Order without Design

In this book, the eminent urban planner Alain Bertaud argues that applying the theories of urban economics to the practice of urban planning would greatly improve both the productivity of cities and the welfare of urban citizens.

Order without Design

An argument that operational urban planning can be improved by the application of the tools of urban economics to the design of regulations and infrastructure. Urban planning is a craft learned through practice. Planners make rapid decisions that have an immediate impact on the ground—the width of streets, the minimum size of land parcels, the heights of buildings. The language they use to describe their objectives is qualitative—“sustainable,” “livable,” “resilient”—often with no link to measurable outcomes. Urban economics, on the other hand, is a quantitative science, based on theories, models, and empirical evidence largely developed in academic settings. In this book, the eminent urban planner Alain Bertaud argues that applying the theories of urban economics to the practice of urban planning would greatly improve both the productivity of cities and the welfare of urban citizens. Bertaud explains that markets provide the indispensable mechanism for cities' development. He cites the experience of cities without markets for land or labor in pre-reform China and Russia; this “urban planners' dream” created inefficiencies and waste. Drawing on five decades of urban planning experience in forty cities around the world, Bertaud links cities' productivity to the size of their labor markets; argues that the design of infrastructure and markets can complement each other; examines the spatial distribution of land prices and densities; stresses the importance of mobility and affordability; and critiques the land use regulations in a number of cities that aim at redesigning existing cities instead of just trying to alleviate clear negative externalities. Bertaud concludes by describing the new role that joint teams of urban planners and economists could play to improve the way cities are managed.

Order Without Design

Library of Congress Cataloging - in - Publication Data Feldman , Martha S. , Order without design : information production and policy making / Martha S.

Order Without Design

In this lively and, ultimately, disturbing study of policy analysts who are employed in bureaucracies, the author finds a startling paradox. The analysts know that the papers they so painstakingly prepare will not be used; as one analyst remarked, "Either it won't get done in time, or it won't be good enough, or the person who wanted it done will have left and no one will know what to do with it, or the issue will no longer exist." Yet the analysts continue to work at producing these papers. The means of producing information is at the heart of the paradox. The process systematically produces information that is difficult to use directly in decision-making. Yet analysts can do little to alter the constraints of the process. They continue to produce papers because it is their job, they value doing it, and it is their major means of influencing policy. In so doing they make a unique, though indirect, contribution to policy making. Drawing on eighteen months of observation and participation in the work of the policy office of the U.S. Department of Energy, the author fully investigates the conditions that create the paradox and the positive as well as the negative implications of the process of information production in organizations.

Order without Design

Ignoring land prices when designing cities is like ignoring gravity when designing an airplane. The Operational Applications of the Standard Urban Model An ...

Order without Design

An argument that operational urban planning can be improved by the application of the tools of urban economics to the design of regulations and infrastructure. Urban planning is a craft learned through practice. Planners make rapid decisions that have an immediate impact on the ground—the width of streets, the minimum size of land parcels, the heights of buildings. The language they use to describe their objectives is qualitative—“sustainable,” “livable,” “resilient”—often with no link to measurable outcomes. Urban economics, on the other hand, is a quantitative science, based on theories, models, and empirical evidence largely developed in academic settings. In this book, the eminent urban planner Alain Bertaud argues that applying the theories of urban economics to the practice of urban planning would greatly improve both the productivity of cities and the welfare of urban citizens. Bertaud explains that markets provide the indispensable mechanism for cities' development. He cites the experience of cities without markets for land or labor in pre-reform China and Russia; this “urban planners' dream” created inefficiencies and waste. Drawing on five decades of urban planning experience in forty cities around the world, Bertaud links cities' productivity to the size of their labor markets; argues that the design of infrastructure and markets can complement each other; examines the spatial distribution of land prices and densities; stresses the importance of mobility and affordability; and critiques the land use regulations in a number of cities that aim at redesigning existing cities instead of just trying to alleviate clear negative externalities. Bertaud concludes by describing the new role that joint teams of urban planners and economists could play to improve the way cities are managed.

