Pessimism in Kant s Ethics and Rational Religion

Dennis Vanden Auweele explores Kant’s moral and religious philosophy and shows that a pessimistic undercurrent pervades them.

Pessimism in Kant s Ethics and Rational Religion

Dennis Vanden Auweele explores Kant’s moral and religious philosophy and shows that a pessimistic undercurrent pervades them. This provides a new vantage point not only to comprehensively assess Kantian philosophy, but also to provide much needed context and reading assistance to the general premises of Kant's philosophy and rationality.

Pragmatist Truth in the Post Truth Age

work on Kant emphasizing his negative and pessimistic conception of the human being. ... Pessimism in Kant's Ethics and Rational Religion (2019), because his interpretation is rather unique in its emphasis on Kant's pessimism.26 Not ...

Pragmatist Truth in the Post Truth Age

Engages in a self-critical examination of the pragmatist conception of truth integrating ethics, epistemology, and philosophy of religion.

Historical Dictionary of Kant and Kantianism

Pessimism in Kant's Ethics and Rational Religion. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2019. Webb, Clement C. J. Kant's Philosophy of Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926. Wimmer, Reiner. Kants kritische Religionsphilosophie.

Historical Dictionary of Kant and Kantianism

Immanuel Kant was one of the most significant philosophers of the modern age. Historical Dictionary of Kant and Kantianism, Second Edition contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on key terms of Kant’s philosophy, Kant’s major works and cover his most important predecessors and successors, concentrating especially on the relation of these thinkers to Kant himself. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Immanuel Kant.

Dark Matters

Though Vanden Auweele in his Pessimism in Kant's Ethics and Rational Religion defines pessimism very narrowly, as having to do with 'one's given capacities and how these can navigate toward a desired end' (20). This is not quite the ...

Dark Matters

An intellectual history of the philosophers who grappled with the problem of evil, and the case for why pessimism still holds moral value for us today In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, philosophers engaged in heated debates on the question of how God could have allowed evil and suffering in a creation that is supposedly good. Dark Matters traces how the competing philosophical traditions of optimism and pessimism arose from early modern debates about the problem of evil, and makes a compelling case for the rediscovery of pessimism as a source for compassion, consolation, and perhaps even hope. Bringing to life one of the most vibrant eras in the history of philosophy, Mara van der Lugt discusses legendary figures such as Leibniz, Hume, Voltaire, Rousseau, Kant, and Schopenhauer. She also introduces readers to less familiar names, such as Bayle, King, La Mettrie, and Maupertuis. Van der Lugt describes not only how the earliest optimists and pessimists were deeply concerned with finding an answer to the question of the value of existence that does justice to the reality of human suffering, but also how they were fundamentally divided over what such an answer should look like. A breathtaking work of intellectual history by one of today's leading scholars, Dark Matters reveals how the crucial moral aim of pessimism is to find a way of speaking about suffering that offers consolation and does justice to the fragility of life.

The Jamesian Mind

Kivistö, S. and Pihlström, S. (2016) Kantian Antitheodicy: Philosophical and Literary Varieties, ... online, www.nordprag.org Vanden Auweele, D. (2019) Pessimism in Kant's Ethics and Rational Religion, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

The Jamesian Mind

William James (1842–1910) is widely regarded as the founding figure of modern psychology and one of the most important philosophers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Renowned for his philosophical theory of pragmatism and memorable turns of phrase, such as ‘stream of consciousness’ and the ‘will to believe’, he made enormous contributions to a rich array of philosophical subjects, from the emotions and free will to religion, ethics, and the meaning of life. The Jamesian Mind covers the major aspects of James’s thought, from his early influences to his legacy, with over forty chapters by an outstanding roster of international contributors. It is organized into seven parts: Intellectual Biography Psychology, Mind, and Self Ethics, Religion, and Politics Method, Truth, and Knowledge Philosophical Encounters Legacy. In these sections fundamental topics are examined, including James’s conceptions of philosophical and scientific inquiry, habit, self, free will and determinism, pragmatism, truth, and pluralism. Considerable attention is also devoted to James in relation to the intellectual traditions of empiricism and Romanticism as well as to such other philosophical schools as utilitarianism, British idealism, Logical Empiricism, and existentialism. James’s thought is also situated in an interdisciplinary context, including modernism, sociology, and politics, showcasing his legacy in psychology and ethics. An indispensable resource for anyone studying and researching James’s philosophy, The Jamesian Mind will also interest those in related disciplines such as psychology, religion, and sociology.

