The Ruling Elite of Singapore

Michael Barr explores the complex and covert networks of power at work in one of the world's most prosperous countries - the city-state of Singapore.

The Ruling Elite of Singapore

Michael Barr explores the complex and covert networks of power at work in one of the world's most prosperous countries - the city-state of Singapore. He argues that the contemporary networks of power are a deliberate project initiated and managed by Lee Kuan Yew - former prime minister and Singapore's 'founding father' - designed to empower himself and his family. Barr identifies the crucial institutions of power - including the country's sovereign wealth funds, and the government-linked companies - together with five critical features that form the key to understanding the nature of the networks. He provides an assessment of possible shifts of power within the elite in the wake of Lee Kuan Yew's son, Lee Hsien Loong, assuming power, and considers the possibility of a more fundamental democratic shift in Singapore's political system.

The Ruling Elite of Singapore

Michael Barr explores the complex and covert networks of power at work in one of the world's most prosperous countries – the city-state of Singapore.

The Ruling Elite of Singapore

Michael Barr explores the complex and covert networks of power at work in one of the world's most prosperous countries – the city-state of Singapore. He argues that the contemporary networks of power are a deliberate project initiated and managed by Lee Kuan Yew – former prime minister and Singapore’s ‘founding father’ – designed to empower himself and his family. Barr identifies the crucial institutions of power - including the country’s sovereign wealth funds, and the government-linked companies – together with five critical features that form the key to understanding the nature of the networks. He provides an assessment of possible shifts of power within the elite in the wake of Lee Kuan Yew’s son, Lee Hsien Loong, assuming power, and considers the possibility of a more fundamental democratic shift in Singapore’s political system.

The Ruling Elite of Singapore

None of the studies described above is dedicated explicitly to developing an understanding of the networks of power and influence, with the notable exception of the points from which we started this tour of the literature: Vennewald's ...

The Ruling Elite of Singapore

Michael Barr explores the complex and covert networks of power at work in one of the world's most prosperous countries - the city-state of Singapore. He argues that the contemporary networks of power are a deliberate project initiated and managed by Lee Kuan Yew - former prime minister and Singapore's 'founding father' - designed to empower himself and his family. Barr identifies the crucial institutions of power - including the country's sovereign wealth funds, and the government-linked companies - together with five critical features that form the key to understanding the nature of the networks. He provides an assessment of possible shifts of power within the elite in the wake of Lee Kuan Yew's son, Lee Hsien Loong, assuming power, and considers the possibility of a more fundamental democratic shift in Singapore's political system.

Makers of Modern Asia

The analysis in this paragraph is derived directly from Michael D. Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence (London: I. B. Tauris, 2014), chs. 4, 6, and 8. 28. Barr, “Lee Kuan Yew and the 'Asian Values' ...

Makers of Modern Asia

The twenty-first century has been dubbed the Asian Century. Highlighting diverse thinker-politicians rather than billionaire businessmen, Makers of Modern Asia presents eleven leaders who theorized and organized anticolonial movements, strategized and directed military campaigns, and designed and implemented political systems.

Singapore

Gavin Peebles and Peter Wilson, Economic Growth and Development in Singapore: Past and Future, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, ... Michael D. Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence, London: I.B.Tauris, 2014, ...

Singapore

Singapore gained independence in 1965, a city-state in a world of nation-states. Yet its long and complex history reaches much farther back. Blending modernity and tradition, ideologies and ethnicities, a peculiar set of factors make Singapore what it is today. In this thematic study of the island nation, Michael D. Barr proposes a new approach to understand this development. From the pre-colonial period through to the modern day, he traces the idea, the politics and the geography of Singapore over five centuries of rich history. In doing so he rejects the official narrative of the so-called 'Singapore Story'. Drawing on in-depth archival work and oral histories, Singapore: A Modern History is a work both for students of the country's history and politics, but also for any reader seeking to engage with this enigmatic and vastly successful nation.

