Nutritionism

The Science and Politics of Dietary Advice

Nutritionism

Popularized by Michael Pollan in his best-selling In Defense of Food, Gyorgy Scrinis's concept of nutritionism refers to the reductive understanding of nutrients as the key indicators of healthy food—an approach that has dominated nutrition science, dietary advice, and food marketing. Scrinis argues this ideology has narrowed and in some cases distorted our appreciation of food quality, such that even highly processed foods may be perceived as healthful depending on their content of "good" or "bad" nutrients. Investigating the butter versus margarine debate, the battle between low-fat, low-carb, and other weight-loss diets, and the food industry's strategic promotion of nutritionally enhanced foods, Scrinis reveals the scientific, social, and economic factors driving our modern fascination with nutrition. Scrinis develops an original framework and terminology for analyzing the characteristics and consequences of nutritionism since the late nineteenth century. He begins with the era of quantification, in which the idea of protective nutrients, caloric reductionism, and vitamins' curative effects took shape. He follows with the era of good and bad nutritionism, which set nutricentric dietary guidelines and defined the parameters of unhealthy nutrients; and concludes with our current era of functional nutritionism, in which the focus has shifted to targeted nutrients, superfoods, and optimal diets. Scrinis's research underscores the critical role of nutrition science and dietary advice in shaping our relationship to food and our bodies and in heightening our nutritional anxieties. He ultimately shows how nutritionism has aligned the demands and perceived needs of consumers with the commercial interests of food manufacturers and corporations. Scrinis also offers an alternative paradigm for assessing the healthfulness of foods—the food quality paradigm—that privileges food production and processing quality, cultural-traditional knowledge, and sensual-practical experience, and promotes less reductive forms of nutrition research and dietary advice.

Hidden Hunger

Gender and the Politics of Smarter Foods

Hidden Hunger

For decades, NGOs targeting world hunger focused on ensuring that adequate quantities of food were being sent to those in need. In the 1990s, the international food policy community turned its focus to the "hidden hunger" of micronutrient deficiencies, a problem that resulted in two scientific solutions: fortification, the addition of nutrients to processed foods, and biofortification, the modification of crops to produce more nutritious yields. This hidden hunger was presented as a scientific problem to be solved by "experts" and scientifically engineered smart foods rather than through local knowledge, which was deemed unscientific and, hence, irrelevant. In Hidden Hunger, Aya Hirata Kimura explores this recent emphasis on micronutrients and smart foods within the international development community and, in particular, how the voices of women were silenced despite their expertise in food purchasing and preparation. Kimura grounds her analysis in case studies of attempts to enrich and market three basic foods—rice, wheat flour, and baby food—in Indonesia. She shows the power of nutritionism and how its technical focus enhanced the power of corporations as a government partner while restricting public participation in the making of policy for public health and food. She also analyzes the role of advertising to promote fortified foodstuffs and traces the history of Golden Rice, a crop genetically engineered to alleviate vitamin A deficiencies. Situating the recent turn to smart food in Indonesia and elsewhere as part of a long history of technical attempts to solve the Third World food problem, Kimura deftly analyzes the intersection of scientific expertise, market forces, and gendered knowledge to illuminate how hidden hunger ultimately defined women as victims rather than as active agents.

The Philosophy of Food

The Philosophy of Food

This book explores food from a philosophical perspective, bringing together sixteen leading philosophers to consider the most basic questions about food: What is it exactly? What should we eat? How do we know it is safe? How should food be distributed? What is good food? David M. Kaplan’s erudite and informative introduction grounds the discussion, showing how philosophers since Plato have taken up questions about food, diet, agriculture, and animals. However, until recently, few have considered food a standard subject for serious philosophical debate. Each of the essays in this book brings in-depth analysis to many contemporary debates in food studies—Slow Food, sustainability, food safety, and politics—and addresses such issues as "happy meat," aquaculture, veganism, and table manners. The result is an extraordinary resource that guides readers to think more clearly and responsibly about what we consume and how we provide for ourselves, and illuminates the reasons why we act as we do.

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Food Issues

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Food Issues

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Food Issues explores the topic of food across multiple disciplines within the social sciences and related areas including business, consumerism, marketing, and environmentalism. In contrast to the existing reference works on the topic of food that tend to fall into the categories of cultural perspectives, this carefully balanced academic encyclopedia focuses on social and policy aspects of food production, safety, regulation, labeling, marketing, distribution, and consumption. A sampling of general topic areas covered includes Agriculture, Labor, Food Processing, Marketing and Advertising, Trade and Distribution, Retail and Shopping, Consumption, Food Ideologies, Food in Popular Media, Food Safety, Environment, Health, Government Policy, and Hunger and Poverty. This encyclopedia introduces students to the fascinating, and at times contentious, and ever-so-vital field involving food issues. Key Features: Contains approximately 500 signed entries concluding with cross-references and suggestions for further readings Organized A-to-Z with a thematic “Reader’s Guide” in the front matter grouping related entries by general topic area Provides a Resource Guide and a detailed and comprehensive Index along with robust search-and-browse functionality in the electronic edition This three-volume reference work will serve as a general, non-technical resource for students and researchers who seek to better understand the topic of food and the issues surrounding it.

