Self-Individuation and Its Rejection in the Scholastic Debate on Principles of Individuation
Author: Michal Glowala
Pubpsher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
The book is a systematic study of the issue of self-individuation in the scholastic debate on principles of individuation (principia individuationis). The point of departure is a general formulation of the problem of individuation acceptable for all the participants of the scholastic debate: a principle of individuation of x is what makes x individual (in various possible senses of ‘making something individual’). The book argues against a prima facie plausible view that everything that is individual is individual by itself and not by anything distinct from it (Strong Self-Individuation Thesis). The keynote topic of the book is a detailed analysis of the two competing ways of rejecting the Strong Self-Individuation Thesis: the Scotistic and the Thomistic one. The book defends the latter one, discussing a number of issues concerning substantial and accidental forms, essences, properties, instantiation, the Thomistic notion of materia signata, Frege’s Begriff-Gegenstand distinction, and Geach’s form-function analogy developed in his writings on Aquinas. In the context of both the scholastic and contemporary metaphysics, the book offers a framework for dealing with issues of individuality and defends a Thomistic theory of individuation.
“Education is not an art of putting sight into the eye that can already see, but one of turning the eye towards the proper gaze of Being. That’s what must be managed!” Plato insists. This claim is the take-off point for Eduardo Duarte’s meditations on the metaphysics and ontology of teaching and learning. In Being and Learning he offers an account of learning as an attunement with Being’s dynamic presencing and unconcealment, which Duarte explores as the capacity to respond and attend to the matter that stands before us, or, in Arendtian terms, to love the world, and to be with others in this world. This book of ‘poetic thinking’ is a chronicle of Duarte’s ongoing exploration of the question of Being, a philosophical journey that has been guided primarily through a conversation with Heidegger, and which also includes the voices of Plato, Aristotle, Heraclitus, Nietzsche, as well Lao Tzu and the Buddha, among others. In Being and Learning, Duarte undertakes a ‘phenomenology of the original’: a writing that consciously and conspicuously interrupts the discursive field of work in philosophy of education. As the late Reiner Schurmann described this method: “it recalls the ancient beginnings and it anticipates a new beginning, the possible rise of a new economy among things, words and actions.” Being and Learning is a work of parrhesia: a composition of free thought that disrupts the conventional practice of philosophy of education, and thereby open up gaps and spaces of possibility in the arrangement of words, concepts, and ideas in the field. With this work Eduardo Duarte is initiating new pathways of thinking about education.
A sports reporter might say that in a competition all the participants realize their potentialities or possibilities. When an athlete performs far below his usual standard, it can be said that it was possible for him to do better. But the idea of fair play requires that this use of 'possible' refers to another com petition. It is presumed that the best athlete wins and that no real possibility of doing better is left unrealized in a competition. Here we have a use of language, a language game, in which modal notions are used so as to imply that if something is possible, it is realized. This idea does not belong to the general presuppositions of current ordinary usage. It is, nevertheless, not difficult to fmd other similar examples outside of the language of sports. It may be that such a use of modal notions is sometimes calculated to express that in the context in question there are no real alternative courses of events in contradistinction to other cases in which some possible alternatives remain unrealized. Even though modal notions are currently interpreted without the presup position that each genuine possibility should be realized at some moment of the actual history, there are contemporary philosophical models of modalities which incorporate this presupposition. In his book Untersuchungen tiber den Modalkalkiil (Anton Hain, Meisenheim am Glan 1952, pp. 16-36), Oscar Becker presents a statistical interpretation of modal calculi.
There is no switch which we can use to turn on or off from falling or not falling in love with someone. It just happens. Sometimes, it happens in the first meet, and sometimes it takes a lifetime. Whether you accept or admit that you are in love, that realization of being in love is the purest form of emotion. This book is about the expedition of two characters and their complex emotions and beliefs. What is their response when they first meet, and then, gradually, as time passed, how they felt when they realized that they are in love and are not able to accept that?
The essays in this book analyze significant perspectives of the recent past in American philosophy; they represent some of the major trends of this period. Alfred North Whitehead is included with the recent American philosophers since his major philosophic ideas were fully developed in this country. There has been no attempt to deal comprehensively with this period. Several philosophers of equal importance who also deserve attention-C. l. Lewis, A. O. Love joy, W. F. Montague, R. B. Perry, F. J. E. Woodbridge, and others have not been discussed. Most of the essays were published at various times in various journals. Though all of the perspectives are presented with sympathetic understanding, they are also critically evaluated. 2 AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY OF THE RECENT PAST But even more than individual philosophers and schools of philos ophy the larger background of contemporary American life has nour ished the empirical spirit. Science as the most pervasive climate of our intellectual and practical activity has enhanced the empirical attitude. The great development, in this country, of business and technological industry has encouraged the pragmatic, empirical outlook. Empiricism, however, is an ambiguous term, and its different meanings have different philosophic consequences. For some it means that only concrete personal experience can be accepted as reality; for others it means the succession of sense-impressions. The more recent usage, the one that has been dominant in American philosophy, identifies empiricism with objectively and socially verifiable pronounce ments, that is, with experimentalism, or confirmation through demon strable evidence.
