Progress in Radiopharmacy

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN RADIOPHARMACY. DISPENSING TECHNIQUES K. KRISTENSEN INTRODUCTION Dispensing includes all steps in the handling of radiopharmaceuticals between production and the administration to the patient.

Progress in Radiopharmacy

The contents of this volume are based upon presentations made to the Second European Symposium on Radiopharmacy and Radiopharmaceuticals which was held in St. Catharine's College Cambridge in March 1985. This meeting was organized by the Radiopharmacy Group of the British Nuclear Medicine Society under the auspices of the European Joint Committee on Radio pharmaceuticals of the ENMS / SNME. The Joint Committee acknowledges the special effort which was made by the local organizers to prepare this meeting the quality of which is undoubtedly reflected in the proceedings. The wide ranging aspects of Radiopharmacy are reflected in this volume which not only deals with specialized topics, such as aerosols and biodistribution studies, but which also deals with the professional aspects of Radiopharmacy Practice. We are of the opinion that this book complements earlier publications to give an ongoing picture of the practice of Radiopharmacy and the state of the art in Europe. As well as acknowledging the contribution of the British Radiopharmacists I would also mention the support of my co chairman Prof. Dr M.G. Woldring, the members of the Joint Committee and last but not least Mrs. M. Busker, who prepared the camera ready copy. P.H. Cox Co-ordinating Chairman European Joint Committee on Radiopharmaceuticals Rotterdam XI CCNrRIBUTORS Anderson, M.L. - Pharnacy department, London Hospital London, UK. Angelberger, P. - Osterreichische Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH, Wien, Austria. Claessens, R.A.M.J. - Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Radboud Ziekenhuis, Nijrnegen, The Netherlands.

Progress in Radiopharmacy

... efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals, whereas this Fourth Symposium to some extent followed up the subject ofthe Second Symposium (Cambridge, UK, 1985): recent developments in radiopharmacy and current research on radiopharmaceuticals.

Progress in Radiopharmacy

This book is a compilation of the invited papers, which were presented at the Fourth European Symposium on Radiopharmacy and Radiopharmaceuticals, which was held in Baden, Switz- land, 1-4 May, 1991. The First and Third Symposia on Radiopharmacy and Radiopharmaceuticals (Elsinore, Denmark, 1983, 1987) concentrated on the safety and efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals, whereas this Fourth Symposium to some extent followed up the subject of the Second Symposium (Cambridge, UK, 1985): recent developments in radiopharmacy and current research on radiopharmaceuticals. The symposium was organized by the Radiopharmacy Group of the Swiss Society of Medical Radiology (Section Nuclear Medicine) under the auspices of the task group on radiopharmaceu- cals of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). The organizing committee consisted of the cochairmen Drs. P.A. Schubiger (Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen) and G. Westera (University Hospital, ZiJrich) and the members H.-F. Beer, P. Bl~iuenstein, P. Hasler (all PSI) and H. M~icke (Cantonal Hospital, Basel). The subjects of this Symposium ranged from isotope production to clinical testing of radioph- maceuticals, including the organisational prerequisites. In addition, the development of new radiopharmaceuticals and of PET radiopharmacy, and the concomittant ongoing evolution of regulatory guidelines by national (various European countries, USA) and international (EC) authorities, induced us to honor the vivid interest in this subject and to make it an important part of this symposium.

Progress in Radiopharmacology 3

(Developments in nuclear medicine ; v. 2) (Progress in radiopharmacology ; 3) Includes index. l. Radiopharmaceuticals--Congresses. 2. Radiopharmaceuticals--Metabolism--Congresses. 3. Radioisotopes in pharmacolcgy--Congresses.

Progress in Radiopharmacology 3

The publication of this volume, which is based upon presentations made to the Third European Symposium on Radiopharmacology at Noordwijkerhout, April 22 - 24, 1982, is indicative of the continued interest in this sub-branch of Nuclear Medicine. The transactions of the first two meetings were published as Progress in Radiopharmacology, Volumes 1 and 2 by Elsevier/North-Holland Bio medical Press. We are particularly pleased to have reached an agreement with Martinus Nijhoff Publishers to include Progress in Radiopharmacology 3 in the series Developments in Nuclear Medicine. This not only ensures the continuity of the series but by including it in a series of Nuclear Medical Monographs the availability of the text to more general readers, for background information, is greatly enhanced. As with the previous two volumes each of the three topics has been so treated as to relate the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceuticals to normal and pathophysiological conditions to provide background information for the practising nuclear medical specialist. Special attention has been given to European activities but these have been clearly placed in context in relation to developments from outside Europe. The Third European Symposium on Radiopharmacology was held under the auspices of the European Joint Commitee on Radiopharmaceuticals of the European Nuclear Medicine Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine Europe. Solco Nuclear, Basle, provided both financial and material support and I would like to thank Dr M. de Schrijver, Mr. I. Waser and Mrs. E. Rufenacht for their continued help and encouragement.