Order with Or Without Design

selections from F.A. Hayek's contribution to the theory and application of spontaneous order Friedrich August Hayek, Naomi Moldofsky. ORDER - With or Without Design? First published in December 1 989 by The Centre for Research into ...

Order   with Or Without Design


Design and Order

Order without Design. MIT Press. Binet, Rene. (1904). From Nature to Form. Prestel. Blake, Peter. (1964). God's Own Junkyard. Holt, Rinehart & Winston ...

Design and Order

Teaches the principles behind the successful planning and creation of inspired built forms and urban places This book offers an integrated understanding of both the principles and the perception of the design of built environments and public spaces. It outlines the fundamental characteristics that are evident in the creation of built form and illustrates how they determine the experience of resultant places. It also consolidates the key criteria that need to be taken into consideration in the development of these areas. All of the above-mentioned aims to provide designers with a solid understanding of the implications of their decisions on perception and behavior during the creation of new spaces. Design and Order: Perceptual experience of built form - Principles in the Planning and Making of Place starts by examining the designing of natural environments and the affect that they have on humans. It teaches readers how people experience and are shaped by a space—via their eyes, brain, and overall perception. It then instructs on proper grammar of form and syntax so that designers can understand how to pursue design processes systematically. The book then takes readers through this process of designing, informing them on the principles of form, function, configuration, communication, organization, color and contrasts, building structures, good practice and more. Seeks to improve the methodological approach to the planning and design of buildings Broadly address all of the functions that impact the realization of new built and urban form Outlines the fundamental characteristics that are evident in the design of built forms and illustrates how these characteristics determine the experience of the resultant places Comprehensively covers the ideas, principles, and the perception of design Teaches designers to make informed decisions about applying or discarding principles when creating spaces. Design and Order is a unique book that will appeal to students and professionals in architecture, urban design and planning, as well as designers and developers.

Strategy Without Design

made orders act is hastening on along rapid and unpredictable lines of flight, constantly bringing into question the continued appropriateness of ...

Strategy Without Design

"In business the survival and flourishing of an organisation is most often associated with the ability of its strategists to create a distinctive identity by confronting and rising above others. Yet not all organisational accomplishment can be explained with recourse to deliberate choice and purposeful design on the part of strategic actors. This book shows why. Using examples from the world of business, economics, military strategy, politics and philosophy, it argues that collective success may inadvertently emerge as a result of the everyday coping actions of a multitude of individuals, none of whom intended to contribute to any preconceived plan. A consequence of this claim is that a paradox exists in strategic interventions, one that no strategist can afford to ignore. The more directly and deliberately a strategic goal is single-mindedly sought, the more likely it is that such calculated instrumental action eventually works to undermine its own initial success"--Provided by publisher.

Africa s Infrastructure

Order without Design.” http://www.alain-bertaud.com. Briceño-Garmendia, Cecilia, Karlis Smits, and Vivien Foster. 2008. “Financing Public Infrastructure in ...

