Operation Linebacker II 1972

Using specially commissioned artwork and maps, ex-USAF fighter colonel Marshall Michel describes Linebacker II, the climax of the air war over Vietnam, and history's only example of how America's best Cold War bombers performed against ...

Operation Linebacker II 1972

After the failed April 1972 invasion of South Vietnam and the heavy US tactical bombing raids in the Hanoi area, the North Vietnamese agreed to return to the Paris peace talks, yet very quickly these negotiations stalled. In an attempt to end the war quickly and 'persuade' the North Vietnamese to return to the negotiating table, President Nixon ordered the Air Force to send the US' ultimate conventional weapon, the B-52 bomber, against their capital, Hanoi. Bristling with the latest Soviet air defence missiles, it was the most heavily defended target in Vietnam. Taking place in late December, this campaign was soon dubbed the 'Christmas Bombings'. Using specially commissioned artwork and maps, ex-USAF fighter colonel Marshall Michel describes Linebacker II, the climax of the air war over Vietnam, and history's only example of how America's best Cold War bombers performed against contemporary Soviet air defences.

Vietnam s Final Air Campaign

On March 30, 1972 some 30,000 North Vietnamese troops along with tanks and heavy artillery surged across the demilitarized zone into South Vietnam in the opening round of Hanoi's Easter Offensive.

Vietnam s Final Air Campaign

On March 30, 1972 some 30,000 North Vietnamese troops along with tanks and heavy artillery surged across the demilitarized zone into South Vietnam in the opening round of Hanoi's Easter Offensive. By early May South Vietnamese forces were on the ropes and faltering. Without the support of U.S. combat troops - who were in their final stage of withdrawing from the country - the Saigon government was in danger of total collapse and with it any American hope of a negotiated settlement to the war. In response, President Richard Nixon called for an aggressive, sustained bombardment of North Vietnam. Code-named Operation Linebacker I, the interdiction effort sought to stem the flow of men and material southward, as well as sever all outside supply lines in the first new bombing of the North Vietnamese heartland in nearly four years. To meet the American air armada, North Vietnamese MiG fighters took to the skies and surface-to-missiles and anti-aircraft fire filled the air from May to October over Hanoi and Haiphong.With the failure of its Easter Offensive to achieve military victory, Hanoi reluctantly returned to the negotiating table in Paris. However, as the peace talks teetered on the edge of collapse in mid-December 1972, Nixon played his trump card: Operation Linebacker II. The resulting twelve-day Christmas bombing campaign from 18-30 December unleashed the full wrath of American air power. More than 2,200 attack sorties, including 724 B-52 sorties alone, were flown by Air Force and Navy aircraft delivering 15,287 tons of bombs that laid waste to the North Vietnamese capital. Railyards, military storage depots, power stations, and bridges, as well as radar and communication sites, airfields, and anti-aircraft defenses were pummelled day and night. Linebacker II would prove to be decisive: a ceasefire agreement was signed on 23 January 1973.

Operation Linebacker I 1972

... 86–87(85) Operations 6–7 Arc Light (1965–1973) 6, 16, 28 Commando Flash (
Dec–Feb 1972) 6, 17 Constant Guard (April–May 1972) 20 Freedom Porch Bravo
(April 1972) 6, 35–36 Freedom Train (April 1972) 34 Linebacker II (Dec 1972) ...

Operation Linebacker I 1972

At Easter 1972, North Vietnam invaded the South, and there were almost no US ground troops left to stop it. But air power reinforcements could be rushed to the theater. Operation Linebacker's objective was to destroy the invading forces from the air and cut North Vietnam's supply routes – and luckily in 1972, American air power was beginning a revolution in both technology and tactics. Most crucial was the introduction of the first effective laser-guided bombs, but the campaign also involved the fearsome AC-130 gunship and saw the debut of helicopter-mounted TOW missiles. Thanks to the new Top Gun fighter school, US naval aviators now also had a real advantage over the MiGs. This is the fascinating story of arguably the world's first “modern” air campaign. It explains how this complex operation – involving tactical aircraft, strategic bombers, close air support and airlift – defeated the invasion. It also explains the shortcomings of the campaign, the contrasting approaches of the USAF and Navy, and the impact that Linebacker had on modern air warfare.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

... 1972 USE Operation Linebacker, 1972 Operation Linebacker II, 1972 USE
Hanoi (Vietnam)—History—Bombardment, 1972 Little Switch, 1953 UF Little
Switch, Operation, 1953 BT Korean War, 1950-1953—Prisoners and prisons
Operation ...