Progress in Radiopharmacology 1985

DEVELOPMENTS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE Series editor Peter H. Cox Cox, P.H. (ed.): Cholescintigraphy. 1981. ISBN 90-247-2524-0 Cox, P.H. (ed.): Progress in radiopharmacology 3. Selected Topics. 1982. ISBN 90-247-2768-5 Jonckheer, ...

Progress in Radiopharmacology 1985

This volume is based upon presentations made to the 4th European Symposium on Radiopharmacology which was held under the auspices of the European Joint Committee on Radiopharma ceuticals (ENMS / SNME) in Athens from March 28 - 31, 1984. The Medical Insurance Foundation of the National Bank of Greece (TYPET) sponsored this meeting and the Joint Committee would like to express their gratitude to the local organising committee: G. Limouris, M. Pierroutsakou, A. Sarris, A. Tzoulis and C. Binas. A word of thanks also to Mrs. Tineke Busker who prepared the camera ready copy. The meeting reflects the continuing and growing interest in biodistribution and factors which can influence bio distribution in the clinical situation. The choice of sub jects, respiration, cerebral function, biodistribution and metabolism complement earlier volumes in this series and reflect European interests in these areas. P.H. Cox Rotterdam, April 1985 VII CONTENTS Foreword P.H. Cox v Contributors XI I. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Physiology and pathophysiology of the respiratory system J. Roth, E. Henze, W.E. Adam 3 Generator-produced Krypton-81m in gas and liquid phases for medical applications M. Guillaume, N. Garzaniti, H. Zicot, T. Khuc, P. Bartsch 23 Noble radionuclides for lung ventila tion studies I. Bofilias 49 Radioaerosols in nuclear medicine M. Pillay, B. Shapiro, P.H. Cox 57 99m A dry aerosol of Tc -albuminmilli micro spheres for lung ventilation scintigraphy: preparation, inhalation apparatus and examples of clinical results P. Angelberger, I. Zolle, A. Strigl, H. Kahn, A. Mostbeck, W.

Progress in Radiopharmacy

Progress in Radiopharmacy


Textbk Radiopharmacy

Preparation of Tc - 99m - labelled particles for aerosol studies . Radiochem . Radioanal . Letters . , 5 , 275-277 . Frier M. ( 1981 ) Phagocytosis . In Progress in Radiopharmacology vol . II , edited by P.H. Cox , PP . 249-259 .

Textbk Radiopharmacy

This second edition now includes practical information on drug enhancement of nuclear medicine studies; radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents; pharmacokinetics and a section on current radiopharmaceutical research. This book begins with the basic scientific principles of radiation physics, generator systems and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. It deals with methods of localization of radiopharmaceuticals such as lung deposition, ion exchange, membrane transportation, phagocytosis and pinocytosis. The important role of radiolabelling blood components is reviewed. The latest information on factors affecting biodistribution, adverse and unusual reactions, the integrity of radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry is also included. There is also a section on new radiopharmaceuticals. The final chapter on paediatric radiopharmacy deals with the preparation of doses for children, methods of calculating doses and documentation.

Radiopharmacy and Radiopharmacology Yearbook

JarrLt P.H. and Williams E.S. 99m Tc-Plasmin (1981) Clinical and Pharmacological studies with In: Progress in Radiopharmacology VdLll. P.H.Cox Editor EOsevier/Ncrth Holland-Biomedical Press. 5. Darte L. Persson R.B.R. Strand S.E. Olsson ...

Radiopharmacy and Radiopharmacology Yearbook

First Published in 1985, this yearbook is an annual reference providing a concise source of information concerning recent developments in the radiopharmaceutical sciences.

Safety and efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals 1987

DEVELOPMENTS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE Series editor Peter H. Cox Cox, P.H. (ed.): Cholescintigraphy. 1981. ISBN 90-247-2524-0 Cox, P.H. (ed.): Progress in radiopharmacology 3. Selected Topics. 1982. ISBN 90-247-2768-5 Jonckheer, ...

Safety and efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals 1987

Safety and Efficacy of Radiopharmaceuticals was established as a very important and comprehensive subject at the First Europe an Symposium on Radiopharmacy and Radiopharmaceuticals in Denmark in 1983. The interest in this subject has grown considerably since then due to the growing interest among national authorities to deal with radiopharmaceuticals. The introduction in recent years of nuclear medicine techniques based on radioactive labelled cells and on monoclonal antibodies has stressed the importance of a well functioning approval system for the clinical trial and use of new radiopharmaceuticals. The process of transferring the experience from the non radioactive drug field into the area of radiopharmaceuticals is still ongoing. International organisations such as the World Health Organisa tion is also including this into their quality assurance programme from both the radiopharmaceutical and the radiation hygiene point of view. In order to give an up-to date survey of these areas, experts were invited to prepare review papers under the following headings: Safety and Efficacy of Radiophar maceuticals with Emphasis on Biological Products, Radiophar macy/Radiation Hygiene, Legal Aspects of the Introduction of New Radiopharmaceuticals and some selected aspects of Good Radiopharmacy Practice.

Technetium 99m Pharmaceuticals

Fritzberg AR (ed) (1986) Radiopharmaceuticals: progress and clinical perspectives, vol. I±II Cox PH (ed) (1982) Progress in radiopharmacology 3: selected topics. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague Cox PH (ed) (1985) Radiopharmacy and ...

Technetium 99m Pharmaceuticals

Radioactive drug development is a multi-disciplinary task. Therefore, dedicated scientists and experts from different fields of specialisation have contributed to this book. The text reviews forty years of advances in radiopharmaceutical development based on Technetium. The first section reviews basic principles and analytic methods, and information on chemical makeup of radiopharmaceuticals. Part 2 reviews 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, thoroughly outlining their chemistry, formulation, pharmacokinetics and clinical applications.

Radiopharmaceuticals

Chervu, L.R., and Blaufox, M.D., Renal radiopharmaceuticals – An update, Semin. Nucl. Med., 12, 224-245 (1982). 4. Fritzberg, A.R., Advances in renal radiopharmaceuticals, In Radiopharmaceuticals Progress and Clinical Perspectives, vol.

Radiopharmaceuticals

This timely resource compares single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), used mainly withTechnetium and iodine for routine clinical examinations, and positron emission tomography(PET) , employing short-lived radionuclides of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and fluorine in researchinvestigations.Presenting the logic behind why one approach is better than another in various circumstances,Radio pharmaceuticals details the use of radiolabelled substrates in measuring the effect of diseaseand drugs on regional metabolism and receptor concentration/occupancy .. . discusses factorsaffecting the selective retention of small metal complexes by various tissues .. . analyzes the interactionof small exogenous metal complexes with enzymes in vivo and the critical role of stereochemistry. . . explores the use of radio labelled compounds in the study of neuroactive compounds,neurotransmitters, enzyme inhibitors, and substrates in vivo .. . covers the design and pharmacologyof radiolabelled drugs as probes of site of action , selectivity and specificity, and pharmacokineticsin vivo .. . and more.Extensively referenced with over l 050 bibliographic citations, Radiopharmaceuticals is a state-ofthe-art guide for pharmacists; organic, medicinal , and radiopharmaceutical chemists; pharmacokineticists;nuclear medicine physicians and technologists; neurochemists; and governmentregulatory personnel .

Current Catalog

( Developments in nuclear medicine ; v . 22 ) Compilation of invited papers presented at the Fourth European Symposium on Radiopharmacy and Radiopharmaceuticals , held in Baden , Switzerland , May 1-4 , 1991 ; organized by the ...

Current Catalog

First multi-year cumulation covers six years: 1965-70.

Radiopharmaceuticals

[2] Ercan MT, Caglar M. Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Current pharmaceutical design. ... [3] Wolf W, Kawada T, Shani J. The radiopharmacist as a professional speciality: past, present and future. ... Progress in Radiopharmacy.

Radiopharmaceuticals

Radiopharmaceuticals - Current Research for Better Diagnosis and Therapy discusses the importance of radiopharmaceuticals and their environmental, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and research applications. Chapters address such topics as the fundamentals of radiopharmaceutical chemistry and preparation, fabrication, materials manipulation, and characterization of radiopharmaceuticals, applications of radiopharmaceuticals in preclinical studies, radiopharmaceuticals in modern cancer therapy, and new trends in preparation, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnosis and research.

Nuclear Medicine in Tropical and Infectious Diseases

Progress in Radiopharmacology . Selected Topics . Proceedings of the 3rd European Symposium ( Noordwijkerhout , The Netherlands , April 1982 ) . 1982 ISBN 90-247-2768-5 M.H. Jonckheer and F. Deconinck ( eds . ) ...

Nuclear Medicine in Tropical and Infectious Diseases

"More than half of the world's population is at risk of the tropical diseases malaria, leprosy, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, Chagas' disease, African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis and half a billion are infected with at least one of these diseases". J. H. F. Remme, World Health Organisation, 1993. "If it is true that science is not limited by frontiers and all research Institutions then belong to mankind, so it is natural for each Institution to be responsible for the problems of those who live in the geographic area under its influence. There are no specific aspects concerning physical, chemical or philosophical concepts and facts, but specificity does exist concerning geology, sociology and pathology. It is the duty of each Institution to study the particular aspects concerning its geographic region, as missing links of the chain of universal knowledge may be found there." H. L. de Oliveira, fonner Rector of the University ofSiio Paulo, 1967. "Nuclear Medicine is cost effective, especially in the developing countries. ( ... ).

Radiopharmaceuticals for Positron Emission Tomography Methodological Aspects

In Progress in Radiopharmacy. Eds. P.H. Cox, S.J. Mather, C.B. Sampson and C.R. Lazarus, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 85–98. Qaim S.M.(1986b) Recent developments in theproduction of 18 F, 75,76,77 Br and 123 I. Int. J.

Radiopharmaceuticals for Positron Emission Tomography   Methodological Aspects

Radiochemical methodology constitutes the most important base for the successful functioning of a PET group in the routine production and development of radiopharmaceuticals. Of the several hundred products which have been labelled with positron emitters during the past two decades about 35 are presently considered to be of major interest. The time for a state-of-the-art review is right, since this field has advanced over the past fifteen years to reach a level where guidelines can now be suggested. Chapters of this book deal with each of the main methodological aspects of the chemistry needed to develop an effective radiopharmaceutical, namely radionuclide production, automation and metabolite analysis. A further chapter on QA/QC is written by a broadly-based expert group and is meant to provide a guideline and a base for future monographs and regulations on major PET radiopharmaceuticals of today. This book will help the increasing numbers of scientists who are now entering the field of PET to appreciate the methodological aspects that are normally addressed by chemists in relation to PET radiopharmaceuticals; it provides many useful practical guidelines and will promote early success in their own endeavours, since these will often necessarily begin by establishing chemical methodology of the kind discussed here.

Brain Dopaminergic Systems Imaging with Positron Tomography

Developments. in. Nuclear. Medicine. 1. P.H. Cox (ed.): Cholescintigraphy. 1981 ISBN 90-247-2524–0 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. P.H. Cox (ed.): Progress in Radiopharmacology. ... Safety and Efficacy of Radiopharmaceuticals.

Brain Dopaminergic Systems  Imaging with Positron Tomography

Imaging of the Dopaminergic system in the human brain with the in vivo use of Positron Emis sion Tomography has emerged in the late 1980s as a tool of major importance in Clinical Neuros ciences and Pharmacology. The last few years have witnessed the rapid development of new radiotracers specific to receptors, reuptake sites and enzymes of the dopamine system; the application of these radiotracers has led to major breakthroughs in the pathophysiology and therapy of movement disorders and schizophrenic-like psychoses. This book is the first to collect, in a single volume, state-of-the-art contributions to the various aspects of this research. Its contents address methodological issues related to the design, labelling, quantitative imaging and compartmental modelisation of radioligands of the post-synaptic, pre-synaptic and enzyme sites of the dopamine system and to their use in clinical research in the fields of Parkinson's disease as well as other movement disorders, psychoses and neuroleptic receptor occupancy. The chapters were written by leading European scientists in the field of Positron Emission Tomography, gathered together in Caen (France, November 1990) under the aegis of the EEC Concerted Action on "PET Investigations of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration. This book provides a current and comprehensive overview on PET studies of the brain dopamine system which should aid and interest neurologists, psychiatrists, pharmacologists and medical imaging scientists. J.C. Baron D. Comar L. Farde J.L. Martinot B. Mazoyer August 1991 ix LIST OF CONTRffiUTORS Dr Yves Agid DrL.

Positron Emission Tomography in Clinical Research Tracer Modelling and Radioreceptors

DEVELOPMENTS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE Volume 15 1. Cox , P.H. ( ed . ) : Cholescintigraphy . 1981. ISBN 90-247-2524-0 2. Cox , P.H. ( ed . ) : Progress in radiopharmacology 3. ... Safety and efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals . 1984.

Positron Emission Tomography in Clinical Research  Tracer Modelling and Radioreceptors

Proceedings of a workshop held in Brussels, Belgium within the framework of the European Community Medical and Public Health Research

Radioiodination Theory Practice and Biomedical Applications

Developments in Nuclear Medicine 1. 2. 11. 12. 13. P.H. Cox (ed.): Cholescintigraphy. 1981 ISBN 90-247-2524–0 P.H. Cox (ed.): Progress in Radiopharmacology. Selected Topics. ... Safety and Efficacy of Radiopharmaceuticals.

Radioiodination  Theory  Practice  and Biomedical Applications

Among the readily available -emitting radionuclides, the nuclides of iodine have the greatest versatility in labeling both the hydrophilic and the lipophilic compounds that are used in biology and medicine. Biologically important micrmolecules, semimacromolecules, and macromolecules have been identified which, after iodination, almost maintain the same molecular configuration and similar biologic specificity as those of the parent molecules. The multiple techniques for iodination and the clinical use of iodinated products have made possible the present status of the development of diagnostic nuclear medicine. 125r, with a half-life of 60 days, has a crucial role in competitive protein-binding studies. 131r is useful for measuring thyroid uptake, for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma and metastasis, and for therapy. 1nr , with a reasonably shorter half-life, is almost ideal for thyroid workup and for a few useful labeled radiopharmaceutical. Although ~c is used more widely in diagnostic procedures, the radionuclides of iodine will always have a major role in biology and medicine. A considerable amount of information is scattered in the literature regarding the chemistry of radioiodination and the mechanism of tracer localization in cells and tissues. Labeled peptides, proteins, and antibodies are extensively used for protein turnover studies, receptor binding and tumor imaging studies, and radioimmunoassay. The general trend in the use of tracers in clinical nuclear medicine has been an evolution from 3H, 14C, 11C, and 13 to 125 , 131 and 123r to ~c and 111rn.

Clinical Application of Radiolabelled Platelets

Developments in Nuclear Medicine ! 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. . P.H. Cox (ed.): Cholescintigraphy. 1981 ISBN 90-247-2524–0 . P.H. Cox (ed.): Progress in Radiopharmacology. ... Safety and Efficacy of Radiopharmaceuticals.

Clinical Application of Radiolabelled Platelets

AIMS OF THE COLOGNE-SYMPOSIUM ON RADIOLABELLED PLATELETS In 1976, M. Thakur et al (1) were the first to publish a paper concerning the in vivo thrombus detection with 111- In-labelled platelets. Previous attempts at scintigraphic thrombus localisation had been disappointing because of the unspecific binding of a number of the isotopes used, as well as the poor labelling efficiency or an insufficient low gamma-emitting property. Because of its physical characteristics (2.8 days half-life, 94% gamma emission) 111 Indium turned out to be the best isotope for platelet kinetic studies as well as for the measurement of platelet incorporation by Thrombi to be used up until now. The lipophile complexes of Ill-In (8-hydroxyquinoline, acetylacetone, tropolone) diffuse passively into the platelets without altering the function or the life span of the platelets. This advantage has let to an increase in the clinical applications of 1211-In labelled platelets. Today, radiolabelled platelets are used for thrombus detection in several different medical areas such as cardiology, nephrology. angiology or neurology. Even though many scientists and hospital doctors now routinely use radiolabelled platelet as a diagnostic tool, there is as yet not a standardized labelling method. In addition to this, there are neither standardized image procedures for the different clinical applications nor an agreement about specificity and sensitivity of the method. In 1983, a symposium on Radiolabelled Cellular Blood Elements was organized by M.Thakur, M.R.Hardeman and M.D.

Nuclear and Radiochemistry

Progress in Radiopharmacy. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff. Van Rijk, P.P. (ed.) (1986). Nuclear Techniques in Diagnostic Medicine. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff. Deckart, H. and Cox, P.H. (eds.) (1987). Principles of Radiopharmacology.

Nuclear and Radiochemistry

The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry In the newly revised Fourth Edition of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences. This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment. Readers will also find: - An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei - Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation - In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.