In Basic Concepts, Heidegger claims that "Being is the most worn-out" and yet also that Being "remains constantly available." Santiago Zabala radicalizes the consequences of these little known but significant affirmations. Revisiting the work of Jacques Derrida, Reiner Schürmann, Jean-Luc Nancy, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Ernst Tugendhat, and Gianni Vattimo, he finds these remains of Being within which ontological thought can still operate. Being is an event, Zabala argues, a kind of generosity and gift that generates astonishment in those who experience it. This sense of wonder has fueled questions of meaning for centuries-from Plato to the present day. Postmetaphysical accounts of Being, as exemplified by the thinkers of Zabala's analysis, as well as by Nietzsche, Dewey, and others he encounters, don't abandon Being. Rather, they reject rigid, determined modes of essentialist thought in favor of more fluid, malleable, and adaptable conceptions, redefining the pursuit and meaning of philosophy itself.
The High Priesthood of Being gay is a labor of love over 12 years in the writing. It included numerous, often exhausting, edits for accuracy and truthfulness. Its a bold attempt to separate out Being and Nothingness in what it is to be gay. Both sacred and profane, emotional and intellectual, it will expand the readers thought processes and I hope ennoble him at the same time. Thats by showing the latent high priest deeply enshrined within.
The efforts to improve on the conditions of human life by individuals, private and public sector is doubtless a continuous process. In any case, peace and security are necessary conditions for any meaningful sustainable human development. To that effect, both the League of Nations formed in 1919 after the World War I and the United Nations Organization created in 1945after the World War II are geared towards global peace and security, as requisites to worthy conditions of human life. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which was established by the UN in the year 2000 is symbolic of an enhanced commitment towards the betterment of man in the 21st Century. The present work is an attempt to take a general look at the MDGs so far. The book underscores however the fact that progress has been actually made in some of the eight targeted areas of the goals so far. Having said that the MDGs are confronted with some challenges and fundamental gaps. Some of these gaps exist because of the non inclusion of certain key elements into the goals. In this vein, the philosophy and works of Fr. Prof. Emmanuel M. P. Edeh could offer a veritable approach for the actualization of the MDGs in general. For close to three decades, Edeh has contributed enormously in MDGs related programme and his modus operandi continues to remain efficacious and sustainably functional. Hence, the need for its consideration for the strategic realization of the MDGs.
The history of mankind has been dominated by wars, violence, restiveness, hunger, political and economic revolution, which are seemingly engineered by gross quest for political power, economic gain, territorial boundary, negative national pride, selfishness, greed, unwarranted man inhumanity to and cultural dominance. It is obvious from all indications that the driving force behind these wars are either quest for peace, social justice, political emancipation, etc. Regrettably, instead of peace, these wars have rather brought about hatred, fear, mutual suspicion, and perpetual agitation of the unknown. Consequently, even those who claim to be pursuing the courses of peace through war have found themselves in a more confused state because they live in fear of the vanquished that could turn against them any day. Those who have been conquered also live in fear as the victor becomes arrogant and inconsiderate. Realizing that the world is in dire need of peace, the general assembly of the United Nation Organisation (UNO) resolved on September 7, 2001, to observe September 21 as the International Peace Day. The assembly deemed it necessary, for the sake of peace, to observe that day as a day of ceasefire and non-violence. This was a way of bringing to public awareness the necessity of peace. The desire for peace was evident in that a number of agencies were founded by UNO to promote and foster peaceful coexistence among nations. But the question that still remains unanswered is, what are the achievements of these agencies over the years? It is obvious that warring nations even keep killing themselves on the eve of the International Peace Day. What a tragedy! Fr. Edeh observes that peace can be enthroned if and only if the dignity and essence of man is cared for, loved, and respected. For him, the dignity and essence of man stem from the fact that man is created by God who is “good in se.” Hence, man is good, that is, Mmadi. To fully realize the ontological goodness of man, Edeh insists that African philosophy should not be thought of in terms of theoretical and rational speculation but a lived philosophy of African culture, language, and religious background, which must be expressed in practical terms. Thus, the primary aim of this mission of practical and effective charity is to bring peace to the world by bringing peace to the heart of individuals who are abjectly poor, sick, marginalized, unemployed, and uneducated irrespective of race, colour, creed, social status, religion, or physical condition. This book therefore contains Fr. Edeh’s understanding of man as a dignified being because of his participation in the being of his creator (God).This concept of man stems from the African philosophy, which is as practical as it is theoretical. Consequently, pursuing peace, according to Edeh, has to go beyond just holding of conferences and presenting long speeches. He maintains that stakeholders in this all-important venture must put down certain concrete realities that will better the fate of man. His role model here is worth imitating if only world peace is to be truly realized.