Africa s Infrastructure

Sustainable infrastructure development is vital for Africa s prosperity. And now is the time to begin the transformation. This volume is the culmination of an unprecedented effort to document, analyze, and interpret the full extent of the challenge in developing Sub-Saharan Africa s infrastructure sectors. As a result, it represents the most comprehensive reference currently available on infrastructure in the region. The book covers the five main economic infrastructure sectors information and communication technology, irrigation, power, transport, and water and sanitation. 'Africa s Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation' reflects the collaboration of a wide array of African regional institutions and development partners under the auspices of the Infrastructure Consortium for Africa. It presents the findings of the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD), a project launched following a commitment in 2005 by the international community (after the G8 summit at Gleneagles, Scotland) to scale up financial support for infrastructure development in Africa. The lack of reliable information in this area made it difficult to evaluate the success of past interventions, prioritize current allocations, and provide benchmarks for measuring future progress, hence the need for the AICD. Africa s infrastructure sectors lag well behind those of the rest of the world, and the gap is widening. Some of the main policy-relevant findings highlighted in the book include the following: infrastructure in the region is exceptionally expensive, with tariffs being many times higher than those found elsewhere. Inadequate and expensive infrastructure is retarding growth by 2 percentage points each year. Solving the problem will cost over US$90 billion per year, which is more than twice what is being spent in Africa today. However, money alone is not the answer. Prudent policies, wise management, and sound maintenance can improve efficiency, thereby stretching the infrastructure dollar. There is the potential to recover an additional US$17 billion a year from within the existing infrastructure resource envelope simply by improving efficiency. For example, improved revenue collection and utility management could generate US$3.3 billion per year. Regional power trade could reduce annual costs by US$2 billion. And deregulating the trucking industry could reduce freight costs by one-half. So, raising more funds without also tackling inefficiencies would be like pouring water into a leaking bucket. Finally, the power sector and fragile states represent particular challenges. Even if every efficiency in every infrastructure sector could be captured, a substantial funding gap of $31 billion a year would remain. Nevertheless, the African people and economies cannot wait any longer. Now is the time to begin the transformation to sustainable development.

Economic Sentiments

But the possibility of orderliness without order, or without the ... between arguments about divine design and arguments about the designs of sovereigns.

Economic Sentiments

A benchmark in the history of economics and of political ideas, Rothschild shows us the origins of laissez-faire economic thought and its relation to political conseratism in an unquiet world.

Atheism Considered

Perhaps the most important is the purported relationship between order and design. We know that we can have order without design.9 Further, ...

Atheism Considered

Atheism Considered is a systematic presentation of challenges to the existence of a higher power. Rather than engage in polemic against a religious worldview, C.M. Lorkowski charitably refutes the classical arguments for the existence of god, pointing out flaws in their underlying reasoning and highlighting difficulties inherent to revealed sources. In place of a theistic worldview, he argues for adopting a naturalistic one, highlighting naturalism’s capacity to explain world phenomena and contribute to the sciences. Lorkowski demonstrates that replacing theism with naturalism, contra popular assumptions, sacrifices nothing in terms of ethics or meaning. Instead, morality ultimately proves more important than religion and does not rely on it. Appropriate for classroom use, this book is meant to cultivate understanding, tolerance, and fruitful dialogue between believers and nonbelievers.

Order Without Design

Order Without Design


Disestablishing the School

Order without design? Would leaving the curriculum to the market lead to chaos? Firstly, we do have evidence of some market control of the curriculum, ...

Disestablishing the School

That governments are, and will always be, involved in education, is taken for granted by the majority of educationalists. Recent market reforms are condemned, because they appear to undermine state intervention in education. But are justifications for state intervention in education philosophically sound? Is the attack on markets justified? In Disestablishing the School, Dr Tooley explores these issues, setting recent educational policy debates in the broader context of debates in moral and political philosophy, and philosophy of economics. Topical issues to do with equality of opportunity, education for democracy, education for autonomy, democratic control of the curriculum, and education as a public good are examined. None of these survive as a critique of markets in education, nor as a justification for state intervention in education. In undermining these arguments, Dr Tooley argues that the case for the disestablishment of the school, for the separation of school and state, can be philosophically sustained.

It Can be Fixed

25 Martha S. Feldman , Order Without Design : Information Production and Policy Making ( Stanford , Calif .: Stanford University Press , 1989 ) , pp . 1-2 .

It Can be Fixed

This book is a firsthand account of Johnson's attempt to make a difference: the roadblocks he encountered, the personal attacks he endured, the truth about how your government operates and how professional management tools can help. The book demonstrates, time and again, how the lack of good management adversely affects policy implementation across the spectrum, from national defense to welfare.

An Introduction to Agent Based Modeling

In complex systems, order can emerge without any design or designer. The idea of order without design has been controversial throughout the history of ...