Securitising Singapore

M. D. Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence, London, I B Tauris, 2014, pp. 85–86. 63. National Security Coordinating Secretariat (NSCS) Singapore, About NSCC, www.nscs.gov.sg/public/content.aspx?sid=138, ...

Securitising Singapore

Aljunied examines how the Singaporean government developed a comprehensive state–society strategic relationship by ‘securitising’ vital policy areas because of Singapore’s vulnerability as a global city state. In the twenty-first century, the Singaporean government has strategically renewed an existing form of authoritarian rule by ‘militarising’ national security governance. The main objective is to widen and deepen state power. Senior military-trained civilian political leaders and bureaucrats use military personnel, command and control, terminology and strategy of war to deal with non-traditional security challenges leading to the state’s further domination over civil liberty and civil society. Aljunied analyses the information and communication, health and climate–environment sectors. The case studies highlight the way the Singaporean government has used varying forms of political engagement, surveillance and legislation to limit civil liberty and inhibit the development of civil society. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and students of Singapore Studies as well as for the readers of Security Studies with an interest in the global–local nexus in a small state context. It is a pioneering scholarly study on the national security framework and the use of non-traditional security discourse to strengthen state power and social stability at the expense of political liberalism.

The Rise of International Capital

Ruling Elite of Singapore, The: Networks of Power and Influence. London: I. B. Taurus. Boswell, Terry, and Christopher K. Chase-Dunn. 2000. The Spiral of Capitalism and Socialism: Toward Global Democracy. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner ...

The Rise of International Capital

This book analyzes the social forces and political coalitions driving regional integration projects in Asia with a focus on ASEAN and Indonesian conglomerates. It asks which social forces, within the domestic political economy of Asian states, are driving governments to seek regional arrangements for economic governance. In particular the book asks how the emergence, reorganization, and expansion of capitalist class have conditioned political support for regional economic integration. By addressing these issues, the book emphasizes that the wellspring of regional economic institution projects stem from the process of capitalist development and the social forces it has unleashed. The book’s aims place the social and class relations that underpin regional projects – rather than the institutions which result from them—at the centre of the analysis of regional integration. The research for this account draws primarily on primary documents from archival and field research conducted by the author—including company documents and in-depth interviews, government reports and policies, and trade publications and data sources, which is supplemented with secondary sources where relevant.

Singapore

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Albert Lau, A Moment of Anguish: Singapore in Malaysia and the ... Michael Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence (London and New York: I. B. Taurus, 2014).

Singapore

On 9 August 2015, Singapore celebrated its 50th year of national independence, a milestone for the nation as it has overcome major economic, social, cultural and political challenges in a short period of time. Whilst this was a celebratory event to acknowledge the role of the People’s Action Party (PAP) government, it was also marked by national remembrance as founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew died in March 2015. This book critically reflects on Singapore’s 50 years of independence. Contributors interrogate a selected range of topics on Singapore’s history, culture and society – including the constitution, education, religion and race – and thereby facilitate a better understanding of its shared national past. Central to this book is an examination of how Singaporeans have learnt to adapt and change through PAP government policies since independence in 1965. All chapters begin their histories from that point in time and each contribution focuses either on an area that has been neglected in Singapore’s modern history or offer new perspectives on the past. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, it presents an independent and critical take on Singapore’s post-1965 history. A valuable assessment to students and researchers alike, Singapore: Negotiating State and Society, 1965-2015 is of interest to specialists in Southeast Asian history and politics.

Dictators and Autocrats

... The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence (London: I.B.Tauris, 2014), 32–40. 4. omas J. Bellows, The People's Action Party of Singapore: Emergence of a Dominant Party System, Monograph Series no.

