Penetration Testing and Network Defense offers detailed steps on how to emulate an outside attacker in order to assess the security of a network. Unlike other books on hacking, this book is specifically geared towards penetration testing.
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Cisco Press
The practical guide to simulating, detecting, and responding to network attacks Create step-by-step testing plans Learn to perform social engineering and host reconnaissance Evaluate session hijacking methods Exploit web server vulnerabilities Detect attempts to breach database security Use password crackers to obtain access information Circumvent Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) and firewall protections and disrupt the service of routers and switches Scan and penetrate wireless networks Understand the inner workings of Trojan Horses, viruses, and other backdoor applications Test UNIX, Microsoft, and Novell servers for vulnerabilities Learn the root cause of buffer overflows and how to prevent them Perform and prevent Denial of Service attacks Penetration testing is a growing field but there has yet to be a definitive resource that instructs ethical hackers on how to perform a penetration test with the ethics and responsibilities of testing in mind. Penetration Testing and Network Defense offers detailed steps on how to emulate an outside attacker in order to assess the security of a network. Unlike other books on hacking, this book is specifically geared towards penetration testing. It includes important information about liability issues and ethics as well as procedures and documentation. Using popular open-source and commercial applications, the book shows you how to perform a penetration test on an organization’s network, from creating a test plan to performing social engineering and host reconnaissance to performing simulated attacks on both wired and wireless networks. Penetration Testing and Network Defense also goes a step further than other books on hacking, as it demonstrates how to detect an attack on a live network. By detailing the method of an attack and how to spot an attack on your network, this book better prepares you to guard against hackers. You will learn how to configure, record, and thwart these attacks and how to harden a system to protect it against future internal and external attacks. Full of real-world examples and step-by-step procedures, this book is both an enjoyable read and full of practical advice that will help you assess network security and develop a plan for locking down sensitive data and company resources. “This book goes to great lengths to explain the various testing approaches that are used today and gives excellent insight into how a responsible penetration testing specialist executes his trade.” –Bruce Murphy, Vice President, World Wide Security Services, Cisco Systems®
Anyone involved in testing and auditing a company’s security must know how where their security is and how to optimize it for today’s threats. This book and methodology does just that.
Author: Chris Nickerson
“Think like our enemy! is a directive straight from Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. It is this idea, predating computing by millennia, that is at the core of Red Team Testing. The methodology behind red teaming takes the shackles off of security consultants and pen testers, allowing them to truly test a company’s physical, electronic, and computer security. Chris Nickerson details how red team testing provides real world results that can evaluate and drive out business risk in this new age of threats. Security professionals will learn techniques and technologies used by advanced hackers, including how to conduct social. engineering, lock picking, phishing, application, wireless and several more dangerous blended threats. Anyone involved in testing and auditing a company’s security must know how where their security is and how to optimize it for today’s threats. This book and methodology does just that. Teaches you how to think like a hacker, so that you see security strengths and weaknesses as they truly are Identifies business trick using hacker techniques and tactics like social engineering and blend attacks Provides a methodology for red team testing, including intelligence gathering, planning the attack, and post-compromise reporting
This timely text helps you gain the knowledge and skills to protect networks using the tools and techniques of an ethical hacker.
Author: Michael T. Simpson
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Cyber-terrorism and corporate espionage are increasingly common and devastating threats, making trained network security professionals more important than ever. This timely text helps you gain the knowledge and skills to protect networks using the tools and techniques of an ethical hacker. The authors begin by exploring the concept of ethical hacking and its practitioners, explaining their importance in protecting corporate and government data from cyber attacks. The text then provides an in-depth guide to performing security testing against computer networks, covering current tools and penetration testing methodologies. Updated for today’s cyber security environment, the Third Edition of this trusted text features new computer security resources, coverage of emerging vulnerabilities and innovative methods to protect networks, a new discussion of mobile security, and information on current federal and state computer crime laws, including penalties for illegal computer hacking. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Employ the most advanced pentesting techniques and tools to build highly-secured systems and environments About This Book Learn how to build your own pentesting lab environment to practice advanced techniques Customize your own scripts, and ...
