed by living systems, uncovering a new dimension of the wonders of life.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

This volume of the Handbook of Neuroanatomy is concerned with nitric oxide synthase. In this volume different research areas are presented together, which adds up to the first major review volume on the localization of nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system. The subjects range from developmental aspects in vertebrates to a functional neuroanatomy of the nervous system in vertebrates. This presentation gives an impressive look on the overwhelming presence of NOS in animal organism and the significance of NO - cGMP signaling. By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system. In addition the effects if injuries on the expression of NOS are summarized in a number of models, which has not been done before. The frame of the book is a classical neuroanatomic description of the localization of NOS. Several authors give detailed advice to prevent pitfalls which may occur when different methods to locate NOS are used. In addition, several chapters detail the target structures for NO while describing the localization of NOS at the same time. All these points together make this volume very timely, i.e. overviewing a decade of NO research.

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations Nervous System Volume 7 Part II Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY (DPN) The pathogenesis of DPN is attributed to increased oxidative stress, accumulation of sorbitol, and decreased nitric oxide, leading to microvascular damage.

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations  Nervous System  Volume 7  Part II   Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems

Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems, Part 2 of The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Nervous System, 2nd Edition, provides a highly visual overview of the anatomy, pathology, and major clinical syndromes of the nervous system, from cranial nerves and neuro-ophthalmology to spinal cord, neuropathies, autonomic nervous system, pain physiology, and neuromuscular disorders. This spectacularly illustrated volume in the masterwork known as the (CIBA) Netter "Green Books" has been expanded and revised by Drs. H. Royden Jones, Jr., Ted M. Burns, Michael J. Aminoff, Scott L. Pomeroy to mirror the many exciting advances in neurologic medicine - offering rich insights into neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, molecular biology, pathology, and various clinical presentations. "Netter's has always set the Rolls-Royce standard in understanding of clinical anatomy and pathophysiology of disease process, particularly of nervous system. Over 290 pages and with the use of sharp, concise text, illustrations and correlation with up to date imaging techniques, including spinal cord and cranial and peripheral nerve disorders. It is well worth a read." Reviewed by: Dr Manesh Bhojak, Consultant Neuroradiologist, Liverpool Date: July 2014 Get complete, integrated visual guidance on the cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral motor and sensory systems with thorough, richly illustrated coverage. Quickly understand complex topics thanks to a concise text-atlas format that provides a context bridge between primary and specialized medicine. Clearly visualize how core concepts of anatomy, physiology, and other basic sciences correlate across disciplines. Benefit from matchless Netter illustrations that offer precision, clarity, detail and realism as they provide a visual approach to the clinical presentation and care of the patient. Gain a rich clinical view of all aspects of the cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral motor sensory systems in one comprehensive volume, conveyed through beautiful illustrations as well as up-to-date neuro-radiologic images. Clearly see the connection between basic science and clinical practice with an integrated overview of normal structure and function as it relates to neuro-pathologic conditions. Grasp current clinical concepts regarding the many aspects of adult and child neurologic medicine captured in classic Netter illustrations, as well as new illustrations created specifically for this volume by artist-physician Carlos Machado, MD, and others working in the Netter style.

The Biology of Nitric Oxide Physiological and clinical aspects

This first volume covers nitric oxide research relating to the cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous system, as well as clinical data.

The Biology of Nitric Oxide  Physiological and clinical aspects

The proceedings of a conference which aims to provide an up-to-date overview of current research in the nitric oxide field. This first volume covers nitric oxide research relating to the cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous system, as well as clinical data.

Nitric Oxide Synthase Characterization and Functional Analysis

This volume contains a number of sophisticated and advanced methods essential for exploring the activity of nitric oxide in the brain. It will be a valuable tool for the established investigator and for those just entering the field.

Nitric Oxide Synthase  Characterization and Functional Analysis

Although the function of nitric oxide in a regulatory capacity in the central and peripheral nervous system is widely recognized, the full scope of its actions and its interrelationships with other classes of regulatory molecules is just beginning to be comprehended. This volume contains a number of sophisticated and advanced methods essential for exploring the activity of nitric oxide in the brain. It will be a valuable tool for the established investigator and for those just entering the field. Comprehensive protocols included for detection of NO and related compounds by chemical, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization techniques Newly developed methods for the purification of neuronal and endothelial NO synthase, production of monoclonal antibodies to NO synthase, molecular cloning and expression of NO synthesis, and control of NO synthase gene expression Assessment of NO-mediated functions in neurons, central nervous system, cerebral circulation, synaptic transmission, and vascular tone Calcium imaging by confocal microscopy, evaluation of the effect of NO on iron metabolism, and detection of heme oxygenase-1 and -2 message level and distribution

The Biology of Nitric Oxide

This first volume covers nitric oxide research relating to the cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous system, as well as clinical data.

The Biology of Nitric Oxide

The proceedings of a conference which aims to provide an up-to-date overview of current research in the nitric oxide field. This first volume covers nitric oxide research relating to the cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous system, as well as clinical data.

