Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary.

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

This fully revised and updated new edition provides a comprehensive look at nitrite and nitrate and their effect on human health and disease. The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary. Finally, the last section discusses nitric oxide-based therapeutics and how nitrite and nitrate biochemistry can be safely harnessed to improve human health. Each chapter provides a balanced, evidence-based view and heavily cites the most recent published literature. They follow a strict chapter format which includes keywords, key points, a conclusion highlighting major findings, and extensive references. The second edition contains new chapters on nitrite and nitrate in age medicine, nitrite and nitrate as a treatment for hypertension, and nitrite and nitrate in exercise performance. Additionally, the editors have expanded the biochemistry section to include chapters on nitrate reducing oral bacteria, nitrite mediated S-Nitrosation, epigenetics and the regulation of nitric oxide, and nitrite control of mitochondrial function. Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Health and Disease, 2e, will be of interest to health professionals, nutritionists, dieticians, biomedical scientists, and food scientists.

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

This diverse collection of authors includes vascular biologists, physiologists, physicians, epidemiologists, cancer biologists, registered dieticians, chemists, and public health experts from five countries in both academia and government.

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease delivers a comprehensive review of nitrite and nitrate biology, from basic biochemistry to the complex physiology and metabolism of these two naturally occurring molecules in the human body. Well-organized and well referenced chapters cover the rich history of nitrite and nitrate, sources of exposure, and the physiological effects when consumed through foods containing nitrite and nitrate. The chapters are written by leading experts, all of whom share their research and perspectives in order to help define the context for benefits vs. any potential risks associated with nitrite and nitrate use, either through dietary ingestion or therapeutic dosing. This diverse collection of authors includes vascular biologists, physiologists, physicians, epidemiologists, cancer biologists, registered dieticians, chemists, and public health experts from five countries in both academia and government. Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease provides a balanced view of nitric oxide biochemistry, and nitrite and nitrate biochemistry in physiology and in the food sciences.

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary.

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

This fully revised and updated new edition provides a comprehensive look at nitrite and nitrate and their effect on human health and disease. The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary. Finally, the last section discusses nitric oxide-based therapeutics and how nitrite and nitrate biochemistry can be safely harnessed to improve human health. Each chapter provides a balanced, evidence-based view and heavily cites the most recent published literature. They follow a strict chapter format which includes keywords, key points, a conclusion highlighting major findings, and extensive references. The second edition contains new chapters on nitrite and nitrate in age medicine, nitrite and nitrate as a treatment for hypertension, and nitrite and nitrate in exercise performance. Additionally, the editors have expanded the biochemistry section to include chapters on nitrate reducing oral bacteria, nitrite mediated S-Nitrosation, epigenetics and the regulation of nitric oxide, and nitrite control of mitochondrial function. Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Health and Disease, 2e, will be of interest to health professionals, nutritionists, dieticians, biomedical scientists, and food scientists.

Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry

As nitrates are naturally occurring ions, and a part of our regular diet, closer understanding of the mechanism of nitrates in the human body is ... In: Bryan, N.S., Loscalzo, J. (Eds.), Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease.

Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry is the ideal primer for food scientists, researchers, students and young professionals who want to acquaint themselves with food chemistry. Well-organized, clearly written, and abundantly referenced, the book provides a foundation for readers to understand the principles, concepts, and techniques used in food chemistry applications. Articles are written by international experts and cover a wide range of topics, including food chemistry, food components and their interactions, properties (flavor, aroma, texture) the structure of food, functional foods, processing, storage, nanoparticles for food use, antioxidants, the Maillard and Strecker reactions, process derived contaminants, and the detection of economically-motivated food adulteration. The encyclopedia will provide readers with an introduction to specific topics within the wider context of food chemistry, as well as helping them identify the links between the various sub-topics. Offers readers a comprehensive understanding of food chemistry and the various connections between the sub-topics Provides an authoritative introduction for non-specialists and readers from undergraduate levels and upwards Meticulously organized, with articles structured logically based on the various elements of food chemistry

Nitrates and Nitrites in Food and Water

Are there alternatives? What effect does added nitrate have on total nitrate exposure of humans? . . . In this book, we have attempted to answer, or at least to give the background to, some of the questions. . . .