Author: Lee Allen
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
Employ the most advanced pentesting techniques and tools to build highly-secured systems and environments About This Book Learn how to build your own pentesting lab environment to practice advanced techniques Customize your own scripts, and learn methods to exploit 32-bit and 64-bit programs Explore a vast variety of stealth techniques to bypass a number of protections when penetration testing Who This Book Is For This book is for anyone who wants to improve their skills in penetration testing. As it follows a step-by-step approach, anyone from a novice to an experienced security tester can learn effective techniques to deal with highly secured environments. Whether you are brand new or a seasoned expert, this book will provide you with the skills you need to successfully create, customize, and plan an advanced penetration test. What You Will Learn A step-by-step methodology to identify and penetrate secured environments Get to know the process to test network services across enterprise architecture when defences are in place Grasp different web application testing methods and how to identify web application protections that are deployed Understand a variety of concepts to exploit software Gain proven post-exploitation techniques to exfiltrate data from the target Get to grips with various stealth techniques to remain undetected and defeat the latest defences Be the first to find out the latest methods to bypass firewalls Follow proven approaches to record and save the data from tests for analysis In Detail The defences continue to improve and become more and more common, but this book will provide you with a number or proven techniques to defeat the latest defences on the networks. The methods and techniques contained will provide you with a powerful arsenal of best practices to increase your penetration testing successes. The processes and methodology will provide you techniques that will enable you to be successful, and the step by step instructions of information gathering and intelligence will allow you to gather the required information on the targets you are testing. The exploitation and post-exploitation sections will supply you with the tools you would need to go as far as the scope of work will allow you. The challenges at the end of each chapter are designed to challenge you and provide real-world situations that will hone and perfect your penetration testing skills. You will start with a review of several well respected penetration testing methodologies, and following this you will learn a step-by-step methodology of professional security testing, including stealth, methods of evasion, and obfuscation to perform your tests and not be detected! The final challenge will allow you to create your own complex layered architecture with defences and protections in place, and provide the ultimate testing range for you to practice the methods shown throughout the book. The challenge is as close to an actual penetration test assignment as you can get! Style and approach The book follows the standard penetration testing stages from start to finish with step-by-step examples. The book thoroughly covers penetration test expectations, proper scoping and planning, as well as enumeration and foot printing
We want to be clear that the Raspberry Pi is not the ideal tool to leverage for cyber defense. Best practice is layering security solutions that offer various
features such as application layer controls, stateful firewall, intrusion prevention,
Author: Joseph Muniz
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.
Specific topics covered in this book include: Hacking myths Potential drawbacks of penetration testing Announced versus unannounced testing Application-level holes and defenses Penetration through the Internet, including zone transfer, ...
Author: T. J. Klevinsky
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
Introduces penetration testing and its importance in maintaining network security, discussing factors including the responsibilities of a penetration testing professional and potential system weaknesses.
This book presents proven and practical step-by-step guides on... * Computers and Smartphones hacking * How to use Kali Linux * Penetration Testing * How to attack networks, corrupt systems and evade anti-viruses * How to Identify ...
Author: Arthur Abramowitz
Have You Ever Wanted To Be A Hacker? Or Do You Simply Crave To Keep Yourself Updated With The Latest Technologies And Penetrating Techniques? If yes, then, Quick Start to HACKING is the right book. This book presents proven and practical step-by-step guides on... * Computers and Smartphones hacking * How to use Kali Linux * Penetration Testing * How to attack networks, corrupt systems and evade anti-viruses * How to Identify Vulnerabilities in websites and Applications * Simple Vulnerability Assessment and Exploitation tools This book provides you with detailed basic hacking resources and gets you exposed to the latest secret techniques of professional hackers.Enjoy limitless opportunities and benefits that this book offers by simply clicking on the DOWNLOAD Button
... Administration for Security Professionals Customizing BackTrack and Security
Tools Protocol Analysis and Network Programming Reconnaissance,
Vulnerability Assessment, and Cyber Testing Penetration Testing Cyber Network Defense ...
