403 410 11.3.1 Noble Gas Absorption in Plastic Materials . ... 427 12 Recent Advances and Clinical Applications of Plastic Scintillators in the Field of ...
Author: Matthieu Hamel
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book introduces the physics and chemistry of plastic scintillators (fluorescent polymers) that are able to emit light when exposed to ionizing radiation, discussing their chemical modification in the early 1950s and 1960s, as well as the renewed upsurge in interest in the 21st century. The book presents contributions from various researchers on broad aspects of plastic scintillators, from physics, chemistry, materials science and applications, covering topics such as the chemical nature of the polymer and/or the fluorophores, modification of the photophysical properties (decay time, emission wavelength) and loading of additives to make the material more sensitive to, e.g., fast neutrons, thermal neutrons or gamma rays. It also describes the benefits of recent technological advances for plastic scintillators, such as nanomaterials and quantum dots, which allow features that were previously not achievable with regular organic molecules or organometallics.
In this work, new approaches to the design of both plastic scintillator components, and of the materials as a whole, are described, with particular emphasis paid towards the design and synthesis of small molecule scintillating dyes that are ...
Author: TIBOR JACOB HAJAGOS
Organic scintillators have a long history in the field of radiation detection, dating back to some of the earliest studies of organic photophysics and optoelectronic properties. In particular, plastics have come to dominate the commercial market for organic scintillators, due to their low cost and ease of use and manufacturing, and more notably in spite of their poorer performance in many metrics. While there has been decades of active research since their inception, little progress has been made to improve upon the now well established compositions of commercial plastics, a notable exception being the recent development of plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) of n/ radiation, which is of particular interest among governments and industry for the detection of illicit nuclear material and weapons. In recent years, much attention has been paid towards the study of luminescent organic materials, in particular due to the invention and widespread adoption of organic light emitting diode (OLED) based electronic devices, and the knowledge and lessons that have been fundamental to such fields have recently begun to be adopted by the organic scintilator community. In this work, new approaches to the design of both plastic scintillator components, and of the materials as a whole, are described, with particular emphasis paid towards the design and synthesis of small molecule scintillating dyes that are specifically tailored towards the development of PSD-capable plastic scintilators. In the first of these approaches, the design and synthesis of a highly soluble and polymerizable derivative of 9,10-diphenylanthracene is described, and the properties of plastic scintilators fabricated from this dye when copolymerized with poly(vinyl toluene) were investigated. This particular approach was used to demonstrate a proof-of-concept of PSD in highly loaded plastics stabilized through copolymerization of the primary dye, a strategy conceived to address the particular shortcomings of the current generation of PSD plastics. The second general approach investigated is the application of the phenomenon of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) -- most notably a key innovation among the latest developments in OLED technologies -- to the enhancement of the performance of organic sicntillators. Several key observations about the potential and efficacy of TADF dyes as novel organic scintillators were made, including a demonstration of the profound effects the the TADF phenomenon can have on scintillation properties. These findings suggest that it is quite possible that TADF dyes could eventually enable an entirely new generation of high performance organic scintillators, and PSD-capable plastics in particular.
Early phases of the project, which commenced in January 2003, have focused on (1) quantifying the light-collection efficiency in plastic scintillator sheets as a function of photomultiplier tube positioning and edge-area coverage, (2) ...
The U.S. Department of Energy tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma detection via large-area plastic scintillators. This letter report describes progress to date on this project. Early phases of the project, which commenced in January 2003, have focused on (1) quantifying the light-collection efficiency in plastic scintillator sheets as a function of photomultiplier tube positioning and edge-area coverage, (2) developing a conceptual design for a demonstration sensor, and (3) conducting initial laboratory setup and preliminary experiments using relatively small plastic scintillators for readout technique development and benchmarking of the modeling studies.
Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics.
Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics.
New compositions of radiation-hard plastic scintillators with content of 3-HF derivatives are proposed. It is shown, that the new PS based on polystyrene ...
Author: Mikhail Korzhik
Publisher: Springer Nature
This proceedings book presents dual approaches to examining new theoretical models and their applicability in the search for new scintillation materials and, ultimately, the development of industrial technologies. The ISMART conferences bring together the radiation detector community, from fundamental research scientists to applied physics experts, engineers, and experts on the implementation of advanced solutions. This scientific forum builds a bridge between the different parts of the community and is the basis for multidisciplinary, cooperative research and development efforts. The main goals of the conference series are to review the latest results in scintillator development, from theory to applications, and to arrive at a deeper understanding of fundamental processes, as well as to discover components for the production of new generations of scintillation materials. The book highlights recent findings and hypotheses, key advances, as well as exotic detector designs and solutions, and includes papers on the microtheory of scintillation and the initial phase of luminescence development, applications of the various materials, as well as the development and characterization of ionizing radiation detection equipment. It also touches on the increased demand for cryogenic scintillators, the renaissance of garnet materials for scintillator applications, nano-structuring in scintillator development, trends in and applications for security, and exploration of hydrocarbons and ecological monitoring.
300 PPO plastic, no secondary dye 250 FOM = 2.82 ± 0.03 200 stnuoC 150 100 50 (a) 0 ... A, 668, Zaitseva, N. et al., Plastic scintillators with efficient ...
Author: Sam Beddar
Publisher: CRC Press
Scintillation Dosimetry delivers a comprehensive introduction to plastic scintillation dosimetry, covering everything from basic radiation dosimetry concepts to plastic scintillating fiber optics. Comprised of chapters authored by leading experts in the medical physics community, the book: Discusses a broad range of technical implementations, from point source dosimetry scaling to 3D-volumetric and 4D-scintillation dosimetry Addresses a wide scope of clinical applications, from machine quality assurance to small-field and in vivo dosimetry Examines related optical techniques, such as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or Čerenkov luminescence Thus, Scintillation Dosimetry provides an authoritative reference for detailed, state-of-the-art information on plastic scintillation dosimetry and its use in the field of radiation dosimetry.
Walker3 measured light attenuations of plastic scintillator sheets 1" x 12" x 56" glued to Lucite light guides. Relative light transmissions for various ...
Author: Donald Horrocks
Organic Scintillation and Liquid Scintillation Counting covers the proceeding of The International Conference on Organic Scintillators and Liquid Scintillation Counting, which was held on July 7-10, 1970 at the University of California, San Francisco. This conference was held to discuss ideas concerned with the theory and physics of organic scintillators and the use of liquid scintillation for radioactivity measurement and other analytical applications. This text discusses liquid scintillator solvents, the vacuum ultraviolet excited luminescence of organic systems, and the application of scintillation counters to the assay of bioluminescence. Also covered are topics such as scintillation decay and absolute efficiencies in organic liquid scintillators, dose rate saturation in plastic scintillators, and the mass measurements in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The book is recommended for physicists who would like to know more about the advancements in the field of organic and liquid scintillation and its applications.
This report presents the results of measurements and simulations performed with 12 small plastic scintillation detectors manufactured by Scionix for imaging applications.
Author: S. Pozzi
This report presents the results of measurements and simulations performed with 12 small plastic scintillation detectors manufactured by Scionix for imaging applications. The scintillator is equivalent to a Bicron BC-420 plastic scintillator. A gamma calibration is presented to determine the voltage to be applied on each detector to ensure uniform detector operation. Time of flight measurements performed with a Cf-252 source are also presented. Comparisons between experimental data and data from the Monte Carlo simulations show good agreement for time lags of 0 to 70 ns.
Standard plastic scintillators typically consist of a base of polystyrene (PS) or polyvinlytoluene (PVT) doped with organic fluorophores such as POPOP (1 ...
Author: Martin Nikl
Publisher: CRC Press
The literature so far has reviewed only single-crystal and, up to some extent, optical ceramic scintillators. This book introduces and describes in detail the research and development in thin film scintillators, glass ceramics, as well as nanocomposite and optical ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering. It also features example of an in-depth study of a ZnO-based powder phosphor material. Both technology description and various characterization aspects are provided together with application hints. No other book has been published so far that includes and reviews the scintillator materials covered in this book with their specific technologies. Moreover, technological description is merged with detailed characterization, and the application potential is discussed as well. This book is intended for a wide audience, including postgraduate and PhD students and scientists working in the field of scintillators and phosphors. The extended introductory text, which has a textbook character, will be of immense benefit to students and non-specialists, too.
Proceedings of the 1989 international conference, this book is excellent coverage of new trends and established methods in the field of liquid scintillation counting and organic scintillators. Any scientist working with scintillators will find this book valuable.
The purpose of this research was to develop and test a radiation detector to perform beta dosimetry and spectroscopy.
Author: Aaron A. Kriss
Category: Beta ray spectrometry
The purpose of this research was to develop and test a radiation detector to perform beta dosimetry and spectroscopy. The detector utilizes plastic scintillator volumes to produce scintillation light in proportion to the amount of energy deposited in them, and a large-area avalanche photodiode to convert the light to electrical signals. Pulse processing electronics transform the electrical signals into a format useful for analysis, and various software programs are used to analyze the resulting data. The detector proved capable of measuring dose, as compared to Monte Carlo n-Particle simulations, to within about 50% or better, depending on geometry and source type. Spectroscopy results, in conjunction with MCNP-based spectral enhancement methods, proved the detector capable of recording beta spectra with endpoint energies greater than about 250 keV. The detector shows promise for further development as a portable beta detector for field use in beta-contaminated areas.