Food Choices

The Ultimate Teen Guide

Food Choices

There are a host of books on dieting, nutrition, cooking, and all other areas related to food, yet books targeted to teens tend to emphasize weight and the dangers of unhealthy eating. Food Choices: The Ultimate Teen Guide provides teens with a new look at food and eating. In this book, author Robin Brancato chooses not to dwell on food-related pathologies like anorexia, bulimia, or obesity. Instead, she guides teens into a greater knowledge and enjoyment of food and healthy eating. This book discusses numerous topics related to food and eating, including the biological and chemical reasons we prefer certain foods and the eating habits that are unique to teens today. This book also covers the latest medical research, the vast amount of literature on weight loss and dieting, and the cultural influences that affect what food we eat. Throughout, teens are presented with the best tips on how to develop healthy eating habits for a lifetime of enjoying food.

Cornucopia

Understanding Health through Understanding Agriculture

Cornucopia

Cornucopia explores the nutritional and economic implications of U.S. farm policy. Johnson questions whether current farm practices and the government programs that support them have contributed to the poor health of many Americans. He discusses what this implication means as we feed a growing population amidst rising dietary disease.

Health Promotion and Aging

Practical Applications for Health Professionals, Sixth Edition

Health Promotion and Aging

Praise for the fifth edition: I applaud Dr. Haber for addressing key concepts and issues in health promotion and aging, and making them accessible, respectful, mindful, and empowering. -Marilyn R. Gugliucci, PhD Director, Geriatrics Education and Research, University of New England Past President, AGHE David Haber has done it again! ...A must-have for students and faculty alike. -Barbara Resnick, PhD, CRNP, FAAN Substantially revised and updated, the sixth edition of this classic text continues to define healthy aging by illustrating how to prevent disease and make large-scale improvements toward health and wellness. New to this edition is current information regarding the future of Medicare, Social Security, and the Affordable Care Act, information about the Healthy People 2020 initiative supported with examples, up-to-date and comprehensive medical screening recommendations, and an extensive review of new developments in complementary and alternative medicine, geriatric mental health, community health, and public health policy. A new section on technology and aging is also included, as well as an instructor's manual. The text synthesizes current research findings with practical applications, and includes detailed and updated descriptions of the author's own programs that have been recognized by the National Council on the Aging's Best Practices in Health Promotion and Aging. New to this Edition: Up-to-date coverage of the future of Medicare, Social Security, the Affordable Care Act, and the Healthy People 2020 initiative New section on technology and aging Current developments in complementary and alternative medicine New findings regarding geriatric physical and mental health and community health Current information about exercise, nutrition and weight management Updated information on public health policy Current trends in long-term care and end-of-life-care Updated sociodemographic trends Instructor's manual

A Nation of Farmers

Defeating the Food Crisis on American Soil

A Nation of Farmers

“Astyk and Newton have written an important book with an unusual message: We need millions of new farmers…as soon as possible. You could not find two more reasonable, intelligent, sincere, and passionate people to talk to about food. And the book has very much the feeling of a conversation – with someone smart who cares about you. It is also intellectually complex, creative and nuanced. The authors are big thinkers and have taken a good lick at the central human issues of our time." Peter Bane “This definitive guide can provide inspiration to gardeners and those concerned about the environment. It offers practical solutions to all the food-related problems brought on by industrialized agriculture and the globalization of food. Very carefully researched and well written, this documents what is wrong and what we can do about it.” Connie Krochmal - Bellaonline "This outstanding and well-written compendium of insights and recommendations, of fervent idealism and practical solutions, is highly recommended."—Library Journal Once we could fill our grocery carts with cheap and plentiful food, but not anymore. Cheap food has gone the way of cheap oil. Climate change is already reducing crop yields worldwide. The cost of flying in food from far away and shipping it across the country in refrigerated trucks is rapidly becoming unviable. Cars and cows increasingly devour grain harvests, sending prices skyrocketing. More Americans than ever before require food stamps and food pantries just to get by, and a worldwide food crisis is unfolding, overseas and in our kitchens. We can keep hunger from stalking our families, but doing so will require a fundamental shift in our approach to field and table. A Nation of Farmers examines the limits and dangers of the globalized food system and shows how returning to the basics is our best hope. The book includes in-depth guidelines for: Creating resilient local food systems Growing, cooking, and eating sustainably and naturally Becoming part of the solution to the food crisis The book argues that we need to make self-provisioning, once the most ordinary of human activities, central to our lives. The results will be better food, better health, better security, and freedom from corporations that don’t have our interests at heart. This is critical reading for anyone who eats and cares about high-quality food. Sharon Astyk farms in New York, and is the author of Depletion and Abundance. Aaron Newton is a sustainable systems land planner in North Carolina, and is the founding editor of Groovy Green.

How We Eat

Appetite, Culture, and the Psychology of Food

How We Eat

Tracing culinary customs from the Stone Age to the stovetop range, from the raw to the nuked, this book elucidates the factors and myths shaping Americans' eating habits. The diversity of food habits and rituals is considered from a psychological perspective. Explored are questions such as Why does the working class prefer sweet drinks over bitter? Why do the affluent tend to roast their potatoes? and What is so comforting about macaroni and cheese anyway? The many contradictions of Americans' relationships with food are identified: food is both a primal source of sensual pleasure and a major cultural anxiety; Americans adore celebrity chefs, but no one cooks at home anymore; the gourmet health food industry is soaring, yet a longtime love affair with fast food endures. The future of food is also covered, including speculation about whether traditional meals will one day evolve into the mere popping of a nutrition capsule.