Author: Thomas J. Mowbray
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A must-have, hands-on guide for working in the cybersecurity profession Cybersecurity involves preventative methods to protect information from attacks. It requires a thorough understanding of potential threats, such as viruses and other malicious code, as well as system vulnerability and security architecture. This essential book addresses cybersecurity strategies that include identity management, risk management, and incident management, and also serves as a detailed guide for anyone looking to enter the security profession. Doubling as the text for a cybersecurity course, it is also a useful reference for cybersecurity testing, IT test/development, and system/network administration. Covers everything from basic network administration security skills through advanced command line scripting, tool customization, and log analysis skills Dives deeper into such intense topics as wireshark/tcpdump filtering, Google hacks, Windows/Linux scripting, Metasploit command line, and tool customizations Delves into network administration for Windows, Linux, and VMware Examines penetration testing, cyber investigations, firewall configuration, and security tool customization Shares techniques for cybersecurity testing, planning, and reporting Cybersecurity: Managing Systems, Conducting Testing, and Investigating Intrusions is a comprehensive and authoritative look at the critical topic of cybersecurity from start to finish.
This book will show you exactly how to prepare yourself for the attacks you will face every day by simulating real-world possibilities.
Author: Nipun Jaswal
Metasploit is a popular penetration testing framework that has one of the largest exploit databases around. This book will show you exactly how to prepare yourself for the attacks you will face every day by simulating real-world possibilities.
Are you interested in learning how to become a hacker? If your answer is yes, then look no further. This book will take you down that road. This book is going to teach you how hackers reason.
Author: Norman Laurence
Are you interested in learning how to become a hacker? If your answer is yes, then look no further. This book will take you down that road. This book is going to teach you how hackers reason. Besides understanding the reasons why a hacker would target your computer, you will also get to know how they are able to do it and even how you can safeguard your systems, equipment, and network against hacking attacks. Keen readers will, by the end of this book, understand how their systems work, how to scan, and how to gain access to your computer. The book has been structured in 11 chapters that will each teach you something new in matters hacking with Kali Linux. Concepts have been simplified. By the time you come to the end of this book, you will have mastered the basics of computer hacking alongside a number of advanced concepts in social engineering attack mechanisms. The book is truly a template for everyone who intends to understand hacking. Additionally, you can expect the following from this book: Introduction to Kali Linux The Basics of Hacking and Using Kali Linux Kali Tools Penetration Testing The process of ethical hacking How to scanning devices in a network What are cyber attacks The basics of cybersecurity Vulnerability assessments Wireless network hacking Analyzing and managing networks Penetration Testing Plenty of books about Hacking with Kali Linux do not cover crucial concepts in a satisfactory fashion. Let me say again that nothing has been left out by this book. Grab yourself a copy of this book, and you will get to discover interesting stuff about hacking using Kali Linux. The book will provide you a platform to be better student, security administrator, or penetration tester. You will also find out how you can protect your computer from all the hacker's attacks!Scroll up and click BUY NOW button!
Building Defense In-Depth Cliff Riggs. Chapter. 12. Network. Penetration. Testing
. There are few subjects that can perk up a tired audience quicker than a
discussion of network penetration testing. This is the chance for the good guys to
act like ...
Author: Cliff Riggs
Publisher: CRC Press
Today's network administrators are fully aware of the importance of security; unfortunately, they have neither the time nor the resources to be full-time InfoSec experts. Oftentimes quick, temporary security fixes are the most that can be expected. The majority of security books on the market are also of little help. They are either targeted toward
This book includes: Hacking with Kali Linux A Beginner's Guide to Learn Penetration Testing to Protect Your Family and Business from Cyber Attacks Building a Home Security System for Wireless Network Security Here's a sneak peek of what you ...
