Online Othering

Exploring Digital Violence and Discrimination on the Web Karen Lumsden, Emily Harmer ... Philippa Hall's chapter analyses the 'online othering' of disabled people via hate speech on social media platforms.

Online Othering

This book explores the discrimination encountered and propagated by individuals in online environments. The editors develop the concept of 'online othering' as a tool through which to analyse and make sense of the myriad toxic and harmful behaviours which are being created through, or perpetuated via, the use of communication-technologies such as the internet, social media, and ‘the internet of things’. The book problematises the dichotomy assumed between real and virtual spaces by exploring the construction of online abuse, victims' experiences, resistance to online othering, and the policing of interpersonal cyber-crime. The relationship between various socio-political institutions and experiences of online hate speech are also explored. Online Othering explores the extent to which forms of information-technologies facilitate, exacerbate, and/or promote the enactment of traditional offline offences (such as domestic abuse and stalking). It focuses on the construction and perpetration of online abuse through examples such as the far-right, the alt-right and Men's Rights Activists. It also explores experiences of, and resistance to, online abuse via examples such as victims' experiences of revenge porn, online abuse and misogyny, transphobia, disability hate crime, and the ways in which online othering is intersectional. Finally, the collection addresses the role of the police and other agencies in terms of their interventions, and the regulation and governance of virtual space(s). Contributions to the volume come from fields including sociology; communication and media studies; psychology; criminology; political studies; information science and gender studies. Online Othering is one of the very first collections to explore a multitude of abuses and their relationship to information and communication technology.

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology Facilitated Violence and Abuse

However, while othering behavior in online environments is often an unpleasant, hostile, and antisocial phenomenon, its power lies specifically in its sociality: “othering” discourses are produced in a public environment for the purpose ...

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology Facilitated Violence and Abuse

The ebook edition of this title is Open Access and freely available to read online This handbook features theoretical, empirical, policy and legal analysis of technology facilitated violence and abuse (TFVA) from over 40 multidisciplinary scholars, practitioners, advocates, survivors and technologists from 17 countries

Peacebuilding Online

Digital extremisms: Readings in violence, radicalisation and extremism in the online space (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. Lumsden, K., & Harmer, E. (2019). Online othering: Exploring digital violence and discrimination on the web (1st ...

Peacebuilding Online

This study takes the work of transforming violence and conflict online and offers insight into the practice of dialogue in virtual settings for peacebuilding purposes. In the field of peace and conflict studies and peacebuilding practices, a significant amount of literature has dealt with the theory and practice of dialogue in face-to-face settings. This project is unique as it takes the peacebuilding practice of dialogue and explores it within an online context. The research is framed and analyzed through the dialogue theories of Martin Buber and Paulo Freire. This project is distinct in its exploration of the connection between dialogue encounters and positive peace, the practical linkages of which are often difficult to articulate or identify. As such, this book offers unique contributions to the knowledge and understanding of dialogue-based peacebuilding in online settings and provides an understanding of how dialogue practices enable outcomes within the construct of positive peace. This book is aimed at academics as a presentation of research into a relatively unexplored field of inquiry. However, it is also relevant and applicable for peacebuilding practitioners who want to navigate taking their practices into online settings and provide a framework for linking practices to intended positive peace outcomes.

Misogyny as Hate Crime

Online Othering : Exploring Violence and Discrimination on the Web . Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan , pp . 91-115 . Manne , K. , 2018. Down Girl : The Logic of Misogyny . Oxford : Oxford University Press . Mantilla , K. , 2013.