Nitrates and Nitrites in Food and Water

From the Introduction With regard to nitrate and nitrite, the perceived hazards are to the ecological balance in rivers and lakes, and to human health. Increased nitrate levels in river water lead to increased growth of algae and consequent decrease in the level of biologically available oxygen (BAO). In extreme forms, the algae form unsightly blooms on the water surface, and the BAO level falls below that necessary to support fish and other animal life. At this extreme, there is little dispute that efforts should be made to restore the ecological balance, and this is best achieved by reversing the increase in nitrate concentration that caused the problem. The health hazards are less clear, but include the risk of methaemoglobinaemia in young infants and the possible risk of gastric cancer, particularly in certain high-risk patient groups. These health risks have led to legislation to control the exposure of humans to nitrate from drinking water and as a food additive . . . What can be done about this and how can the problem be solved (if, indeed, there is a problem)? It is normal practice to add nitrate and nitrite to food as a cosmetic and as a preservative. Is this necessary? If so, how much do we need to add? Are there alternatives? What effect does added nitrate have on total nitrate exposure of humans? . . . In this book, we have attempted to answer, or at least to give the background to, some of the questions. . . .

Microbiome in Human Health and Disease

Disproportion in the oral microbiota is said to be associated with condensed CVD and metabolic health. The relation between oral microbiota and health is probably the nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide pathways that lower the three ...

Microbiome in Human Health and Disease


Studies on Pediatric Disorders

Sobko T, Marcus C, Govoni M, Kamiya S (2010) Dietary nitrate in Japanese traditional foods lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers. ... In: Bryan NS, Loscalzo J (eds) Nitrite and nitrate in human health and disease.

Studies on Pediatric Disorders

This volume examines the role of oxidative stress in the pathology of numerous pediatric disorders. It covers a wide range of topics including the chemistry and biology of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, molecular biology of the enzymes generating these species, clinically useful biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress status in humans, and the pathophysiology, clinical course and management of a variety of pediatric disorders, among others. The book also describes current diagnostic tools, laboratory methods and technology for treatment and prevention of pediatric disorders. It explores emerging technology and medical applications including discussions of biomarkers and antioxidants as therapeutic agents. Written by an international team of experts in both pediatrics and free radical and antioxidant research, Studies on Pediatric Disorders is an invaluable addition to the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice series.

Saliva and Oral Microbiota From Physiology to Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

KR, NI, IS, and NB performed sample processing, nitratenitrite analysis, and quantitative RT-PCR. ... Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease. ... Molecular diversity of nitrite reductase genes (nirK) in nitrifying bacteria.

Saliva and Oral Microbiota  From Physiology to Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications


Metabolic Pathways of Nitrate in the Eye Microbiota

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical molecule with critical signaling roles.

Metabolic Pathways of Nitrate in the Eye Microbiota

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical molecule with critical signaling roles. It is an endogenous vasodilator and an important mediator of vascular tone and vascular remodeling. Nitrate and nitrite are known as stable products of NO oxidation and are physiologically recycled in blood and tissues to reform NO by enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Bacteria species in the human microbiome have been shown to reduce nitrate and nitrite and to produce NO under acidic conditions. In this study, we investigate the generation of nitrite and NO by bacterial species regularly identified in the eye microbiome of healthy humans, specifically Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis. We measured nitrite and NO concentrations in cultures grown at oxygen and nitrate levels that approximate the conditions found in the eye. We found that Bacillus subtilis produced very low levels of NO even in the presence of millimolar nitrate concentrations. Instead, nitrite accumulated in the Staphylococcus epidermidis media after growth for 24 hours at low oxygen levels (2-6%) in a manner roughly directly proportional to the nitrate concentrations added in the media. These data indicate that during hypoxic conditions, Staphylococcus epidermidis express enzymes that efficiently reduce nitrate to nitrite and suggests that the related bacterial nitrite reduction to NO could be an important aspect of the overall nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism. Therefore, the human microbiome can and may be a link between a nitrate rich diet and human health and disease.