Author: Zach Codings
Publisher: Zach Codings
How do I secure my computer? What is malware and how do I get rid of it? Do I only need to worry about Phishing attacks via email? What if my personal email account, bank account, or other accounts were compromised? Sounds familiar? Keep reading... Cybersecurity has changed significantly in the past decade, we've moved away from the days when basic virus protection and security controls were sufficient to deter threats, to the need for advanced security analytics tools to prevent advanced persistent threats (APTs) and tackle malicious insiders. This book includes: Hacking with Kali Linux A Beginner's Guide to Learn Penetration Testing to Protect Your Family and Business from Cyber Attacks Building a Home Security System for Wireless Network Security Here's a sneak peek of what you'll learn with this book: - What is hacking - The importance of cybersecurity - How malware and cyber-attacks operate - How to install Kali Linux on a virtual box - How to scan networks - VPNs & Firewalls - An introduction to Digital Signatures and Cryptography - and much more... Ethical Hacking A Beginner's Guide to Computer and Wireless Networks Defense Strategies, Penetration Testing and Information Security Risk Assessment Throughout these pages, you will learn: - Roles and responsibilities of an Ethical Hacker - Hacking as a career - Making money freelance - Most common security tools - The three ways to scan your system - The seven proven penetration testing strategies - and much more... Even if you aren't a security expert, there are a few basic steps you can take to secure your computer. Arm yourself with all this knowledge! Scroll up and click the BUY NOW BUTTON!
The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience with computer
security, including penetration testing of military networks, the White House,
utilities, manufacturing facilities, CIA headquarters, the Defense Information
Author: Bruce Middleton
Publisher: CRC Press
When it’s all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks—using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell. The book taps into Bruce Middleton’s decades of experience with computer security, including penetration testing of military networks, the White House, utilities, manufacturing facilities, CIA headquarters, the Defense Information Systems Agency, and NASA. Mr. Middleton begins with a chapter on defensive measures/privacy issues and then moves on to describe a cyber-attack on one of his labs and how he responded to the attack. Next, the book explains how to research a target without directly "touching" that target. Once you’ve learned all you can, the text describes how to gather even more information using a more direct approach. From there, it covers mathematical analysis, considers target exploitation, and discusses Chinese and Syrian cyber-attacks. Providing authoritative guidance on cyberforensics, reverse engineering, and penetration testing, the book categorizes testing tools according to their use within the standard penetration testing framework. For each of the above-mentioned categories, you will find basic and advanced tools and procedures to help you identify security vulnerabilities in today’s networks. After reading this book, you will understand how to perform an organized and efficient penetration test. You will also learn techniques used to bypass anti-virus software and capture keystrokes of remote systems. Explaining how to put together your own penetration testing lab, the text concludes by describing how to utilize various iPhone apps to perform reconnaissance activities on wireless networks.
NETWORK DEFENSE Resources the newer system had been debugged , the
network administrators forgot about the old system ... To obtain the maximum
value from a penetration test , provide as much infor - mation as possible to the
Network security specialists focus on network defense, ensuring that a network
has properly operating hardware such as firewalls, intrusion ... Some specialists
focus on assessing security by performing vulnerability and penetration testing.
Author: Darril Gibson
Publisher: Pearson IT Certification
All of today’s help desk support skills, in one easy-to-understand book The perfect beginner’s guide: No help desk or support experience necessary Covers both “soft” personal skills and “hard” technical skills Explains the changing role of help desk professionals in the modern support center Today, everyone depends on technology–and practically everyone needs help to use it well. Organizations deliver that assistance through help desks. This guide brings together all the knowledge you need to succeed in any help desk or technical support role, prepare for promotion, and succeed with the support-related parts of other IT jobs. Leading technology instructor Darril Gibson tours the modern help desk, explains what modern support professionals really do, and fully covers both of the skill sets you’ll need: technical and personal. In clear and simple language, he discusses everything from troubleshooting specific problems to working with difficult users. You’ll even learn how to manage a help desk, so it works better and delivers more value. Coverage includes: • How the modern help desk has evolved • Understanding your users’ needs, goals, and attitudes • Walking through the typical help desk call • Communicating well: listening actively and asking better questions • Improving interactions and handling difficult situations • Developing positive attitudes, and “owning” the problem • Managing your time and stress • Supporting computers, networks, smartphones, and tablets • Finding the technical product knowledge you need • Protecting the security of your users, information, and devices • Defining, diagnosing, and solving problems, step by step • Writing it up: from incident reports to documentation • Working in teams to meet the goals of the business • Using ITIL to improve the services you provide • Calculating help desk costs, benefits, value, and performance • Taking control of your support career Powerful features make it easier to learn about help desk careers! • Clear introductions describe the big ideas and show how they fit with what you’ve already learned • Specific chapter objectives tell you exactly what you need to learn • Key Terms lists help you identify important terms and a complete Glossary helps you understand them • Author’s Notes and On The Side features help you go deeper into the topic if you want to • Chapter Review tools and activities help you make sure you’ve learned the material Exclusive Mind Mapping activities! • Organize important ideas visually–in your mind, in your words • Learn more, remember more • Understand how different ideas fit together
... computer network defense , cyber tabletop exercises , system security
engineering , and threat - based engineering . ... network security , computer network defense , incident response , vulnerability assessment , and penetration testing .