Misogyny as Hate Crime

Misogyny as Hate Crime explores the background, nature and consequences of misogyny as well as the legal framework and UK policy responses associated with misogyny as a form of hate crime. Taking an intersectional approach, the book looks at how experiences of misogyny may intersect with other forms of hate crime such as disablism, Islamophobia, antisemitism and transphobia. From the sexist and derogatory comments about women by former US President Donald Trump, to legislative changes in Chile and Peru making street harassment illegal, misogyny presents a challenge to scholars, practitioners, policy makers, and women globally. The increasing importance of the internet has seen misogyny move into these digital spaces but has also provided a platform for movements such as #MeToo and #TimesUp, highlighting the scale of sexual harassment and abuse. In 2016, Nottinghamshire Police in partnership with Nottingham Women’s Centre became the first force in England and Wales to record misogyny as a hate crime. Since then other police forces have introduced similar schemes to tackle misogyny. More recently, the Law Commission of England and Wales has undertaken a review of the legislation on hate crime and in their consultation paper of proposals for reform have suggested ‘adding sex or gender to the protected characteristics’. In March 2021, the Government announced that police forces in England and Wales will be required to record crimes motivated by hostility based on sex or gender from this autumn. The murder of Sarah Everard has been a ‘watershed moment’ in the Government’s response to violence against women. Sarah Everard’s kidnap and murder who went missing while walking home from a friend’s flat in South London on 3 March 2021, ignited a national conversation about violence against women. Against this background, the book speaks both to the proposed reforms of the hate crime legislation around misogyny, and the broader issues around experiences of and legal responses to misogyny. It showcases the work of leading scholars in this area alongside that of activists and practitioners, whose work has been invaluable in opening up public discussion on misogynistic hate crime and encouraging wider social change. In recognising the intersections of different forms of prejudice, the book provides an innovative contribution to these ‘hate debates’, highlighting the complexities of creating separate strands of hate crime. Providing a comprehensive understanding of the debates around inclusion of misogyny as a form of hate crime, this ground-breaking book will be of great interest to students, scholars and activists interested in gender, hate crime, feminism, criminology, law, policing and sociology.

Political Participation on Social Media

The Lived Experience of Online Debate Elizabeth Anne Bailey (Communications specialist) ... 'Othering' is an idea from phenomenology that describes the creation of imagined representations and oftenreductive labelling of a person as ...

Political Participation on Social Media

This book explores peoples lived experience of discussing politics online. Based on original research involving in-depth conversations with 85 participants around the UK, it asks people about their own understanding of their online engagement, focusing on major UK political events and related debates the Scottish Independence Referendum, the EU Referendum and the UK Labour Party leadership contests. It shows how peoples experiences are varied and influenced by many factors, but with a focus on personal feelings, needs and concerns as much as wider political ones. Participants struggle with self-awareness and understanding the motives and actions of others, which has an impact on their behaviour and perceived efficacy. They can have profound emotional responses owing to the constraints of using social media but still value it as a medium for political learning and self-expression. Communication effects in this environment are complex and unpredictable there is much crosstalk. Social media itself is proving to be an unprecedented learning environment, where people begin to better understand their own behaviour and that of others and adapt over time. Elizabeth Anne Bailey completed her PhD at the University of Bedfordshire, UK. Before this, she worked for more than two decades in the UK Civil Service where she specialised in public communications strategy and management, managing major national communications campaigns. She currently works in local government and is a political campaigns ambassador for a large national charity.

Gangs in the Era of Internet and Social Media

(2019) 8chan: Hate and the Internet - VICE News Tonight on HBO. ... In K. Lumsden & E. Harmer (Eds.), Online othering: exploring digital violence and discrimination on the web (pp. 39–63). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gangs in the Era of Internet and Social Media

The ubiquity of the internet and social media has influenced the lives of people across the globe, including young people involved in street gangs and troublesome youth groups. This development raises important questions about the causes, features, and consequences of online gang behavior, as well as the consequences of this new phenomenon for gang prevention and intervention. In this edited volume, members of an international network of gang researchers, the Eurogang Program of Research, present findings and insights from recent academic gang studies focused on the use of internet and social media. It focuses on online features of gangs and the consequences of social media for the study of these groups. The second section of the book focuses on the meaning of online media for the prevention, monitoring and intervention of gangs, and for gang disengagement processes. This is the first volume focused on the role of internet and social media in the study of gangs. Providing much needed insights into online gang processes, it will appeal to students and researchers interested in gangs and juvenile delinquency, and to professionals, practitioners, and policy-makers working on preventing or reducing gang involvement and delinquent behavior.