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations Nervous System Volume 7 Part II Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems E Book

Increased synthesis of transmitters and neuromodulators, such as glutamate, substance P, CGRP, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or nitric oxide (NO), results in presynaptic functional changes in the dorsal horn.

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations  Nervous System  Volume 7  Part II   Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems E Book

Spinal Cord and Peripheral Motor and Sensory Systems, Part 2 of The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Nervous System, 2nd Edition, provides a highly visual overview of the anatomy, pathology, and major clinical syndromes of the nervous system, from cranial nerves and neuro-ophthalmology to spinal cord, neuropathies, autonomic nervous system, pain physiology, and neuromuscular disorders. This spectacularly illustrated volume in the masterwork known as the (CIBA) Netter "Green Books" has been expanded and revised by Drs. H. Royden Jones, Jr., Ted M. Burns, Michael J. Aminoff, Scott L. Pomeroy to mirror the many exciting advances in neurologic medicine - offering rich insights into neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, molecular biology, pathology, and various clinical presentations. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader with intuitive search tools and adjustable font sizes. Elsevier eBooks provide instant portable access to your entire library, no matter what device you're using or where you're located. Get complete, integrated visual guidance on the cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral motor and sensory systems with thorough, richly illustrated coverage. Quickly understand complex topics thanks to a concise text-atlas format that provides a context bridge between primary and specialized medicine. Clearly visualize how core concepts of anatomy, physiology, and other basic sciences correlate across disciplines. Benefit from matchless Netter illustrations that offer precision, clarity, detail and realism as they provide a visual approach to the clinical presentation and care of the patient. Gain a rich clinical view of all aspects of the cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral motor sensory systems in one comprehensive volume, conveyed through beautiful illustrations as well as up-to-date neuro-radiologic images. Clearly see the connection between basic science and clinical practice with an integrated overview of normal structure and function as it relates to neuro-pathologic conditions. Grasp current clinical concepts regarding the many aspects of adult and child neurologic medicine captured in classic Netter illustrations, as well as new illustrations created specifically for this volume by artist-physician Carlos Machado, MD, and others working in the Netter style.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System

This volume of the "Handbook of Neuroanatomy" is concerned with nitric oxide synthase. In this volume different research areas are presented together, which adds up to the first major review volume on the localization of nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system. The subjects range from developmental aspects in vertebrates to a functional neuroanatomy of the nervous system in vertebrates. This presentation gives an impressive look on the overwhelming presence of NOS in animal organism and the significance of NO - cGMP signaling. By clearly stating the limitations of our present knowledge the book is also a stimulant for further research. This book presents for the first time an overview of NOS and NO-cGMP signaling in the retina and urogenital system. In addition the effects if injuries on the expression of NOS are summarized in a number of models, which has not been done before. The frame of the book is a classical neuroanatomic description of the localization of NOS. Several authors give detailed advice to prevent pitfalls which may occur when different methods to locate NOS are used. In addition, several chapters detail the target structures for NO while describing the localization of NOS at the same time. All these points together make this volume very timely, i.e. overviewing a decade of NO research.

Nitric Oxide Roles in Neuronal Communication and Neurotoxicity

This volume contains a collection of works presented at the 1993 Nitric Oxide-Roles in Neuronal Communication and Neurotoxicity Symposium held in Shizuoka, Japan.

Nitric Oxide Roles in Neuronal Communication and Neurotoxicity

This volume contains a collection of works presented at the 1993 Nitric Oxide-Roles in Neuronal Communication and Neurotoxicity Symposium held in Shizuoka, Japan. It presents a current review on the roles of nitric oxide in the nervous system and contributes extensively to the scholarship in this field.

Extrasynaptic neurotransmission as a way of modulating multiple neuronal functions

Synaptic vesicular release (exocytosis) D 2+ FIGURE 1 ( Schematic representation of the main sources of volume transmission involving dopamine and nitric oxide signals in the central nervous system (Inspired by Zoli et al., 1999; ...

Extrasynaptic neurotransmission as a way of modulating multiple neuronal functions

