Release on 1997-01-01 | by W. S. MacKenzie,A. E. Adams
Author: W. S. MacKenzie,A. E. Adams
An introduction to the use of thin sections in the study of petrography—the scientific description of rocks. It covers all rock types—igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic—and provides readers with an excellent overview of the subject.
Structured in the form of a dichotomous key, comparable to those widely used in botany, the mineral key provides an efficient and systematic approach to identifying rock-forming minerals in thin-section. This unique approach covers 150+ of the most commonly encountered rock-forming minerals, plus a few rarer but noteworthy ones. Illustrated in full colour, with 330+ high quality mineral photomicrographs from a worldwide collection of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, it also provides a comprehensive atlas of rock-forming minerals in thin-section. Commencing with a brief introduction to mineral systems, and the properties of minerals in plane-polarised and cross-polarised light, the mineral key also includes line drawings, tables of mineral properties and an interference colour chart, to further aid mineral identification. To minimise the chance of misidentification, and enable less experienced petrologists to use the key with confidence, the key has been arranged to prioritise those properties that are most easily recognised. Designed for simplicity and ease of use, it is primarily aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students of mineralogy and petrology, but should also provide a valuable source of reference for all practising geologists dealing with rock thin sections and their interpretation.
Release on 2017-11-02 | by W.S. MacKenzie,A.E. Adams,K.H. Brodie
A Colour Atlas
Author: W.S. MacKenzie,A.E. Adams,K.H. Brodie
Pubpsher: CRC Press
This concise, clear and handy–sized volume, aimed at the undergraduate level, provides an introduction to the observation, description and identifi cation in thin section, using the polarizing microscope, of samples of the commonlyoccurring rocks and minerals. Illustrated with a wealth of full colour thin section photomicrographs, and with the original images enhanced by new examples and a revised text, the book explains how to observe mineral and rock samples under the microscope. The book highlights the important diagnostic features of minerals and deals with all rock types – igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic – each with equal emphasis and authority, giving students the knowledge and confi dence to begin to identify specimens for themselves. While intended for students in geology, geography, civil engineering and materials science, the book stands on its own as a beautiful collection of photomicrographs and a permanent source of reference and fascination for all those interested in the nature and science of the world of rocks and minerals.
Release on 2012-12-06 | by Hans Pichler,Cornelia Schmitt-Riegraf
Author: Hans Pichler,Cornelia Schmitt-Riegraf
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
Identificationof rock-forming minerals in thin section is a key skill needed by all earth science students and practising geologists. This translation of the completely revised and updated German second edition (by Leonore Hoke, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand) provides a comprehensive guide to identifying 140 of the most important rock-forming mineral species. The book is divided into three main parts. Part A is a practical guide to the fundamentals of crystal optics, polarization microscopy and the practical use of microscopes. Part B gives a detailed description of the characteristic optical features, special features, and the paragenesis of the most common rock-forming minerals. This well-illustrated part is divided into opaque minerals, isotropic, uniaxial and optical biaxial mineral groups. Part C contains identification tables for the minerals and diagrams showing the international classification of magmatic rocks, as well as a colour plate section showing crystal forms of minerals. The book will provide an invaluable guide to all undergraduate earth scientists, as well as to professional geologists requiring an overview of mineral identification in thin section.
The book will be beneficial for: * The undergraduate course in mineralogy, crystallography, petrology & economic geology. * Post graduate students for their economic geology course. * Useful as a ready reckoner for competitive examinations and job interviews and entrepreneurs in mineral industry. * Civil Engineering students will also find this book suitable for their basic courses in mineralogy-petrology. * the text, as far as possible is precise, concise and up-to-date in facts and figures, adequately illustrated and includes photographs and micro-photographs.
Release on 2004 | by Dexter Perkins,Kevin R. Henke
Author: Dexter Perkins,Kevin R. Henke
Pubpsher: Prentice Hall
This clear and concise book assists learners as they look at thin sections. It focuses on the practical, need-to-know information absolutely necessary for work in the laboratory. KEY TOPICS Chapter topics cover: what is light?, polarization of light and the polarizing microscope, the velocity of light in crystals and the refractive index, interaction of light and crystals, other mineral characteristics in thin sections, and a detailed mineral description. For individuals interested in mineralogy and/or petrology.