An Introduction to Agent Based Modeling

A comprehensive and hands-on introduction to the core concepts, methods, and applications of agent-based modeling, including detailed NetLogo examples. The advent of widespread fast computing has enabled us to work on more complex problems and to build and analyze more complex models. This book provides an introduction to one of the primary methodologies for research in this new field of knowledge. Agent-based modeling (ABM) offers a new way of doing science: by conducting computer-based experiments. ABM is applicable to complex systems embedded in natural, social, and engineered contexts, across domains that range from engineering to ecology. An Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling offers a comprehensive description of the core concepts, methods, and applications of ABM. Its hands-on approach—with hundreds of examples and exercises using NetLogo—enables readers to begin constructing models immediately, regardless of experience or discipline. The book first describes the nature and rationale of agent-based modeling, then presents the methodology for designing and building ABMs, and finally discusses how to utilize ABMs to answer complex questions. Features in each chapter include step-by-step guides to developing models in the main text; text boxes with additional information and concepts; end-of-chapter explorations; and references and lists of relevant reading. There is also an accompanying website with all the models and code.

The Ascent of Humanity

Order. without. Design. Certain theologians and scientists have made much of the amazing fact that the physical constants of the universe seem to be ...

The Ascent of Humanity

Charles Eisenstein explores the history and potential future of civilization, tracing the converging crises of our age to the illusion of the separate self. In this limited hardcover edition of Eisenstein's landmark book, he argues that our disconnection from one another and the natural world has mislaid the foundations of science, religion, money, technology, economics, medicine, and education as we know them. It has fired our near-pathological pursuit of technological Utopias even as we push ourselves and our planet to the brink of collapse. Fortunately, an Age of Reunion is emerging out of the birth pangs of an earth in crisis. Our journey of separation hasn't been a terrible mistake but an evolutionary process and an adventure in self-discovery. Even in our darkest hour, Eisenstein sees the possibility of a more beautiful world--not through the extension of millennia-old methods of management and control but by fundamentally reimagining ourselves and our systems. We must shift away from our Babelian efforts to build ever-higher towers to heaven and instead turn out attention to creating a new kind of civilization--one designed for beauty rather than height. Breathtaking in its scope and intelligence, The Ascent of Humanity is a landmark book showing what it truly means to be human. "A tour-de-force filled with astounding insight, wit, wisdom and heart." --Christopher Uhl, author of Developing Ecological Consciousness: Paths to a Sustainable Future "Quite marvelous, a hugely important work. This book is truly needed in this time of deepening crisis." --John Zerzan, author of Future Primitive and Elements of Refusal

Chats With Converts

There can be no true order without design or purpose, as. there can be no effective designing without order. The argument drawn from order and design might ...

Chats With Converts

Thirty chapters on all aspects of the Faith converts ask about. Packed with logic and evidence supporting the truth of the Catholic Religion and showing the errors of Protestantism. Covers the Bible; the Pope; Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist; Confession; Purgatory; the Blessed Virgin and much more. Went through 30 printings; starting in 1943. Originally published by Frs. Rumble and Carty of Radio Replies fame and still vital today. Destined to do great good.

Beyond Machiavelli

Feldman , Order Without Design , p . 62 . 48. Ibid . 49. Bardach , Eight - Step Path , p . 14 . 50. Ibid . , pp . 15-16 . 51. Weiss describes the oral ...

Beyond Machiavelli

Policy analysis is a relatively young field, created in the 1960s as a way to introduce data and rationality into the decision-making process. In Beyond Machiavelli, Beryl A. Radin compares policy analysis in the 1960s with its practice in the 1990s, analyzing the transformations the profession has undergone since its birth and offering a provocative conception of its practice today. All new professions go through a maturation process, but Radin points out that policy analysis is more susceptible to change because it is directly affected by shifting political values. The United States of the 1960s was characterized by a strong belief in progress, a trust in the public sector, and a reliance on experts. By the 1990s, Americans were less confident about the future, not as trustful of the government, and less willing to defer to so-called experts. Even so, the number and range of policy analysis jobs has grown markedly. Radin explores the significant changes that have taken place in the field, including attitudes toward politics, skills and methodologies required, views about information and data, and shifts in modes of decision making. She includes profiles of six very diverse policy analysis organizations to illustrate these changes. While some argue that the 1960s were the golden day of the profession when decision makers listened to experts, Radin argues that the earlier version of the field held to traditions of elitism and secrecy and that policy analysis in the 1990s, pluralistic and open, is a more democratic American profession.