Amino Acids in Human Nutrition and Health

The oxygenbound form of nitrite-methaemoglobin shows a degree of ferrous nitrogen dioxide (Fe(II)NO.) ... pathophysiological conditions, it is not unlikely that dietary nitrate and nitrite may positively affect human health and disease.

Amino Acids in Human Nutrition and Health

Human health issues relating to amino acids are extremely broad and include metabolic disorders of amino acid metabolism as well as their presence in food and use as supplements. This book covers the biochemistry of amino acid metabolism in the context of health and disease. It discusses their use as food supplements, in clinical therapy and nutritional support and focuses on major recent developments, highlighting new areas of research that will be needed to sustain further interest in the field.

Dairy in Human Health and Disease across the Lifespan

Salmonella is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonspore forming, motile, facultative anaerobic bacilli, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae with 2–4μm in size (El-Gazzar and Marth, 1992). Salmonella can convert nitrite to nitrate, ...

Dairy in Human Health and Disease across the Lifespan

Dairy in Human Health and Disease across the Lifespan addresses the contribution of milk to the human diet and health throughout the life span. This comprehensive book is divided into three sections and presents a balanced overview of dairy’s impact on nutrition from infancy to adulthood. Summaries capture the most salient points of each chapter, and the book provides coverage of dairy as a functional food in health and disease. Presents various dairy products and their impact on health specific to various stages in the lifespan Provides information to identify which food and diet constituents should be used as dietary supplements based on modification of health and nutrition Incorporates contributions from an international team of authors with varying areas of expertise related to dairy and nutrition

Nitrate nitrite Toxicity

Nitrate nitrite Toxicity


Nitrate nitrite Toxicity

Nitrate nitrite Toxicity


Nitrate Handbook

Using the most up-to-date knowledge and research, this handbook illustrates how the steadily increasing human population and demand for food, which results in higher amounts of nitrate needed by soils, makes new regulations on the ...

Nitrate Handbook

Nitrate Handbook: Environmental, Agricultural, and Health Effects provides an overview of the entire nitrate cycle and the processes influencing nitrate transformation. It clearly identifies the role of nitrate as an essential nutrient in plant growth, food preservation, and human health. Using the most up-to-date knowledge and research, this handbook illustrates how the steadily increasing human population and demand for food, which results in higher amounts of nitrate needed by soils, makes new regulations on the management and usage of nitrates a high priority. A detailed explanation concerning the discrepancies between the public’s perception of nitrate’s harm versus the reality of its human health benefits is given via a balanced and evidence-based approach. All questions pertaining to the influences of nitrate and its derivatives on plant physiology and human health are explored in depth. This comprehensive resource with contributions from distinguished researches in the field is a must-have for professionals and students who study and work with nitrates. Features: Includes in depth discussion on the wide spectrum of nitrate present in the environment. Focuses on the progress made on nitrate research and its importance. Answers all questions about nitrate and its derivatives’ influences on plant physiology and human health. Enables decision makers and public authorities to manage social concerns Compiles in one resource the findings of many distinguished researchers in the field.

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

Another potential beneficial effect of nitrate is protection against bacterial infections via its reduction to nitrite by enteric bacteria. In an experimental inflammatory bowel disease mouse model, nitrite in drinking water was ...

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 10% of the population in the world do not have access to improved drinking water sources. Among other diseases, waterborne infections cause diarrhea, which kills nearly one million people every year, mostly children under 5 years of age. On the other hand, chemical pollution is a concern in high-income countries and an increasing problem in low- and middle-income countries. Exposure to chemicals in drinking water may lead to a range of chronic non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease), adverse reproductive outcomes, and effects on children’s health (e.g., neurodevelopment), among other health effects. Although drinking water quality is regulated and monitored in many countries, increasing knowledge leads to the need for reviewing standards and guidelines on a nearly permanent basis, both for regulated and newly identified contaminants. Drinking water standards are mostly based on animal toxicity data, and more robust epidemiologic studies with accurate exposure assessment are needed. The current risk assessment paradigm dealing mostly with one-by-one chemicals dismisses the potential synergisms or interactions from exposures to mixtures of contaminants, particularly at the low-exposure range. Thus, evidence is needed on exposure and health effects of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water. Finally, water stress and water quality problems are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change and increasing water demand by population growth, and new evidence is needed to design appropriate adaptation policies. This Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality and human health.