Library of Congress Subject Headings


Introduction to the United States Air Force

Operation. Linebacker. I. (1972). Operation Linebacker II (1972) A1C William H.
Pitzenbarger Lt Col. This F-4 is carrying 2,000 lb laser-guided bombs to strike
strategic targets in North Vietnam in 1972.

Introduction to the United States Air Force


Hanoi s War

See Lam Son 72 operation Operation Lam Son 719. See Lam Son 719 operation
Operation Linebacker I (1972), 250–51, 252, 254, 256, 258–59, 261, 262, 299;
total tonnage dropped, 375 (n. 4) Operation Linebacker II (1972), 1–2, 294–95, ...

Hanoi s War

While most historians of the Vietnam War focus on the origins of U.S. involvement and the Americanization of the conflict, Lien-Hang T. Nguyen examines the international context in which North Vietnamese leaders pursued the war and American intervention ended. This riveting narrative takes the reader from the marshy swamps of the Mekong Delta to the bomb-saturated Red River Delta, from the corridors of power in Hanoi and Saigon to the Nixon White House, and from the peace negotiations in Paris to high-level meetings in Beijing and Moscow, all to reveal that peace never had a chance in Vietnam. Hanoi's War renders transparent the internal workings of America's most elusive enemy during the Cold War and shows that the war fought during the peace negotiations was bloodier and much more wide ranging than it had been previously. Using never-before-seen archival materials from the Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as materials from other archives around the world, Nguyen explores the politics of war-making and peace-making not only from the North Vietnamese perspective but also from that of South Vietnam, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States, presenting a uniquely international portrait.

Battles and Operations of the Vietnam War In 1972

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Battles and Operations of the Vietnam War In 1972

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 52. Chapters: Operation Barrel Roll, Easter Offensive, Operation Linebacker II, Operation Igloo White, Operation Commando Hunt, Battle of Loc Ninh, Battle of Kontum, Battle of An L c, Operation Freedom Deal, First Battle of Qu ng Tr, Operation Popeye, Operation Thunderhead, Operation Arc Light, Battle of ng H i, Battle of Haiphong Harbor, Second Battle of Qu ng Tr, Operation Enhance Plus, Operation Prek Ta. Excerpt: Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction and close air support campaign conducted in the Kingdom of Laos between 14 December 1964 and 29 March 1973 concurrent with the Vietnam War. The original purpose of the operation was to serve as a signal to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to cease its support for the insurgency then taking place in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). This action was taken within Laos due to the location of North Vietnam's expanding logistical corridor known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to the North Vietnamese), which ran from southwestern North Vietnam, through southeastern Laos, and into South Vietnam. The campaign then centered on the interdiction of that logistical system. Beginning during the same time frame (and expanding throughout the conflict) the operation became increasingly involved in providing close air support missions for Royal Lao Armed Forces, CIA-backed tribal mercenaries, and Thai "volunteers" in a covert ground war in northern and northeastern Laos. Barrel Roll and the "Secret Army" attempted to stem an increasing tide of People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and Pathet Lao offensives. Barrel Roll was one of the most closely-held secrets and one of the most unknown components of the American military commitment in Southeast Asia. Due to the ...

Vietnam War The Essential Reference Guide

The Vietnam War was one of America's longest, bloodiest, and most controversial wars. This volume examines the complexities of this protracted conflict and explains why the lessons learned in Vietnam are still highly relevant today.