Originally published in 1916. INTRODUCTION - To Optical Mineralogy and Petrography The Practical Methods of Identifying Minerals in Thin Section With the Microscope and The Principles Involved in The Classification of Rocks - PREFACE: IN THE preparation of this volume the writer has attempted to gather together and systematize in a manner accessible for ready reference those facts which are essential to a field geologist or to a mining engineer in an understanding of the fundamental principles involved in the classification and identification of rocks. In the field, a preliminary classification is usually made by macroscopic means. However, it is often necessary to make a more careful classification by a microscopic examination of a thin section of the minerals comprising the rock mass. To do this successfully requires a knowledge of the application of light to crystalline substances. This volume differs from most of the reference and text books relating to this subject in that it incorporates in one volume the elements of optical mineralogy and the elements of petrography. In Part One, eight general operations for the determination of unknown minerals in thin section are described, prefaced by a short summary of the principles of optics which apply to the transmission of polarized light through minerals. Descriptions of fiftyeight of the most common of the rock-making minerals are given, special attention being given to the criteria for the determination of these minerals in thin section. Their form, cleavage, twinning, color, refringence, bi refringence, extinction angles, pleochroism, absorption, optical character, inclusions, alterations, occurrences, uses, and differentiation from similar minerals, are all discussed whenever applicable. An elementary knowledge of crystallography and descriptive mineralogy is assumed. In Part Two, the principles of petrography are discussed briefly. Attention is given to the classification and description of the more important igneous rock types. Following Iddings, Winchell, and other American petrographers, the symbols X, Y, and Z, are here employed in referring to the axes of ether elasticity, instead of the German a, b, and c, used in many text and reference books. This is done to avoid confusion, especially in conversation or discussion, with the crystallographic axes. 2 The writer is indebted to Professor Frank R. Van Horn for suggestions. Among the reference and text books most frequently consulted the writer wishes to acknowledge Winchells Elements of Optical Mineralogy, Johannsens Manual of Petrographic Methods, Luquers Minerals in Rock Sections, Rogerss Study of Minerals, Findlays Igneous Rocks, Kemps Handbook of Rocks, Ries and Watsons Engineering Geology, and Farrells Practical Field Geology. Cleveland, Olzio, Februarp, 1916. Contents include: INTRODUCTION. PAGE PART ONE. - OPTICAL MINERALOGY. CHAPTER 1 . - THE ELEMENTS O F OPTICS A ND THE APPLICATIO O N F POLARIZELDI GHT T O CRYSTALLINE SUBSTANCES .. .............................. 13 The Nature of Light - Isotropic and Anisotropic Media - Uniaxial and Biaxial Crystals - Index of Refraction - Double Refraction - Interference - Polarization. CHAPTER 2. - THE POLARIZINMGI CROSCOP A E N D ITS PARTS ...................................... 25 Microscope - Nicol Prisms - Condensing Lens - Cross Hairs - Stage - Mirror - Objective - Rertrand Lens - Ocular Micrometer - Ad j ustment Screws. CHAPTER 3 . - GENERALM ETHODS O F MINERALD E TERMINATION ............................... 33 1. By the General Physical Properties 2...
Mind over Magma chronicles the scientific effort to unravel the mysteries of rocks that solidified on or beneath Earth's surface from the intensely hot, molten material called magma. The first-ever comprehensive history of the study of such igneous rocks, it traces the development of igneous petrology from ancient descriptions of volcanic eruptions to recent work incorporating insights from physical chemistry, isotope studies, and fluid dynamics. Intellectual developments in the field--from the application of scientific methods to the study of rocks to the discovery of critical data and the development of the field's major theories--are considered within their broader geographical, social, and technological contexts. Mind over Magma examines the spread of igneous petrology from western Europe to North America, South Africa, Japan, Australia, and much of the rest of the world. It considers the professionalization and Anglicization of the field, detailing changes in publication outlets, the role of women, and the influence of government funding. The book also highlights the significant role that technological developments--including the polarizing microscope, high-temperature quenching furnaces, and instrumental analysis--have played in the discovery of new data and development of revolutionary insights into the nature of igneous rocks. Both an engagingly told story and a major reference, Mind over Magma is the only available history of this important field. As such, it will be appreciated by petrologists, geochemists, and other geologists as well as by those interested in the history of science.