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Singleness

Author: Michal Glowala
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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The book is a systematic study of the issue of self-individuation in the scholastic debate on principles of individuation (principia individuationis). The point of departure is a general formulation of the problem of individuation acceptable for all the participants of the scholastic debate: a principle of individuation of x is what makes x individual (in various possible senses of ‘making something individual’). The book argues against a prima facie plausible view that everything that is individual is individual by itself and not by anything distinct from it (Strong Self-Individuation Thesis). The keynote topic of the book is a detailed analysis of the two competing ways of rejecting the Strong Self-Individuation Thesis: the Scotistic and the Thomistic one. The book defends the latter one, discussing a number of issues concerning substantial and accidental forms, essences, properties, instantiation, the Thomistic notion of materia signata, Frege’s Begriff-Gegenstand distinction, and Geach’s form-function analogy developed in his writings on Aquinas. In the context of both the scholastic and contemporary metaphysics, the book offers a framework for dealing with issues of individuality and defends a Thomistic theory of individuation.


Being and Learning

Author: Eduardo M. Duarte
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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“Education is not an art of putting sight into the eye that can already see, but one of turning the eye towards the proper gaze of Being. That’s what must be managed!” Plato insists. This claim is the take-off point for Eduardo Duarte’s meditations on the metaphysics and ontology of teaching and learning. In Being and Learning he offers an account of learning as an attunement with Being’s dynamic presencing and unconcealment, which Duarte explores as the capacity to respond and attend to the matter that stands before us, or, in Arendtian terms, to love the world, and to be with others in this world. This book of ‘poetic thinking’ is a chronicle of Duarte’s ongoing exploration of the question of Being, a philosophical journey that has been guided primarily through a conversation with Heidegger, and which also includes the voices of Plato, Aristotle, Heraclitus, Nietzsche, as well Lao Tzu and the Buddha, among others. In Being and Learning, Duarte undertakes a ‘phenomenology of the original’: a writing that consciously and conspicuously interrupts the discursive field of work in philosophy of education. As the late Reiner Schurmann described this method: “it recalls the ancient beginnings and it anticipates a new beginning, the possible rise of a new economy among things, words and actions.” Being and Learning is a work of parrhesia: a composition of free thought that disrupts the conventional practice of philosophy of education, and thereby open up gaps and spaces of possibility in the arrangement of words, concepts, and ideas in the field. With this work Eduardo Duarte is initiating new pathways of thinking about education.


The Realization of Anti racist Teaching

Author: Godfrey L. Brandt
Publisher: Psychology Press
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Reforging the Great Chain of Being

Author: Simo Knuuttila
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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A sports reporter might say that in a competition all the participants realize their potentialities or possibilities. When an athlete performs far below his usual standard, it can be said that it was possible for him to do better. But the idea of fair play requires that this use of 'possible' refers to another com petition. It is presumed that the best athlete wins and that no real possibility of doing better is left unrealized in a competition. Here we have a use of language, a language game, in which modal notions are used so as to imply that if something is possible, it is realized. This idea does not belong to the general presuppositions of current ordinary usage. It is, nevertheless, not difficult to fmd other similar examples outside of the language of sports. It may be that such a use of modal notions is sometimes calculated to express that in the context in question there are no real alternative courses of events in contradistinction to other cases in which some possible alternatives remain unrealized. Even though modal notions are currently interpreted without the presup position that each genuine possibility should be realized at some moment of the actual history, there are contemporary philosophical models of modalities which incorporate this presupposition. In his book Untersuchungen tiber den Modalkalkiil (Anton Hain, Meisenheim am Glan 1952, pp. 16-36), Oscar Becker presents a statistical interpretation of modal calculi.