Author: Kelly Sparks
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
Don’t Let the Real Test Be Your First Test! Prepare to pass the CySA+ Cybersecurity Analyst certification exam CS0-002 and obtain the latest security credential from CompTIA using the practice questions contained in this guide. CompTIA CySA+TM Cybersecurity Analyst Certification Practice Exams offers 100% coverage of all objectives for the exam. Written by a leading information security expert and experienced instructor, this guide includes knowledge, scenario, and performance-based questions. Throughout, in-depth explanations are provided for both correct and incorrect answers. Between the book and online content, you will get more than 500 practice questions designed to fully prepare you for the challenging exam. This guide is ideal as a companion to CompTIA CySA+ Cybersecurity Analyst Certification All-in-One Exam Guide, Second Edition (Exam CS0-002). Covers all exam topics, including: Threat and vulnerability management Threat data and intelligence Vulnerability management, assessment tools, and mitigation Software and systems security Solutions for infrastructure management Software and hardware assurance best practices Security operations and monitoring Proactive threat hunting Automation concepts and technologies Incident response process, procedure, and analysis Compliance and assessment Data privacy and protection Support of organizational risk mitigation Online content includes: 200+ practice exam questions Interactive performance-based questions Test engine that provides full-length practice exams and customizable quizzes by chapter or exam objective
About This Book Discover techniques to integrate Metasploit with the industry's leading tools Carry out penetration testing in highly-secured environments with Metasploit and acquire skills to build your defense against organized and ...
Author: Sagar Rahalkar
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
Exploit the secrets of Metasploit to master the art of penetration testing. About This Book Discover techniques to integrate Metasploit with the industry's leading tools Carry out penetration testing in highly-secured environments with Metasploit and acquire skills to build your defense against organized and complex attacks Using the Metasploit framework, develop exploits and generate modules for a variety of real-world scenarios Who This Book Is For This course is for penetration testers, ethical hackers, and security professionals who'd like to master the Metasploit framework and explore approaches to carrying out advanced penetration testing to build highly secure networks. Some familiarity with networking and security concepts is expected, although no familiarity of Metasploit is required. What You Will Learn Get to know the absolute basics of the Metasploit framework so you have a strong foundation for advanced attacks Integrate and use various supporting tools to make Metasploit even more powerful and precise Test services such as databases, SCADA, and many more Attack the client side with highly advanced techniques Test mobile and tablet devices with Metasploit Understand how to Customize Metasploit modules and modify existing exploits Write simple yet powerful Metasploit automation scripts Explore steps involved in post-exploitation on Android and mobile platforms In Detail Metasploit is a popular penetration testing framework that has one of the largest exploit databases around. This book will show you exactly how to prepare yourself against the attacks you will face every day by simulating real-world possibilities. This learning path will begin by introducing you to Metasploit and its functionalities. You will learn how to set up and configure Metasploit on various platforms to create a virtual test environment. You will also get your hands on various tools and components and get hands-on experience with carrying out client-side attacks. In the next part of this learning path, you'll develop the ability to perform testing on various services such as SCADA, databases, IoT, mobile, tablets, and many more services. After this training, we jump into real-world sophisticated scenarios where performing penetration tests are a challenge. With real-life case studies, we take you on a journey through client-side attacks using Metasploit and various scripts built on the Metasploit framework. The final instalment of your learning journey will be covered through a bootcamp approach. You will be able to bring together the learning together and speed up and integrate Metasploit with leading industry tools for penetration testing. You'll finish by working on challenges based on user's preparation and work towards solving the challenge. The course provides you with highly practical content explaining Metasploit from the following Packt books: Metasploit for Beginners Mastering Metasploit, Second Edition Metasploit Bootcamp Style and approach This pragmatic learning path is packed with start-to-end instructions from getting started with Metasploit to effectively building new things and solving real-world examples. All the key concepts are explained with the help of examples and demonstrations that will help you understand everything to use this essential IT power tool.