Dictators and Autocrats

In order to truly understand the emergence, endurance, and legacy of autocracy, this volume of engaging essays explores how autocratic power is acquired, exercised, and transferred or abruptly ended through the careers and politics of influential figures in more than 20 countries and six regions. The book looks at both traditional "hard" dictators, such as Hitler, Stalin, and Mao, and more modern "soft" or populist autocrats, who are in the process of transforming once fully democratic countries into autocratic states, including Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Turkey, Brazilian leader Jair Bolsonaro, Rodrigo Duterte in the Philippines, Narendra Modi in India, and Viktor Orbán in Hungary. The authors touch on a wide range of autocratic and dictatorial figures in the past and present, including present-day autocrats, such as Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping, military leaders, and democratic leaders with authoritarian aspirations. They analyze the transition of selected autocrats from democratic or benign semi-democratic systems to harsher forms of autocracy, with either quite disastrous or more successful outcomes. An ideal reader for students and scholars, as well as the general public, interested in international affairs, leadership studies, contemporary history and politics, global studies, security studies, economics, psychology, and behavioral studies.

Singapore Singapura

Michael D. Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence, London: I.B. Tauris, 2014. 5. William Keng Mun Lee, “The economic marginality of ethnic minorities: an analysis of ethnic income inequality in Singapore,” ...

Singapore  Singapura

Modern Singapore is a miracle. Half a century ago it unwillingly became an independent nation, after it was thrown out of the Malay Federation. It was tiny, poor, almost devoid of resources, and in a hostile neighborhood. Now, this unlikely country is at the top of almost every global national index, from high wealth and low crime to superb education and much-envied stability. But have these achievements bred a dangerous sense of complacency among Singapore's people? Nicholas Walton walked across the entire country in one day, to grasp what it was that made Singapore tick, and to understand the challenges that it now faces. Singapore, Singapura teases out the island's story, from mercantilist Raffles and British colonial rule, through the war years, to independence and the building of the current miracle. There are challenges ahead, from public complacency and the constraints of authoritarian democracy to changing geographic realities and the difficulties of balancing migration in such a tiny state. Singapore's second half-century will be just as exacting as the one since independence--as Walton warns, talk of a "Singapore model" for our hyper-globalized world must face these realities.

Globalisation Ideology and Education Reforms

The ruling elite of Singapore: Networks of power and influence. London/New York: I.B. Tauris. Brown, P., & Lauder, H. (2001). Capitalism and social progress. London: Palgrave. Castells, M. (1988). The developmental city-state in an open ...

Globalisation  Ideology and Education Reforms

This book analyses the nexus between ideology, the state, and education reforms worldwide. The research evinces the neo-liberal ideological imperatives of current education and policy reforms and illustrates the way these shifts in the relationship between the state and education policy are affecting current trends in education reforms and schooling around the globe. With this as its focus, the chapters represent hand-picked scholarly research on major discourses in the field of global education reforms. Offering a compendium of the very latest thought on the subject, this book is, like the others in the series, a state-of-the-art sourcebook for researchers, practitioners and policymakers alike. Not only do the chapters offer a timely analysis of current issues shaping education policy research; the work also contains ideas about future directions that education and policy reforms could take. By doing so, it provides a comprehensive view of the diverse and intersecting discourses on globalisation and policy-driven reforms in education. The book draws on recent studies in the areas of globalisation, education reforms, and the role of the state. Respective chapters critically assess the dominant discourses and debates on education and policy reforms. Using diverse comparative education paradigms, ranging from critical theory to historical-comparative research, they focus on globalisation, ideology and democracy, and examine both the reasons for and outcomes of education reforms and policy change.

The Limits of Authoritarian Governance in Singapore s Developmental State

Since starting at Flinders in 2007 he has written The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence (2014) and Singapore: A Modern History (2019). He was Editor-in-Chief of Asian Studies Review from 2012 to 2017.

The Limits of Authoritarian Governance in Singapore s Developmental State

This book delves into the limitations of Singapore’s authoritarian governance model. In doing so, the relevance of the Singapore governance model for other industrialising economies is systematically examined. Research in this book examines the challenges for an integrated governance model that has proven durable over four to five decades. The editors argue that established socio-political and economic formulae are now facing unprecedented challenges. Structural pressures associated with Singapore’s particular locus within globalised capitalism have fostered heightened social and material inequalities, compounded by the ruling party’s ideological resistance to substantive redistribution. As ‘growth with equity’ becomes more elusive, the rationale for power by a ruling party dominated by technocratic elite and state institutions crafted and controlled by the ruling party and its bureaucratic allies is open to more critical scrutiny.