Recent Perspectives in American Philosophy

Author: Y.H. Krikorian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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The essays in this book analyze significant perspectives of the recent past in American philosophy; they represent some of the major trends of this period. Alfred North Whitehead is included with the recent American philosophers since his major philosophic ideas were fully developed in this country. There has been no attempt to deal comprehensively with this period. Several philosophers of equal importance who also deserve attention-C. l. Lewis, A. O. Love joy, W. F. Montague, R. B. Perry, F. J. E. Woodbridge, and others have not been discussed. Most of the essays were published at various times in various journals. Though all of the perspectives are presented with sympathetic understanding, they are also critically evaluated. 2 AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY OF THE RECENT PAST But even more than individual philosophers and schools of philos ophy the larger background of contemporary American life has nour ished the empirical spirit. Science as the most pervasive climate of our intellectual and practical activity has enhanced the empirical attitude. The great development, in this country, of business and technological industry has encouraged the pragmatic, empirical outlook. Empiricism, however, is an ambiguous term, and its different meanings have different philosophic consequences. For some it means that only concrete personal experience can be accepted as reality; for others it means the succession of sense-impressions. The more recent usage, the one that has been dominant in American philosophy, identifies empiricism with objectively and socially verifiable pronounce ments, that is, with experimentalism, or confirmation through demon strable evidence.


Strategic Realization of Millennium Development Goals

Author: Ezechi Chukwu PhD
Publisher: Author House
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The efforts to improve on the conditions of human life by individuals, private and public sector is doubtless a continuous process. In any case, peace and security are necessary conditions for any meaningful sustainable human development. To that effect, both the League of Nations formed in 1919 after the World War I and the United Nations Organization created in 1945after the World War II are geared towards global peace and security, as requisites to worthy conditions of human life. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which was established by the UN in the year 2000 is symbolic of an enhanced commitment towards the betterment of man in the 21st Century. The present work is an attempt to take a general look at the MDGs so far. The book underscores however the fact that progress has been actually made in some of the eight targeted areas of the goals so far. Having said that the MDGs are confronted with some challenges and fundamental gaps. Some of these gaps exist because of the non inclusion of certain key elements into the goals. In this vein, the philosophy and works of Fr. Prof. Emmanuel M. P. Edeh could offer a veritable approach for the actualization of the MDGs in general. For close to three decades, Edeh has contributed enormously in MDGs related programme and his modus operandi continues to remain efficacious and sustainably functional. Hence, the need for its consideration for the strategic realization of the MDGs.


Towards the Realization of World Peace

Author: Emmanuel M. P. Edeh
Publisher: AuthorHouse
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The history of mankind has been dominated by wars, violence, restiveness, hunger, political and economic revolution, which are seemingly engineered by gross quest for political power, economic gain, territorial boundary, negative national pride, selfishness, greed, unwarranted man inhumanity to and cultural dominance. It is obvious from all indications that the driving force behind these wars are either quest for peace, social justice, political emancipation, etc. Regrettably, instead of peace, these wars have rather brought about hatred, fear, mutual suspicion, and perpetual agitation of the unknown. Consequently, even those who claim to be pursuing the courses of peace through war have found themselves in a more confused state because they live in fear of the vanquished that could turn against them any day. Those who have been conquered also live in fear as the victor becomes arrogant and inconsiderate. Realizing that the world is in dire need of peace, the general assembly of the United Nation Organisation (UNO) resolved on September 7, 2001, to observe September 21 as the International Peace Day. The assembly deemed it necessary, for the sake of peace, to observe that day as a day of ceasefire and non-violence. This was a way of bringing to public awareness the necessity of peace. The desire for peace was evident in that a number of agencies were founded by UNO to promote and foster peaceful coexistence among nations. But the question that still remains unanswered is, what are the achievements of these agencies over the years? It is obvious that warring nations even keep killing themselves on the eve of the International Peace Day. What a tragedy! Fr. Edeh observes that peace can be enthroned if and only if the dignity and essence of man is cared for, loved, and respected. For him, the dignity and essence of man stem from the fact that man is created by God who is “good in se.” Hence, man is good, that is, Mmadi. To fully realize the ontological goodness of man, Edeh insists that African philosophy should not be thought of in terms of theoretical and rational speculation but a lived philosophy of African culture, language, and religious background, which must be expressed in practical terms. Thus, the primary aim of this mission of practical and effective charity is to bring peace to the world by bringing peace to the heart of individuals who are abjectly poor, sick, marginalized, unemployed, and uneducated irrespective of race, colour, creed, social status, religion, or physical condition. This book therefore contains Fr. Edeh’s understanding of man as a dignified being because of his participation in the being of his creator (God).This concept of man stems from the African philosophy, which is as practical as it is theoretical. Consequently, pursuing peace, according to Edeh, has to go beyond just holding of conferences and presenting long speeches. He maintains that stakeholders in this all-important venture must put down certain concrete realities that will better the fate of man. His role model here is worth imitating if only world peace is to be truly realized.