Vietnam War  The Essential Reference Guide

The Vietnam War was one of America's longest, bloodiest, and most controversial wars. This volume examines the complexities of this protracted conflict and explains why the lessons learned in Vietnam are still highly relevant today. • More than 45 contributors, including Robert K. Brigham, Cecil B. Currey, Arnold R. Isaacs, Lewis Sorley, Spencer C. Tucker, and David T. Zabecki • Introductory essays provide a broad overview of the Vietnam War and help readers understand the causes and consequences of the conflict • Maps depicting South Vietnam, infiltration routes, and key battles

Who Are Those Guys

In June1972, hewas assigned to the 340th Bomb Squadronat Blytheville AFB,
Arkansas, InOctober 1972,Lt. Col Rissideployed to Andersen AFB, Guam for the
second time. He was killed in action onthe first day of Operation Linebacker II on
 ...

Who Are Those Guys

Countless children, students, and adults have gone to Washington, D.C., to stand before the Vietnam Wall. Many others have stood before traveling versions of the wall, but for those who did not lose someone special in the war, the experience might not be as meaningful as it is for others. Thomas Mangan, a Vietnam veteran and longtime journalist, examines the lives of the Americans who died in the war and tells how they paid the ultimate price for freedom in this extensively researched handbook that reveals the people behind the list of names. The book serves as a resource for teachers, schoolchildren, and anyone seeking to make their visit to the wall more educational, meaningful, and inspiring. By reading about those whose names are on the wall, youll approach it with a new perspective. Whether youre a student, a teacher, soldier or a member of a veterans organization, youll gain a deeper appreciation for the freedom we enjoy from the stories of bravery and sacrifice in Who Are Those Guys?

The Air Force Way of War

" In The Air Force Way of War, Brian D. Laslie examines the revolution in pilot instruction that Red Flag brought about after Vietnam.

The Air Force Way of War

On December 18, 1972, more than one hundred U.S. B-52 bombers flew over North Vietnam to initiate Operation Linebacker II. During the next eleven days, sixteen of these planes were shot down and another four suffered heavy damage. These losses soon proved so devastating that Strategic Air Command was ordered to halt the bombing. The U.S. Air Force's poor performance in this and other operations during Vietnam was partly due to the fact that they had trained their pilots according to methods devised during World War II and the Korean War, when strategic bombers attacking targets were expected to take heavy losses. Warfare had changed by the 1960s, but the USAF had not adapted. Between 1972 and 1991, however, the Air Force dramatically changed its doctrines and began to overhaul the way it trained pilots through the introduction of a groundbreaking new training program called "Red Flag." In The Air Force Way of War, Brian D. Laslie examines the revolution in pilot instruction that Red Flag brought about after Vietnam. The program's new instruction methods were dubbed "realistic" because they prepared pilots for real-life situations better than the simple cockpit simulations of the past, and students gained proficiency on primary and secondary missions instead of superficially training for numerous possible scenarios. In addition to discussing the program's methods, Laslie analyzes the way its graduates actually functioned in combat during the 1980s and '90s in places such as Grenada, Panama, Libya, and Iraq. Military historians have traditionally emphasized the primacy of technological developments during this period and have overlooked the vital importance of advances in training, but Laslie's unprecedented study of Red Flag addresses this oversight through its examination of the seminal program.

The Aerial Pursuit of National Objectives

Although each case study provides unique insights to the effective use of air power in pursuit of national objectives, common themes for all three include the evolution of national objectives to match military capability, the isolation of ...