Analysing Qualitative Data in Psychology

Colliver, B., Coyle, A. and Silvestri, M. (2019) 'The online othering of transgender people in relation to “gender neutral ... in K. Lumsden and E. Harmer (eds), Online Othering: Exploring Digital Violence and Discrimination on the Web.

Analysing Qualitative Data in Psychology

A step-by-step on five different qualitative approaches – thematic analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis, grounded theory, narrative analysis and discourse analysis.

Re imagining Hate Crime

Fighting hate and bigotry on the internet. ... Criminology and Criminal Justice [Online First]. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895820930747. ... The 'online othering' of transgender people in relation to'gender neutral toilets'.

Re imagining Hate Crime

This book draws upon empirical data to offer a fresh and unique perspective on hate crime victimisation, using transphobic hate crime as a case study. It adopts the lens of ‘visibility’ as a way of understanding hate crime victimisation and to challenge dominant theoretical and conceptual perspectives of hate crime. In adopting this lens, key aspects of victimisation are explored, including the hierarchical nature of hate crime victimisation that afford visibility to particular types of victimisation and to particular groups of people to make them ‘legitimate’ victims. In challenging these notions, this book highlights the pervasive, everyday nature of much hate crime and introduces the concept of ‘micro-crimes’ as a way to conceptualise the nature of victimisation that is often overshadowed by discussions around ‘microaggressions’ and more socially recognisable forms of ‘hate crime’. Key ideas relating to space, place and identity performance are drawn upon throughout these analyses and discussions to provide a nuanced overview and conceptualisation of hate crime victimisation.

The Oxford Handbook of Food Water and Society

[Online]. Othering and belonging: Expanding the circle of human concern. Available from: http://www.otheringandbelonging.org/equity-common-cause-sustainable-food-system-network-cultivatingcommitment-racial-justice/. Foley, J. A. et al.

The Oxford Handbook of Food  Water and Society

Food, water and society: what is managed by whom, and with what impacts? Our food supply chains are at risk. Water resources--sometimes scarce, often damaged, and always under-valued--are among the major reasons why food and water security rank high every year in the World Economic Forum's major global risk analysis. A stable and sustainable food system is critical to society's survival. This Handbook shows that keeping the food system stable comes at the expense of the environment, especially of water resources and those who consume and manage them. The way the food system operates reflects hard political realities. Rather than pay for the environmental costs of sustainable production, society expects food at ever lower prices. Governments reflect their electorates in this regard. Given that farm production may account for as little as 10% of the food value chain in wealthy economies, it is striking that governments have been unwilling (or unable) to put in place the essential laws and accountability that would enable famers to ensure both production and stewardship. Corporate food traders, food manufacturers, and retailers on the other hand operate in markets that make profits and pay taxes. But these corporations are not contractually bound to utilize highly nutritious, sustainably produced food commodities. The articles in this Oxford Handbook have been written by water and food system scientists and professionals, including farmers, rarely heard voices who understand the problems of food producers, food manufacturers, and regulating markets and public policy. The articles address the blind spots of society and its public policymakers, demonstrating the importance of informing society about the consequences of its food preferences and the heroic challenges it is beginning to face. The damage we are doing to our water and soil ecosystems is as important as the damage we do to the atmosphere. Impressed by the technical and organizational advances of the past two centuries, the contributors featured in this book also take note of where economic inefficiencies and cultural deadlock in a 4,000 year old system are putting our critical food supply chains at risk.

Digital Methods for Social Science

He has previously contributed to the development of a social media analytics data collection and visualization suite – Chorus (www.chorusanalytics.co.uk) – and currently works on CuRAtOR (Challenging online feaR And OtheRing), ...