Obliquity

Order. without. design. how complex outcomes are achieved without knowledge of an overall purpose. As. the economists Ken Arrow and Frank Hahn put it, ...

Obliquity

If you want to go in one direction, the best route may involve going in another. This is the concept of 'obliquity': paradoxical as it sounds, many goals are more likely to be achieved when pursued indirectly. The richest men and women are not the most materialistic; the happiest people are not necessarily those who focus on happiness, and the most profitable companies are not always the most profit-oriented as the recent financial crisis showed us. Whether overcoming geographical obstacles, winning decisive battles or meeting sales targets, history shows that oblique approaches are the most successful, especially in difficult terrain. John Kay applies his provocative, universal theory to everything from international business to town planning and from football to managing forest fire.

On Beyond Darwin

And without order there would be no science. But, I maintain that it is possible to have order without design. It is my thesis that there is no more ...

On Beyond Darwin


Religion and Politics in International Relations

I believe historically the ideas of 'order without design' and 'spontaneous coordination' were derived from theology; that is, order without apparent design ...

Religion and Politics in International Relations

Scholars in International Relations concerned with religion and its relations to world politics are rhetorically constructing a powerful modern myth. A component of this myth is that religion is inherently violent and irrational unless controlled by the secular state, which is inherently rational and only reluctantly violent. Timothy Fitzgerald discusses how, in this modern myth, "religion" appears as a force of nature which either assists or threatens the sacred secular order of things, and how religion is portrayed as a kind of universal essence which takes many forms, its recent most dangerous manifestation being "Islamic terrorism". This book illustrates that the essential distinction between irrational religion and rational secular politics appears as an unquestioned preconception on the basis of which policy is conducted, countries invaded and wars fought. Arguing that this rhetorical construction of religion provides the foundation for faith in the rationality of modern liberal capitalism, Fitzgerald demonstrates how a historically contingent discourse has been transformed into a powerful set of global assumptions.

Cooperation Without Trust

Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes. Cambridge, Mass. ... Order Without Design: Information Production and Policymaking. Palo Alto, Calif.

Cooperation Without Trust

Some social theorists claim that trust is necessary for the smooth functioning of a democratic society. Yet many recent surveys suggest that trust is on the wane in the United States. Does this foreshadow trouble for the nation? In Cooperation Without Trust? Karen Cook, Russell Hardin, and Margaret Levi argue that a society can function well in the absence of trust. Though trust is a useful element in many kinds of relationships, they contend that mutually beneficial cooperative relationships can take place without it. Cooperation Without Trust? employs a wide range of examples illustrating how parties use mechanisms other than trust to secure cooperation. Concerns about one's reputation, for example, could keep a person in a small community from breaching agreements. State enforcement of contracts ensures that business partners need not trust one another in order to trade. Similarly, monitoring worker behavior permits an employer to vest great responsibility in an employee without necessarily trusting that person. Cook, Hardin, and Levi discuss other mechanisms for facilitating cooperation absent trust, such as the self-regulation of professional societies, management compensation schemes, and social capital networks. In fact, the authors argue that a lack of trust—or even outright distrust—may in many circumstances be more beneficial in creating cooperation. Lack of trust motivates people to reduce risks and establish institutions that promote cooperation. A stout distrust of government prompted America's founding fathers to establish a system in which leaders are highly accountable to their constituents, and in which checks and balances keep the behavior of government officials in line with the public will. Such institutional mechanisms are generally more dependable in securing cooperation than simple faith in the trustworthiness of others. Cooperation Without Trust? suggests that trust may be a complement to governing institutions, not a substitute for them. Whether or not the decline in trust documented by social surveys actually indicates an erosion of trust in everyday situations, this book argues that society is not in peril. Even if we were a less trusting society, that would not mean we are a less functional one. A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust