This recycling plays a large role in maintaining Earth's global temperature values
in a range that allows the existence of liquid water. One of the most important of
the recycling processes is putting CO2 back into the atmosphere. As limestone is
Author: Peter D. Ward
What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.
Release on 2009-04-01 | by NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.
Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Publisher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.
2.1 Introduction More than 150 independent species of rare earth minerals have
been described. Levinson (1966) defined rare earth minerals as those minerals
containing rare earth elements (REE) as essential constituents. Following this ...
Author: A.P. Jones
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
30% discount for members of The Mineralogical Society of Britain and Ireland Rare Earth Minerals presents a current overview of this geologically and industrially important group of minerals. It presents a wide variety of formats, crystal structures, petrographic descriptions, analytical data and numerous illustrations from outcrop photos to SEM pictures and crystallographic models.
This is a unique feature of rare earth higher oxides. For transition metal oxides,
for example TiO2, the non-stoichiometry does not create the “point defect” and is
induced by the “crystallographic shear planes” and intergrowth of “chemical ...
Author: G. Adachi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Binary Rare Earth Oxides is the first book in the field of rare earth oxides that provides coverage from the basic science through to recent advances. This book introduces the unique characteristics of the binary rare earth oxides with their chemistry, physics and applications. It provides a comprehensive review of all the characteristics of rare earth oxides, essential for scientists and engineers involved with rare earths, oxides, inorganic materials, ceramics, and structures. The binary rare earth oxides bring us a variety of interesting characteristics. Understanding their fundamental mechanisms builds a bridge between solid-state chemistry and materials science. The book begins with a brief introduction to binary rare earth oxides, their physical and chemical stabilities, polymorphism, crystal structures and phase transformation and the association with current applications. The book goes on to present the band structure of the oxides using several quantum chemical calculations, which belong to a newly developed area in the binary rare earth oxides. Central to this chapter are the characterizations of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, as well as details of single crystal growth and particle preparation methods that have progressed in recent years. Later chapters concentrate on thermo-chemical properties and trace determination techniques. The final chapter contains a variety of useful applications in various fields such as phosphors, glass abrasives, automotive catalysts, fuel cells, solid electrolytes, sunscreens, iron steels, and biological materials. This book is an invaluable resource for materials scientists and solid-state physicists and chemists with an interest in rare earth oxides, as well as advanced students and graduates who require an approach to familiarize them with this field. This book provides guidance through a comprehensive review of all the characteristics of binary rare earth oxides.
Chapter 8 GEOCHEMISTRY OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN
GROUNDWATERS FROM A RHYOLITE AQUIFER, CENTRAL MÉXICO KAREN
H. JOHANNESSON1, ALEJANDRA CORTÉS2, JOSE ALFREDO RAMOS LEAL2,
Author: Karen H. Johannesson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This is the first book of its kind to focus on the geochemistry of the lanthanide series elements in groundwater/aquifer environments. The contributors are leading researchers in the study of low-temperature geochemistry of rare earth elements. Individual chapters address analytical techniques, water-rock interactions, aqueous complexation, and the reactions and processes that influence these heavy metals along groundwater flow paths.
In the last chapter parameters of rare-earth-doped fibers and glasses have been
determined with several different measurement techniques. Now, the author has
arrived at the final steps of his work and uses the results of spectroscopic ...
Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of ...
Author: Marc Humphries
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of China; (5) Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress: H.R. 4866, and S. 3521, the Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010; H.R. 5136, the FY 2011 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; P.L. 111-84, the FY 2010 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; (6) Possible Policy Options: Authorize and Appropriate Funding for a USGS Assessment; Support and Encourage Greater Exploration for REE; Challenge China on Its Export Policy; Establish a Stockpile. Illustrations.
This anomaly is associated with the magnetovolume phenomena in iron-rich
compounds [Rad86]. The magnetic properties of iron and cobalt in R-T
compounds are best examined for alloys where the rare-earth partner is trivalent
and does not ...
Author: J. M. D. Coey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Rare-earth iron permanent magnets combine the magnetization of iron or cobalt with the anisotropy of a light rare-earth in intermetallic compounds which exhibit nearly ideal hysteresis. The rare-earth iron magnets are now indispensable components of a vast range of electronic and electromechanical devices. This book covers the principles of permanent magnetism, magnet processing, and applications in a series of interlocking chapters written by experts in each area. Born of experience of the Concerted European Action on Magnets, it is a definitive account of the field, designed to be read by physicists, materials scientists, and electrical engineers.
praseodymium contents. The main rare earth metal in it remained cerium with
common content in limits 50–75 mass % and the main other element was
lanthanum . Another known “mixture” of different rare earth metals used for
Author: L.L. Rokhlin
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals are important structural materials, as they combine low density with high-strength properties. This makes them particularly attractive for industry, especially in cases where the low weight of constructions is critical, as in aircraft and space apparatus construction. One of the remarkable features of alloys is the significant difference made by individual rare-earth metals when they are added to magnesium. This second edition of Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare-Earth Metals: Structure and Properties describes the constitution and properties of magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals. It presents the dependence of their characteristics on their atomic number and place in the periodic table and discusses new ideas for rare-earth metals as alloying additives to magnesium. This volume consists mainly of research from Russian scientists but also contains western literature making it a valuable reference tool for students, researchers and professionals in materials science and metallurgy.
With the inclusion of scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y), a total of 17 elements are
referred to as the rare earth elements. A mixture of rare earths was discovered in
1794 by J. Gadolin and ytterbium was separated from this mixture in 1878 by ...
Author: Chun-Hui Huang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Edited by a highly regarded scientist and with contributions from sixteen international research groups, spanning Asia and North America, Rare Earth Coordination Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications provides the first one-stop reference resource for important accomplishments in the area of rare earth. Consisting of two parts, Fundamentals and Applications, readers are armed with the systematic basic aspects of rare earth coordination chemistry and presented with the latest developments in the applications of rare earths. The systematic introduction of basic knowledge, application technology and the latest developments in the field, makes this ideal for readers across both introductory and specialist levels.
Hydrosphere 1 7.1 Origin of Yttrium and/or Rare Earth Elements in the
Hydrosphere 1 7.1.1 Seawater 1 7.1.2 Non-Marine Waters 4 7.2 Mode of
Occurrence, Distribution, and Content of Yttrium and/or Rare Earth Elements in
the Hydrosphere 7 ...
Only the land-pebble deposits contain a substantial amount of uranium and, in
some places, also contain rare earth elements. The most productive area of the
land-pebble district is in Polk and Hillsborough Counties, which are located in the
Author: Keith R. Long
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
The rare earth elements (REE) are 15 elements with atomic no. 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium, plus yttrium. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-tech applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and lightweight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems. This study provides a non-technical overview of domestic reserves and resources of REE and possibilities for utilizing those resources. Illus. This is a print on demand report.
... USSR , Abstracts , 1987 , 115 – 116 ( in Russian ) Sorokin N . I . , Krivandina E
. A . , Kuranov D . N . , Zhmurova Z . I . , Sobolev B . P . , va Growth of single
crystalline superionic conductors Gd - Sr F3 412 THE RARE EARTH