Exceeding Reason

Pessimism in Kant's Ethics and Rational Religion. Lanham: Lexington Books. Vanden Auweele, Dennis. 2019b. “Kant and Schelling on the Ground of Evil”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 85: 235–253. Van Tongeren, Paul.

Exceeding Reason

The work of the later Schelling (in and after 1809) seems antithetical to that of Nietzsche: one a Romantic, idealist and Christian, the other Dionysian, anti-idealist and anti-Christian. Still, there is a very meaningful and educative dialogue to be found between Schelling and Nietzsche on the topics of reason, freedom and religion. Both of them start their philosophy with a similar critique of the Western tradition, which to them is overly dualist, rationalist and anti-organic (metaphysically, ethically, religiously, politically). In response, they hope to inculcate a more lively view of reality in which a new understanding of freedom takes center stage. This freedom can be revealed and strengthened through a proper approach to religion, one that neither disconnects from nor subordinates religion to reason. Religion is the dialogical other to reason, one that refreshes and animates our attempts to navigate the world autonomously. In doing so, Schelling and Nietzsche open up new avenues of thinking about (the relationship between) freedom, reason and religion.

Schopenhauer Religion and Morality

This work challenges the textbook assessment of Schopenhauer as militant atheist and absolute pessimist.

Schopenhauer  Religion and Morality

This work challenges the textbook assessment of Schopenhauer as militant atheist and absolute pessimist. In examining Schopenhauer's grappling with religion, theology and Kant's moral philosophy, Mannion suggests we can actually discern a 'religious' humility in method in Schopenhauer's work, seen most clearly in his ethics of compassion and his doctrine of salvation. Given Schopenhauer’s opinion of religion as the ’metaphysics of the people’, his utilisation of and affinity with many religious ideas and doctrines, and the culmination of his philosophy in a doctrine of salvation that ends in the ’mystical’, Mannion suggests that Schopenhauer’s philosophy is an explanatory hypothesis which functionally resembles religious belief systems in many ways. Mannion further argues that Schopenhauer cannot claim to have gone any further than such religious systems in discerning the 'true' nature of ultimate reality, for he admits that they also end in the ’mystical’, beyond which we must remain silent. Indeed, Schopenhauer offers an interpretation, as opposed to outright rejection of religion and his system gains the coherence that it does through being parasitic upon religious thought itself. Given current debates between theologians and philosophers in relation to 'postmodernity' and 'postmodern thought', this book illustrates that Schopenhauer should be a key figure in such debates.

William Desmond s Philosophy between Metaphysics Religion Ethics and Aesthetics

This volume collects seventeen new essays by well-established and junior scholars on the philosophical relevance of metaxological philosophy and its main proponent, William Desmond.

William Desmond   s Philosophy between Metaphysics  Religion  Ethics  and Aesthetics

This volume collects seventeen new essays by well-established and junior scholars on the philosophical relevance of metaxological philosophy and its main proponent, William Desmond. The volume mines metaxological thought for its salience in contemporary discussions in Continental philosophy, specifically in the fields of metaphysics, philosophy of religion, ethics, and aesthetics. Among others, topics under discussion include the goodness of being, the existence and nature of God, and the aesthetic dimensions of human becoming. Interest in metaxological philosophy has been on the rise in recent years, and this volume provides both a practical introduction and thorough engagements with it by experts in the field. The volume concludes with a series of responses by William Desmond on the issues raised by the contributors.

In Defense of Kant s Religion

... Kant has to express under the title of rational religion has already been expressed in his ethics, while what is new ... accept such an overtly pessimistic view of Kant's philosophy of religion, however, one must simultaneously take ...

In Defense of Kant s Religion

Chris L. Firestone and Nathan Jacobs integrate and interpret the work of leading Kant scholars to come to a new and deeper understanding of Kant's difficult book, Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. In this text, Kant's vocabulary and language are especially tortured and convoluted. Readers have often lost sight of the thinker's deep ties to Christianity and questioned the viability of the work as serious philosophy of religion. Firestone and Jacobs provide strong and cogent grounds for taking Kant's religion seriously and defend him against the charges of incoherence. In their reading, Christian essentials are incorporated into the confines of reason, and they argue that Kant establishes a rational religious faith in accord with religious conviction as it is elaborated in his mature philosophy. For readers at all levels, this book articulates a way to ground religion and theology in a fully fledged defense of Religion which is linked to the larger corpus of Kant's philosophical enterprise.

The Kantian Foundation of Schopenhauer s Pessimism

Accordingly, one cannot help but to assume that already in Kant's philosophy the rational is not the most intimate aspect of ... that Kant returned to, such as respect for the eminence of rationality and the moral education of religion, ...

The Kantian Foundation of Schopenhauer s Pessimism

This book connects Schopenhauer’s philosophy with transcendental idealism by exploring the distinctly Kantian roots of his pessimism. By clearly discerning four types of coming to knowledge, it demonstrates how Schopenhauer’s epistemology can enlighten this connection with other areas of his philosophy. The individual chapters in this book discuss how these knowledge types—immediate or mediate, representational or non-representational—relate to Schopenhauer’s metaphysics, ethics and action, philosophy of religion, aesthetics, and asceticism. In each of these areas, a specific sense of pessimism serves to disarm a number of paradoxes and inconsistencies typically associated with Schopenhauer’s philosophy. The Kantian Foundation of Schopenhauer's Pessismism shows how Schopenhauer’s claim that he is a true successor to Kant can be justified.

Kant and the Question of Theology

the Church's role in the establishment of the ideal ethical community. Because the aim of this chapter is not to establish the doctrine of the Trinity as a feature of Kant's rational religion, let it suffice for our purposes here to say ...

Kant and the Question of Theology

God is a problematic idea in Kant's terms, but many scholars continue to be interested in Kantian theories of religion and the issues that they raise. In these new essays, scholars both within and outside Kant studies analyse Kant's writings and his claims about natural, philosophical, and revealed theology. Topics debated include arguments for the existence of God, natural theology, redemption, divine action, miracles, revelation, and life after death. The volume includes careful examination of key Kantian texts alongside discussion of their themes from both constructive and analytic perspectives. These contributions broaden the scope of the scholarship on Kant, exploring the value of doing theology in consonance or conversation with Kant. It builds bridges across divides that often separate the analytic from the continental and the philosophical from the theological. The resulting volume clarifies the significance and relevance of Kant's theology for current debates about the philosophy of God and religion.

Kant as Philosophical Theologian

As Karl Barth has put it: 'One certainly does not expect, having a knowledge of Kant's ethics from his earlier writings, and looking at the rest of the contents of his teaching on religion after this beginning, to be met here ...

Kant as Philosophical Theologian

This book sets out to present Kant as a theological thinker. His critical philosophy was not only destructive of 'natural' theology, with its attempt to prove divine existence by logical argument, it also left no room for 'revelation' in the traditional sense. Yet Kant himself, who was brought up in Lutheran pietism, certainly believed in God, and could fairly be described as a religious man. But he held that religion can be based only on the moral consciousness, and in his last major work, Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone - discussed here in detail - he interpreted Christianity purely in terms of moral symbolism. It would be no exaggeration to claim that Kant's influence has been decisive for modern theology.