Through a career of programming, testing, systems administration, network
management, penetration testing, project ... Defense Agency Test Directorate and
has more than 30 years' experience in the Information Assurance and Network ...
Author: Ric Messier
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
"All-in-One Is All You Need." Get complete coverage of all the objectives on Global Information Assurance Certification's Security Essentials (GSEC) exam inside this comprehensive resource. GSEC GIAC Security Essentials Certification All-in-One Exam Guide provides learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter, exam tips, practice exam questions, and in-depth explanations. Designed to help you pass the exam with ease, this authoritative resource also serves as an essential on-the-job reference. COVERS ALL EXAM TOPICS, INCLUDING: Networking fundamentals Network design Authentication and access control Network security Linux and Windows Encryption Risk management Virtual machines Vulnerability control Malware Physical security Wireless technologies VoIP ELECTRONIC CONTENT FEATURES: TWO PRACTICE EXAMS AUTHOR VIDEOS PDF eBOOK
Release on 2018-02-28 | by Gilberto Najera-Gutierrez
This edition is heavily updated for the latest Kali Linux changes and the most recent attacks. Kali Linux shines when it comes to client-side attacks and fuzzing in particular.
Author: Gilberto Najera-Gutierrez
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
Build your defense against web attacks with Kali Linux, including command injection flaws, crypto implementation layers, and web application security holes Key Features Know how to set up your lab with Kali Linux Discover the core concepts of web penetration testing Get the tools and techniques you need with Kali Linux Book Description Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux - Third Edition shows you how to set up a lab, helps you understand the nature and mechanics of attacking websites, and explains classical attacks in great depth. This edition is heavily updated for the latest Kali Linux changes and the most recent attacks. Kali Linux shines when it comes to client-side attacks and fuzzing in particular. From the start of the book, you'll be given a thorough grounding in the concepts of hacking and penetration testing, and you'll see the tools used in Kali Linux that relate to web application hacking. You'll gain a deep understanding of classicalSQL, command-injection flaws, and the many ways to exploit these flaws. Web penetration testing also needs a general overview of client-side attacks, which is rounded out by a long discussion of scripting and input validation flaws. There is also an important chapter on cryptographic implementation flaws, where we discuss the most recent problems with cryptographic layers in the networking stack. The importance of these attacks cannot be overstated, and defending against them is relevant to most internet users and, of course, penetration testers. At the end of the book, you'll use an automated technique called fuzzing to identify flaws in a web application. Finally, you'll gain an understanding of web application vulnerabilities and the ways they can be exploited using the tools in Kali Linux. What you will learn Learn how to set up your lab with Kali Linux Understand the core concepts of web penetration testing Get to know the tools and techniques you need to use with Kali Linux Identify the difference between hacking a web application and network hacking Expose vulnerabilities present in web servers and their applications using server-side attacks Understand the different techniques used to identify the flavor of web applications See standard attacks such as exploiting cross-site request forgery and cross-site scripting flaws Get an overview of the art of client-side attacks Explore automated attacks such as fuzzing web applications Who this book is for Since this book sets out to cover a large number of tools and security fields, it can work as an introduction to practical security skills for beginners in security. In addition, web programmers and also system administrators would benefit from this rigorous introduction to web penetration testing. Basic system administration skills are necessary, and the ability to read code is a must.