Digital Methods for Social Science

This timely book inspires researchers to deploy relevant, effective, innovative digital methods. It explores the relationship of such methods to 'mainstream' social science; interdisciplinarity; innovations in digital research tools; the opportunities (and challenges) of digital methods in researching social life; and digital research ethics.

Strangling Aunty Perilous Times for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation

Automatic Classification of Abusive Language and Personal Attacks in Various Forms of Online Communication. In (Eds.) G. Rehm and T. Declerck: Language ... 369. 353. Lumsden, K., & Harmer, E. (2019). Online Othering: Exploring 582 V. SMALL.

Strangling Aunty  Perilous Times for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation


Sex Work and Hate Crime

Journal of gender-based violence, 2(3), 519–536. Lewis, R., Rowe, M., & Wiper, C. (2019). Online/offline continuities: Exploring misogyny and hate in online abuse of feminists. In Online othering (pp. 121–143). Palgrave Macmillan.

Sex Work and Hate Crime


Populism Media and Education

Online 'othering' is another means to articulate the 'us' versus 'them' dialectic which serves the purpose of extending the audience and is likely to reach young people who are intense users of digital media.

Populism  Media and Education

Based on a major research project funded by the European Commission, Populism, Media and Education studies how discriminatory stereotypes are built online with a particular focus on right-wing populism. Globalization and migration have led to a new era of populism and racism in Western countries, rekindling traditional forms of discrimination through innovative means. New media platforms are being seen by populist organizations as a method to promote hate speech and unprecedented forms of proselytism. Race, gender, disability and sexual orientation are all being used to discriminate and young people are the preferred target for populist organizations and movements. This book examines how media education can help to deconstruct such hate speech and promote young people’s full participation in media-saturated societies. Drawing on rich examples from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Slovenia, and the UK - countries characterized by different political and cultural contexts – Populism, Media and Education addresses key questions about the meaning of new populism, the nature of e-engagement, and the role of education and citizenship in the digital century. With its international and interdisciplinary approach, this book is essential reading for academics and students in the areas of education, media studies, sociology, cultural studies, political sciences, discrimination and gender studies.

Digital Sociologies

He currently works on CuRAtOR (Challenging online feaR And OtheRing), an interdisciplinary project focusing on how “cultures of fear” are propagated through onlineothering”. Scott Bulfin is Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Education ...

Digital Sociologies

This is the first book to connect digital media technologies in digital sociology to traditional sociological and offers a much needed overview of it. It includes problems of the digital age in relation to inequality and identity, making it suitable for use for a global audience on a variety of courses.

Young People and the Far Right

... D., & Lumsden, K. (2019). “There's a bit of banter”: How male teenagers “do boy” on social networking sites. In K. Lumsden & E. Harmer (Eds.), Online othering: Exploring digital violence and discrimination on the web (pp. 165–186).

Young People and the Far Right


On the Offensive

Online/Offline Continuities: Exploring Misogyny and Hate in Online Abuse of Feminists. In Online Othering, edited by Karen Lumsden and Emily Harmer. Palgrave Macmillan. 30. Baugess, James S., and Allen DeBolt, Abbe (Eds.). 2011.

On the Offensive

Why do certain words have the power to offend? This book sheds light on prejudice in language, past and present.

Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population Technology Design and Acceptance

Siapera E., Moreo, E., Zhou, J.: Hate Track: Tracking and Monitoring Racist Speech Online. Irish Human Rights and Equality Commission, Dublin (2018) 49. Lumsden, K., Harmer, E.: Online Othering. Palgrave MacMillan, New York (2019) 50.

Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population  Technology Design and Acceptance

This two-volume set constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, ITAP 2021, held as part of the 23rd International Conference, HCI International 2021, held as a virtual event, in July 2021. The total of 1276 papers and 241 posters included in the 39 HCII 2021 proceedings volumes was carefully reviewed and selected from 5222 submissions. ITAP 2021 includes a total of 67 papers; they focus on topics related to designing for and with older users, technology acceptance and user experience of older users, use of social media and games by the aging population, as well as applications supporting health, wellbeing, communication, social participation and everyday activities.

Digital Feminist Activism

Paper presented at Online Othering,, Loughborough University, April 21. Lim, Merlyna. 2012. “Clicks, Cabs and Coffee Houses: Social Media and Oppositional Movements in Egypt, 2004–11.” Journal of Communication 62(2): 231–248.

Digital Feminist Activism

From sites like Hollaback! and Everyday Sexism, which document instances of street harassment and misogyny, to social media-organized movements and communities like #MeToo and #BeenRapedNeverReported, feminists are using participatory digital media as activist tools to speak, network, and organize against sexism, misogyny, and rape culture. As the first book-length study to examine how girls, women, and some men negotiate rape culture through the use of digital platforms, including blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr, and mobile apps, the authors explore four primary questions: What experiences of harassment, misogyny, and rape culture are being responded to? How are participants using digital media technologies to document experiences of sexual violence, harassment, and sexism? Why are girls, women and some men choosing to mobilize digital media technologies in this way? And finally, what are the various experiences of using digital technologies to engage in activism? In order to capture these diverse experiences of doing digital feminist activism, the authors augment their analysis of this media (blog posts, tweets, and selfies) with in-depth interviews and close-observations of several online communities that operate globally. Ultimately, the book demonstrates the nuances within and between digital feminist activism and highlight that, although it may be technologically easy for many groups to engage in digital feminist activism, there remain emotional, mental, or practical barriers which create different experiences, and legitimate some feminist voices, perspectives, and experiences over others.

Law Language and the Courtroom

Othering political women: Online misogyny, racism and ableism towards women in public life. Online Othering, 187–210. Touri, M., & Koteyko, N., 2015. Using corpus linguistic so ware in the extraction of news frames: Towards a dynamic ...

Law  Language and the Courtroom

This book explores the language of judges. It is concerned with understanding how language works in judicial contexts. Using a range of disciplinary and methodological perspectives, it looks in detail at the ways in which judicial discourse is argued, constructed, interpreted and perceived. Focusing on four central themes - constructing judicial discourse and judicial identities, judicial argumentation and evaluative language, judicial interpretation, and clarity in judicial discourse - the book’s ultimate goal is to provide a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of current critical issues of the role of language in judicial settings. Contributors include legal linguists, lawyers, legal scholars, legal practitioners, legal translators and anthropologists, who explore patterns of linguistic organisation and use in judicial institutions and analyse language as an instrument for understanding both the judicial decision-making process and its outcome. The book will be an invaluable resource for scholars in legal linguistics and those specialising in judicial argumentation and reasoning ,and forensic linguists interested in the use of language in judicial settings.

Representing the Other in European Media Discourses

Chapter 12 Othering in Estonian online discussions about refugees Liisi Laineste Talking about the Other evokes strong emotions tied to cultural narratives and folkloric motifs that are shared within communities.

Representing the Other in European Media Discourses

This book deals with the construction of the ‘other’ in European media at a time when the recently expanded EU is facing new political, economic and social challenges. The aim of the book is to document the diverse discursive forms of othering, ranging from differentiation to discrimination, that are directed against various ‘other Europeans’ in both institutionalized media and such non-elite semi-public contexts as discussion forums and citizen blogs. Drawing on data from British, Polish, French, Czech, Italian, Hungarian, Spanish and Estonian contexts, the individual papers investigate how various social groupings – regions, nations, ethnicities, communities, cultures – are discursively constructed as ‘outsiders’ rather than ‘insiders’, as ‘them’ rather than ‘us’. While most of the papers are grounded in linguistics and critical discourse studies, the book will also appeal to numerous other social scientists interested in the interface between language, media and social issues.