Bioactive Compounds in Foods

Naidu, K.A. (2003) Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overview. Nutrition Journal, 2, 7. Nabrzyski, M. and Gajewska, R. (1994) The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs.

Bioactive Compounds in Foods

Inherent toxicants and processing contaminants are bothnon-essential, bioactive substances whose levels in foods can bedifficult to control. This volume covers both types of compound forthe first time, examining their beneficial as well as theirundesirable effects in the human diet. Chapters have been writtenas individually comprehensive reviews, and topics have beenselected to illustrate recent scientific advances in understandingof the occurrence and mechanism of formation, exposure/riskassessment and developments in the underpinning analyticalmethodology. A wide range of contaminants are examined in detail,including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glucosinolates, phycotoxins, andmycotoxins. Several process contaminants (eg acrylamide and furan),which are relatively new but which have a rapidly growingliterature, are also covered. The book provides a practical reference for a wide range ofexperts: specialist toxicologists (chemists and food chemists),hygienists, government officials and anyone who needs to be awareof the main issues concerning toxicants and process contaminants infood. It will also be a valuable introduction to the subject forpost-graduate students.

Soil Components and Human Health

cardiovascular health and providing protection against infections. Nitrate is considered to have a role in protecting the gastrointestinal tract against a variety of pathogens, as nitrous oxide and acidified nitrite have antibacterial ...

Soil Components and Human Health

This volume highlights important links existing between soils and human health which up to now are not fully realized by the public. Soil materials may have deleterious, beneficial or no impacts on human health; therefore, understanding the complex relationships between diverse soil materials and human health will encourage creative cooperation between soil and environmental sciences and medicine. The topics covered in this book will be of immense value to a wide range of readers, including soil scientists, medical scientists and practitioners, nursing scientists and staff, toxicologists, ecologists, agronomists, geologists, geochemists, public health professionals, planners and several others.

Functional Foods Bioactive Compounds and Biomarkers in Health and Disease

Presented in this book are scientists, food manufacturers, and healthcare professionals who are committed to functional food research that have brought together ideas and research to treat chronic illnesses and improve the quality of life ...

Functional Foods  Bioactive Compounds  and Biomarkers in Health and Disease

The Functional Food Center has successfully held 23 International Conferences, including this one, since 2004. We take special interest in enabling the assimilation of scientific knowledge at our conferences under the series "Functional Foods and Chronic Diseases: Science and Practice." The 23nd International Conference was held April 24th throguh April 25th, in the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego, CA. This conference was titled "Functional Foods, Bioactive Compounds, and Biomarkers in Health and Disease: Science and Practice." Main Conference Topics Include: 1. Functional Food Definition, Status, and Regulation 2. Dietary Nitrite and Nitrate 3. Functional Foods and Bioactive Compounds for Aging 4. Functional Foods and Bioactive Compound(s): Prevention and Management of Non-Communicable Diseases 5. Functional Foods and Sport Nutrition 6. Functional Foods and Sport Nutrition 7. Current Research and Development of New Functional Food Products Functional Food's research has allowed modern society to evade the side effects of modern pharmaceuticals and the problems associated with treating chronic diseases through surgical procedures. Presented in this book are scientists, food manufacturers, and healthcare professionals who are committed to functional food research that have brought together ideas and research to treat chronic illnesses and improve the quality of life through the utilization of functional foods with bioactive compounds. This book presents the discovery, sources, potential health benefits, and safety aspects of bioactive compounds and functional foods for health and disease, in addition to, the scientific research and development of novel functional food products. This issue not only preserves the numerous scientific concepts and contributions made in the field of functional food, but also lays the foundation for a field of science that will undoubtedly logarithmically expand in the coming years, changing modern society's relationship with medicine.