Kant and Theology at the Boundaries of Reason

Compare Wood's position in Kant's Moral Religion (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1970) with his later ... His movement toward pessimism regarding the presence of rational grounds for religious faith in Kant's philosophy is ...

Kant and Theology at the Boundaries of Reason

This book examines the transcendental dimension of Kant's philosophy as a positive resource for theology. Firestone shows that Kant's philosophy establishes three distinct grounds for transcendental theology and then evaluates the form and content of theology that emerges when Christian theologians adopt these grounds. To understand Kant's philosophy as a completed process, Firestone argues, theologians must go beyond the strictures of Kant's critical philosophy proper and consider in its fullness the transcendental significance of what Kant calls 'rational religious faith'. This movement takes us into the promising but highly treacherous waters of Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason to understand theology at the transcendental bounds of reason.

Nietzsche s Engagements with Kant and the Kantian Legacy

With his uncompromising attitude towards Christian ethics Goethe couldn't be sympathetic with Kant's attempt to distillate a rational core of religion. In this sense Goethe's slating statement on 'radical evil' is a dismissal of Kant's ...

Nietzsche   s Engagements with Kant and the Kantian Legacy

Nietzsche has often been considered a thinker independent of the philosophy of his time and radically opposed to the concerns and concepts of modern and contemporary philosophy. But there is an increasing awareness of his sophisticated engagements with his contemporaries and of his philosophy's rich potential for debates with modern and contemporary thinkers. Nietzsche's Engagements with Kant and the Kantian Legacy explores a significant field for such engagements, Kant and Kantianism. Bringing together an international team of established Nietzsche-scholars who have done extensive work in Kant, contributors include both senior scholars and young, upcoming researchers from a broad range of countries and traditions. Working from the basis that Nietzsche is better understood as thinking 'with and against' Kant and the Kantian legacy, they examine Nietzsche's explicit and implicit treatments of Kant, Kantians, and Kantian concepts, as well as the philosophical issues that they raise for both Nietzschean and Kantian philosophy. Divided into three volumes, the focus is on specific areas and texts of Kant's philosophy: Nietzsche, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics; Nietzsche and Kantian Ethics; Nietzsche and Kant on Aesthetics and Anthropology . Each volume draws extensively on the flourishing recent literature from both analytic and continental traditions in English, German and other languages. By responding to scholarly interest in the critical relations between Nietzsche and Kant, this series of volumes presents the first systematic study of the pairing of two major European thinkers from the modern period.

The Philosophy of International Law

Kant believed that it was necessary to offer not evidence but rational grounds for his hope, for his moral faith in ... And without Kant's moral anthropology, in particular the role he gives to his 'ethical community' (a church whose ...

The Philosophy of International Law

This text contains 29 cutting-edge essays by philosophers and lawyers which address the central philosophical questions about international law. Its overarching theme is the moral and political values that should guide and shape the assessment and development of international law and institutions.

Kant s Anatomy of Evil

Although Kant's anthropological pessimism stymies these strategies, it does not let us fall into despair. ... from Radical Evil,” Gordon Michalson questions the feasibility of Kant's strategy to reduce the Bible to a rational/ ethical ...

Kant s Anatomy of Evil

Kant infamously claimed that all human beings, without exception, are evil by nature. This collection of essays critically examines and elucidates what he must have meant by this indictment. It shows the role which evil plays in his overall philosophical project and analyses its relation to individual autonomy. Furthermore, it explores the relevance of Kant's views for understanding contemporary questions such as crimes against humanity and moral reconstruction. Leading scholars in the field engage a wide range of sources from which a distinctly Kantian theory of evil emerges, both subtle and robust, and capable of shedding light on the complex dynamics of human immorality.

The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology

Kant's political philosophy. Philosophy Compass 7(12): 896–909. Frierson, Patrick. 2014. Kant's Empirical Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Frierson, Patrick. 2010. Kantian moral pessimism. In Kant's Anatomy of Evil, ...