The Aerial Pursuit of National Objectives

This monograph examines how the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization employed air power to obtain national objectives in Operation Linebacker II, Operation Deliberate Force, and Operation Allied Force. Operation Linebacker II took place from 18-29 December 1972. It was the only maximum effort bombing campaign of the Vietnam War that targeted the heartland of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, ultimately compelling the negotiations that ended the conflict. Operation Deliberate Force, the final operation of the Balkans Air Campaign, was a seventeen-day effort that sought to undermine the military capability of the Bosnian Serb Army and led to the 1995 Dayton Accords. Operation Allied Force was a seventy-eight-day air campaign in 1999 that successfully sustained offensive operations against Serbian forces led by president Slobodan Milosevic and impelled their removal from Kosovo. This monograph primarily uses Dr. Mark Clodfelter's Framework for Evaluating Air Power Effectiveness as a means to evaluate these campaigns and test the hypothesis that an air campaign positively impacts national objectives when it effectively targets an enemy's military vulnerabilities in which it has no equal means of response. These case studies demonstrate air power's ability to obtain or positively contribute to the achievement of national objectives when used as the predominate or sole means of combat power. Findings indicate that while effective targeting was crucial to these campaigns, there were other factors of equal or greater importance. Although each case study provides unique insights to the effective use of air power in pursuit of national objectives, common themes for all three include the evolution of national objectives to match military capability, the isolation of the adversary from its perceived allies, and a type of war waged by the adversary conducive to targeting or exploitation by air power.This compilation also includes a reproduction of the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.This monograph examines the specific employment of air power in each of these campaigns to assess how it affected success in achieving national objectives. Borrowing heavily from Robert Pape's Bombing to Win, this monograph hypothesizes when an air campaign effectively targets an enemy's military vulnerabilities in which it has no equal means of response, it positively impacts national objectives by making continued military action imprudent. This hypothesis acknowledges that targeting may diverge from original campaign objectives in order to leverage the decisive but devastating effects of air power. To evaluate this hypothesis, this monograph uses the case study framework and the methodology outlined by air power historian and theorist Dr. Mark Clodfelter. In his article, "Airpower Versus Asymmetric Enemies: A Framework for Evaluating Effectiveness" Clodfelter provides a catalogue of variables and associated questions to apply to historical and potential uses of air power to determine its effectiveness. These criteria are further discussed in chapter one of this monograph; however, this monograph primarily considers his variables: (1) the nature of national objectives; (2) the nature of the enemy; (3) the type of war waged by the enemy; and (4) the magnitude of U.S. or allied military controls. It also applies supplemental campaign evaluation criteria from the 1994 Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) Primer and the 2014 Joint Publication 3-30: Command and Control of Joint Air Operations.

The Nixon Tapes

December 20, 1972, 11:32 a.m. Richard Nixon, Henry Kissinger, and Bob
Haldeman OVAL OFFICE On December 18, Nixon had ordered the launch of
Operation Linebacker II, an air assault of an intensity not seen since World War II.
On the ...

The Nixon Tapes

An enhanced edition of this “fascinating” collection of White House transcripts, including audio clips of some of the most newsworthy conversations (San Francisco Chronicle). This “treasure trove” of transcripts documents two years of Richard Nixon’s presidency and takes you directly inside the White House, through the famous—and infamous—Nixon White House tapes that reveal for the first time the president uncensored, unfiltered, and in his own words (TheBoston Globe). President Nixon’s voice-activated taping system captured every word spoken in the Oval Office, Cabinet Room, other key locations in the White House, and at Camp David—3,700 hours of recordings between 1971 and 1973. Yet less than five percent of those conversations have ever been transcribed and published. Now, thanks to historian Luke Nichter’s massive effort to digitize and transcribe the tapes, the world can finally read an unprecedented account of one of the most important and controversial presidencies in US history. This volume of The Nixon Tapes offers a selection of fascinating scenes from the period in which Nixon opened relations with China, negotiated the SALT I arms agreement with the Soviet Union, and won a landslide reelection victory. All the while, the growing shadow of Watergate and Nixon’s political downfall crept ever closer. The Nixon Tapes provides a never-before-seen glimpse into a flawed president’s hubris, paranoia, and political genius—“essential for students of the era and fascinating for those who lived it” (Kirkus Reviews, starred review).

Air War Over North Vietnam

In early 1965 the United States unleashed the largest sustained aerial bombing campaign since World War II, against North Vietnam.