The Material Realization of Science

Author: Hans Radder
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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This book develops a conception of science as a multi-dimensional practice, which includes experimental action and production, conceptual-theoretical interpretation, and formal-mathematical work. On this basis, it addresses the topical issue of scientific realism and expounds a detailed, referentially realist account of the natural sciences. This account is shown to be compatible with the frequent occurrence of conceptual discontinuities in the historical development of the sciences. Referential realism exploits several fruitful ideas of Jürgen Habermas, especially his distinction between objectivity and truth; it builds on a in-depth analysis of scientific experiments, including their material realization; and it is developed through an extensive case study in the history and philosophy of quantum mechanics. The new postscript explains how the book relates to several important issues in recent philosophy of science and science studies. “I highly recommend this book. Radder is probably the first philosopher of science to make productive epistemological use of the notion of ‘experimental system’. The postscript is most valuable since it connects his work not only to the topical debates in philosophy of science, but also to history of science and science studies.” Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin About the first edition: “The debate on realism has recently become rather stale by repetition, but Radder introduces original insights and has written a lively and well-argued contribution to it. The book is to be recommended also as a clear introduction to the complex of relevant issues.” Mary Hesse, University of Cambridge “Radder presents an ingenious approach to the issue of scientific realism and conceptual discontinuity. I believe his idea that conceptual discontinuity presupposes other types of continuity is extremely important.” Mark Rowlands, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Hans Radder is professor of philosophy of science and technology at VU University Amsterdam. He is the author of In and About the World and The World Observed/The World Conceived. He edited The Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation and The Commodification of Academic Research: Science and the Modern University, and is coeditor of Science Transformed? Debating Claims of an Epochal Break.


Reality and Self Realization

Author: MinGyu Seo
Publisher: Routledge
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Since the publication of Roy Bhaskar’s A Realist Theory of Science in 1975, critical realism has been evolved as one of the new developments in the areas of philosophy of natural and social science which offers an alternatively fresh view to the existing theories including positivism and post-modernism. Bhaskar’s intellectual movement, which is now fully international and multi-disciplinary, and continues to influence the philosophies of natural and social science, has transformed into ‘Dialectical Critical Realism’ (hereafter DCR) and the philosophy of ‘meta-Reality.’ MinGyu will conclude that his anti-anthropic Non-duality continues through all the steps of Bhaskar’s thought, maintaining the consistency of his scientific, metaphysical, and spiritual journey. The anti-anthropic motif is fully realized in the philosophy of Non-duality - the ‘constellational identification of dualism, duality and non-duality’ in his meta-Reality. Defending Bhaskar against Collier, Agar, and Morgan, MinGyu tries to show how its anti-anthropic and non-dualistic foundation is sustained through the whole of Bhaskar’s journey, involving a transformation of its subject matters from reality, to the dialectic of reality, to the real truth underlying the former stages. This book provides an indispensible resource for all students of philosophy and the human sciences.


Towards Realization of the Higher Intents of Islamic Law

Author: Jamal al-Din Atiyah
Publisher: IIIT
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This book takes an important step "towards the realization of the higher intents of the Islamic law". First, it opens the door towards the integration of contemporary values and worldview into the maqasid terminology. This is carried out via the sections on "the role of reason and experience in identifying maqasid". Secondly, the book gives answers to the complex theoretical questions on the role of maqasid in ijtihad, juristic theorization (usul), and the Islamization of the human, social, and physical sciences. Last, but not least, the book highlights the role and the necessity of a 'maqasid-informed' mindset on the intellectual and communal levels, and takes a pioneering futuristic look into this very important branch of Islamic knowledge.Maqasid al-Shariah (Higher Intents of the Islamic Law) is the most promising tool for the 'contemporization' of Islamic law and its philosophical foundations. It is also - as this book reveals - a promising tool for the realization of Islamic values and principles in the realms of judiciary, society, and even science.