Globalisation Cultural Identity and Nation Building

Notions of criticality: Singaporean teachers' perspectives of critical thinking in social studies. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39, 407–422. Barr, M. (2014). The ruling elite of Singapore: Networks of power and influence.

Globalisation  Cultural Identity and Nation Building

This book critiques dominant discourses and debates pertaining to cultural identity, set against the current backdrop of growing social stratification and unequal access to quality education. It addresses current discourses concerning globalisation, ideologies and the state, as well as approaches to constructing national, ethnic and religious identities in the global culture. It explores the ambivalent and problematic connections between the state, globalisation, the construction of cultural identity, and the nation-building process – also in connection with history education and the history textbooks used in schools. The book also explores conceptual frameworks and methodological approaches applicable to research on the state, globalisation, nation-building and identity politics. Drawing on diverse paradigms, ranging from critical theory to globalisation, the book, by focusing on globalisation, ideology and cultural identity, critically examines recent research in history education and its impact of identity politics, as well as the most significant dimensions defining and contextualising the processes surrounding nation-building and identity politics globally. Given the need for a multiple perspective approach, the authors, who have diverse backgrounds and hail from different countries and regions, offer a wealth of insights, contributing to a more holistic understanding of the nexus between the nation-state and national identity.

Regime Resilience in Malaysia and Singapore

This is particularly the case in analyses of Singapore's PAP. In a pioneering work on the party, ... See, for example, Michael Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence (London: IB Tauris, 2014).

Regime Resilience in Malaysia and Singapore

Prominent scholars analyze how the dominant political parties in Malaysia and Singapore, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and the People’s Action Party (PAP), have stayed in power. With a focus on developments in the last decade and the tenures of prime ministers, the authors offer explanations for how these regimes remained resilient.

Participation Without Democracy

The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence. London: I. B. Taurus & Co. BBC News. 2011. “President Aquino Says Tackling Corruption Key to Growth.” November 12. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12708841.

Participation Without Democracy

"With an empirical focus on regimes in Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia, the author examines the social forces that underpin the emergence of institutional experiments in democratic participation and representation"--

Towards Strategic Pragmatism in Foreign Policy

Barr, Mi ael D. (2014) The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence, Bangkok: New Asian Library. Bauer, Harry and Elisebe a Brighi (2009) Pragmatism in International Relations, Oxon: Routledge.

Towards Strategic Pragmatism in Foreign Policy

What is pragmatism? Is it a means to an end, or an end in itself? Is it antithetical to ideology or morality? Arguing that pragmatism is a skill much more than an attribute, Phua examines how viewing it in this way can help achieve better foreign policy outcomes. He examines and contrasts the ways in which the United States, China and Singapore have incorporated pragmatism into their approaches to foreign policy. In doing so he debunks dualistic myths around pragmatism and ideology and promotes the view of pragmatism as a skill that can be developed. An essential primer for students, analysts and policymakers, with a fresh and practical approach to pragmatism.

The Roots of Resilience

The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence. London: I. B. Tauris. Baskin, Mark. 2010. “Constituency Development Funds (CDFs) as a Tool of Decentralized Development.” 56th Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference, ...

The Roots of Resilience

The Roots of Resilience examines governance from the ground up in the world's two most enduring electoral authoritarian or "hybrid" regimes—Singapore and Malaysia—where politically liberal and authoritarian features are blended to evade substantive democracy. Although skewed elections, curbed civil liberties, and a dose of coercion help sustain these regimes, selectively structured state policies and patronage, partisan machines that effectively stand in for local governments, and diligently sustained clientelist relations between politicians and constituents are equally important. While key attributes of these regimes differ, affecting the scope, character, and balance among national parties and policies, local machines, and personalized linkages—and notwithstanding a momentous change of government in Malaysia in 2018—the similarity in the overall patterns in these countries confirms the salience of these dimensions. As Meredith L. Weiss shows, taken together, these attributes accustom citizens to the system in place, making meaningful change in how electoral mobilization and policymaking happen all the harder to change. This authoritarian acculturation is key to the durability of both regimes, but, given weaker party competition and party–civil society links, is stronger in Singapore than Malaysia. High levels of authoritarian acculturation, amplifying the political payoffs of what parties and politicians actually provide their constituents, explain why electoral turnover alone is insufficient for real regime change in either state.