Air War Over North Vietnam

In early 1965 the United States unleashed the largest sustained aerial bombing campaign since World War II, against North Vietnam. Through an ever escalating onslaught of destruction, Operation Rolling Thunder intended to signal Americas unwavering commitment to its South Vietnamese ally in the face of continued North Vietnamese aggression, break Hanois political will to prosecute the war, and bring about a negotiated settlement to the conflict. It was not to be. Against the backdrop of the Cold War and fears of widening the conflict into a global confrontation, Washington policy makers micromanaged and mismanaged the air campaign and increasingly muddled strategic objectives and operational methods that ultimately sowed the seeds of failure, despite the heroic sacrifices by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots and crews Despite flying some 306,000 combat sorties and dropping 864,000 tons of ordnance on North Vietnam 42 per cent more than that used in the Pacific theater during World War II Operation Rolling Thunder failed to drive Hanoi decisively to the negotiating table and end the war. That would take another four years and another air campaign. But by building on the hard earned political and military lessons of the past, the Nixon Administration and American military commanders would get another chance to prove themselves when they implemented operations Linebacker I and II in May and December 1972. And this time the results would be vastly different.

Linebacker II

Originally published: Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Airpower Research Institute, Air War College, 1979.

Linebacker II

Originally published: Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Airpower Research Institute, Air War College, 1979.

The Eleven Days of Christmas

In telling the story of America's last great air battle, Marshall Michel has used hundreds of formerly classified documents from U.S. government archives and traveled to Hanoi to examine records there.

The Eleven Days of Christmas

In telling the story of America's last great air battle, Marshall Michel has used hundreds of formerly classified documents from U.S. government archives and traveled to Hanoi to examine records there. He also interviewed dozens of Americans and Vietnamese who participated in the battle at all levels, allowing him to take the reader into meetings at the White House and SAC Headquarters, and into the B-52 cockpits, the Vietnamese missile sites and the POW camps of Hanoi.

Trial by Fire

Provides an account of the last massive engagement of the Vietnam War in which American forces participated Using official records, interviews with participants, and captured North Vietnamese documents, this volume covers the entire scope ...

Trial by Fire

Provides an account of the last massive engagement of the Vietnam War in which American forces participated

The Vietnam War

SEPTEMBER 16, 1972 Quang Tri City recaptured by ARVN forces. OCTOBER
1972 Breakthrough announced in Paris peace talks. DECEMBER 18—30, 1972
B-52 bombers batter North Vietnamese cities in “Operation Linebacker 2.

The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War explores the long and costly civil war pitting South Vietnamese and U.S. forces against communist guerrillas and North Vietnamese troops.

The History of US Electronic Warfare Rolling Thunder through Allied Force 1964 2000

... improve tactics of B-52s employed in conventional bombing operations — B-52
operations over North Vietnam — one heavy bomber shot down — Operation
LINEBACKER I ended in October 1972 Chapter 11 OPERATION LINEBACKER II
 ...

The History of US Electronic Warfare  Rolling Thunder through Allied Force  1964 2000


Quotations on the Vietnam War

Quotations on the Vietnam War

In the history of American warfare, no military action is so controversial or misunderstood as the Vietnam Conflict. Since America's first involvement in the 1940s, to the present, the causes, effects, and lingering ambiguities have been discussed and debated at great length. Vietnam is the quintessential intellectuals' war. This dictionary of quotations records the words of the famous, the nonfamous, and the infamous alike. Presidents and dissidents and everyone in between cover the gamut of topics related to the war and their comments range from the sobering to the shocking to the ironic to the profound. The quotations are arranged by year, beginning in 1944 with the first hints of the trouble to come in Southeast Asia, and continuing up through the present day. The final section is a collection of generally undated proverbs, graffiti and comments that describe war in general and capture the Vietnam experience in particular. Each quotation includes the speaker and the time or occasion that prompted it, as well as background information on the utterance and the events to which it refers. Subject, keyword, and name indexes allow for easy reference.

Case studies in the achievement of air superiority

The code names and dates of those particular operations are as follows: Rolling
Thunder (March 1965-October 1968), Linebacker I (April-October 1972), and
Linebacker II (December 1972). Through the course of these three operations,
U.S. ...

Case studies in the achievement of air superiority