The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, state-of-the-art overview of moral psychology. The 50 chapters, written by leading figures in both philosophy and psychology, cover many of the most important topics in the field and form the definitive survey of contemporary moral psychology.

Kant and the Possibility of Progress

(henceforth “Renewed Attempt”), in I. Kant, Religion and Rational Theology, trans. ... But I would contend that Kant's dominant interest in providing such a unifying account is again moral; theoretically, the Third Antinomy suffices to ...

Kant and the Possibility of Progress

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) transformed the philosophical, cultural, and religious landscape of modern Europe. Emphasizing the priority of practical reason and moral autonomy, Kant's radically original account of human subjectivity announced new ethical imperatives and engendered new political hopes. This collection of essays investigates the centrality of progress to Kant's philosophical project and the contested legacy of Kant's faith in reason's capacity to advance not only our scientific comprehension and technological prowess, but also our moral, political, and religious lives. Accordingly, the first half of the volume explores the many facets of Kant's thinking about progress, while the remaining essays each focus on one or two thinkers who play a crucial role in post-Kantian German philosophy: J. G. Herder (1744-1803), J. G. Fichte (1762-1814), G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831), Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), Walter Benjamin (1892-1940), and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). This two-part structure reflects the central thesis of the volume that Kant inaugurates a distinctive theoretical tradition in which human historicity is central to political philosophy. By exploring the origins and metamorphoses of this tremendously influential tradition, the volume offers a timely perspective on fundamental questions in an age increasingly suspicious of the Enlightenment's promise of universal rational progress. It aims to help us face three sets of questions: (1) Do we still believe in the possibility of progress? If we do, on what grounds? If we do not, why have we lost the hope for a better future that animated previous generations? (2) Is the belief in progress necessary for the maintenance of today's liberal democratic order? Does a cosmopolitan vision of politics ultimately depend on a faith in humanity's gradual, asymptotic realization of that lofty aim? (3) And, if we no longer believe in progress, can we dispense with hope without succumbing to despair?

Religious Soft Diplomacy and the United Nations

least credible aspect of Kant's cosmopolitanism, and perhaps the reason for his understandable pessimism, is his premature ... Kant's premature jump to the universal as the basis of ethical understanding and deliberation conflates ...

Religious Soft Diplomacy and the United Nations

In our increasingly plural and interconnected world, employing the complex and nuanced vocation of religious diplomacy is increasingly critical to the resolution of global challenges and charting a future course for the human community. The editors and contributors in this volume make a compelling case for expanding the diversity of discourse.

Kant on Evil Self Deception and Moral Reform

Wood, in his editorial notes to the Cambridge translation of Kant's Religion, flags this comment as showing Kant's ... is routinely frustrated by—a desire to see oneself as better off than others (Religion and Rational Theology, 458).

Kant on Evil  Self Deception  and Moral Reform

Throughout his writings, and particularly in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, Kant alludes to the idea that evil is connected to self-deceit, and while numerous commentators regard this as a highly attractive thesis, none have seriously explored it. Laura Papish's Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform addresses this crucial element of Kant's ethical theory. Working with both Kant's core texts on ethics and materials less often cited within scholarship on Kant's practical philosophy (such as Kant's logic lectures), Papish explores the cognitive dimensions of Kant's accounts of evil and moral reform while engaging the most influential -- and often scathing -- of Kant's critics. Her book asks what self-deception is for Kant, why and how it is connected to evil, and how we achieve the self-knowledge that should take the place of self-deceit. She offers novel defenses of Kant's widely dismissed claims that evil is motivated by self-love and that an evil is rooted universally in human nature, and she develops original arguments concerning how social institutions and interpersonal relationships facilitate, for Kant, the self-knowledge that is essential to moral reform. In developing and defending Kant's understanding of evil, moral reform, and their cognitive underpinnings, Papish not only makes an important contribution to Kant scholarship. Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform also reveals how much contemporary moral philosophers, philosophers of religion, and general readers interested in the phenomenon of evil stand to gain by taking seriously Kant's views.