Extrasynaptic transmission is a unifying term for a wide variety of cellular processes, in which outside of synaptic terminals transmitter substances activate extrasynaptic receptors. Whereas “synaptic transmission” immediately refers to a process occurring at nerve terminals in which the arrival of a presynaptic impulse evokes exocytosis followed by a postsynaptic response within a millisecond time scale, extrasynaptic transmission has a wide diversity of ultrastructural and therefore mechanistic associated phenomena. In comparison to synaptic, extrasynaptic exocytosis may last for seconds or even minutes, thus expanding the timing of neuronal signaling. Extrasynaptic transmission has now been demonstrated in central and peripheral neurons of vertebrates and invertebrates, and involves many different types of transmitter substances than include low molecular weight transmitters (acetilcholine, GABA, glutamate, ATP, and biogenic amines) and peptides (substance P, vasopressin and others). It may occur when transmitters leak out from the synaptic cleft and activate extrasynaptic receptors in neighboring neurons or glial cells, or when axonal varicosities, dendrites or the somata release transmitters in the absence of postsynaptic counterparts. The release mechanisms also vary from one neuron type to another and from one neuronal compartment to another. In some cases, clear vesicles are apposed to the resting plasma membrane, as in presynaptic terminals. In other cases, transmitters are packed onto dense core vesicles that rest at a distance from the release sites. In between, there are multiple morphological combinations that point to complementary mechanisms in different compartments of the same neuron and some times, even in the same compartment. For example, serotonergic varicosities may combine clear and dense core vesicles in stereotyped arrays. This diversity adds complexity to the nervous system and raises many questions that are waiting for answers. Extrasynaptic transmission may be the main source of transmitter molecules causing volume transmission, however this still lacks direct demonstration. From the physiological point of view, one may ask how does the neuronal firing pattern evokes synaptic or extrasynaptic transmitter release or what are the physiological effects of these modes of transmission. From the behavioral point of view it becomes interesting to explore how circuits and therefore behaviors are modulated. Some neurological disfunctions may also be related to deficiencies in extrasynaptic transmission, however, again, direct studies are still lacking. Developmental and evolutionary biologists may also find the topic inspiring. Extrasynaptic transmission not only expands our view about how the nervous system works, but also requires a change in the way we plan our research. New technological and computational tools are now being applied to analyze intracellular and extracellular transmitter mobilizations or long term changes of neuronal circuits. New definitions and mechanisms may become visible. In the meanwhile, this seems to be a good moment for a first common effort to analyze and discuss extrasynaptic transmission in different systems and from different perspectives.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

As such this volume and its three sister titles will be of immense value to all studying and practicing pediatric critical care medicine or those involved in the management of this group of patients.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

The second edition of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine spans three volumes, with major sections dedicated to specific organ systems. Each major section consists of separate chapters dedicated to reviewing the specific disease processes affecting each organ system. Each chapter concludes with a comprehensive list of references, with brief, concise remarks denoting references of ‘special interest’ and ‘of interest’. Consequently, the books are unique in their comprehensive coverage of pediatric critical care and their ease of use and will be of value to those studying towards pediatric critical care examinations and those who are already qualified.

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans.

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (). Both “central command” and “the exercise pressor reflex” are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of , indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders.

The Role of Nitric Oxide in Physiology and Pathophysiology

This volume reviews among other topics the basic chemistry and physical properties of S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO) and their biochemical mechanisms of action, NO synthase isozymes, NO synthase structure, mechanisms of NO synthesis, regulation of ...

The Role of Nitric Oxide in Physiology and Pathophysiology

Nitric Oxide (NO) an endogenous free radical, has been shown recently to mediate several important biological effects. It plays a neuro-transmitter like role in vascular endothelium, a scond-messenger role in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responsive neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), a neurotoxic role after its release from these neurons, and a cytotoxic role after its release by macrophages. This volume reviews among other topics the basic chemistry and physical properties of S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO) and their biochemical mechanisms of action, NO synthase isozymes, NO synthase structure, mechanisms of NO synthesis, regulation of NOS expression and posttranslational modification, and mechanisms involving NO of CNS's damage in virus infections.

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience Volume 1

Burnstock G (1990) Changes in expression of autonomic nerves in aging and disease. ... Burnstock G (1992) The Autonomic Nervous System, Vol. ... neuropeptides, adenosine triphosphate, amino acids and nitric oxide.

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience  Volume 1

The Encyclopedia of the Neuroscience explores all areas of the discipline in its focused entries on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. Each article is written by an expert in that specific domain and peer reviewed by the advisory board before acceptance into the encyclopedia. Each article contains a glossary, introduction, a reference section, and cross-references to other related encyclopedia articles. Written at a level suitable for university undergraduates, the breadth and depth of coverage will appeal beyond undergraduates to professionals and academics in related fields.

Physiology and Maintenance Volume III

NPY: Neuropeptide Y, a widely distributed cotransmitter in the sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; besides its direct vasoconstrictor effect, ... Nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the vascular system: an overview.

Physiology and Maintenance   Volume III

Physiology and Maintenance is a component of Encyclopedia of Biological, Physiological and Health Sciences in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Physiology and Maintenance with contributions from distinguished experts in the field, discusses the functions of our body and their regulations which are some of the most fascinating areas of science. The content of the theme is organized with state-of-the-art presentations covering the following aspects of the subject: General Physiology; Enzymes: The Biological Catalysts of Life; Nutrition and Digestion; Renal Excretion; Endocrinology; Respiration; Blood Circulation: Its Dynamics And Physiological Control; Locomotion in Sedentary Societies; Neurophysiology; Plant Physiology and Environment : A Synopsis, which are then expanded into multiple subtopics, each as a chapter. These five volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.