Civic Nationalisms in Global Perspective

Also see Barr and Skrbiš, Constructing Singapore, 215, 216. Michael D. Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence (London: I. B. Tauris, 2014), 8–9. Barr and Skrbis, Constructing Singapore, 97–100.

Civic Nationalisms in Global Perspective

Recent events around the globe have cast doubt on the assumption that, as a result of increasing cross-border migrations and global interdependencies, nation-states are becoming more inclusive, ethnic forms of identification more and more a thing of the past, and processes of supranational integration progressively more acceptable. Xenophobic forms of nationalism have once again been on the rise, as became strikingly visible through the results of the Brexit referendum, the election of Donald Trump, and the inclusion of the Lega Nord in the Italian government. It is timely, therefore, to inquire how multiethnic forms of nationalism can be re-promoted and for this purpose to re-investigate the concept of civic nationalism. This book assembles case studies that analyse the historical practices of civic or quasi-civic nationalisms from around the world. By allowing for global comparisons, the collection of articles seeks to shed new light on pressing questions faced by nation-states around the world today: Are truly civic nationalisms even possible? Which strategies have multiethnic nation-states pursued in the past to foster national sentiment? How can nation-states generate social solidarity without resorting to primordialism? Can the historical example of civic or quasi-civic nation-states offer useful lessons to contemporary nation-states for successfully integrating immigrants?

Planning Singapore

See: https://www.nparks.gov.sg/biodiversity/urban-biodiversity/the-singapore-index-on-citiesbiodiversity. 19. ... Barr, M.D. (2014) The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence. London: I.B. Tauris.

Planning Singapore

Two hundred years ago, Sir Stamford Raffles established the modern settlement of Singapore with the intent of seeing it become ‘a great commercial emporium and fulcrum’. But by the time independence was achieved in 1965, the city faced daunting problems of housing shortage, slums and high unemployment. Since then, Singapore has become one of the richest countries on earth, providing, in Sir Peter Hall’s words, ‘perhaps the most extraordinary case of economic development in the history of the world’. The story of Singapore’s remarkable achievements in the first half century after its independence is now widely known. In Planning Singapore: The Experimental City, Stephen Hamnett and Belinda Yuen have brought together a set of chapters on Singapore’s planning achievements, aspirations and challenges, which are united in their focus on what might happen next in the planning of the island-state. Chapters range over Singapore’s planning system, innovation and future economy, housing, biodiversity, water and waste, climate change, transport, and the potential transferability of Singapore’s planning knowledge. A key question is whether the planning approaches, which have served Singapore so well until now, will suffice to meet the emerging challenges of a changing global economy, demographic shifts, new technologies and the existential threat of climate change. Singapore as a global city is becoming more unequal and more diverse. This has the potential to weaken the social compact which has largely existed since independence and to undermine the social resilience undoubtedly needed to cope with the shocks and disruptions of the twenty-first century. The book concludes, however, that Singapore is better-placed than most to respond to the challenges which it will certainly face thanks to its outstanding systems of planning and implementation, a proven capacity to experiment and a highly developed ability to adapt quickly, purposefully and pragmatically to changing circumstances.

China s Singapore Model and Authoritarian Learning

“The Singapore Exception.” The Economist, 18 July 2015. Barr, Michael D. 2000. Lee Kuan Yew: The Beliefs Behind the Man. Richmond, UK: Curzon. Barr, Michael D. 2014. The Ruling Elite of Singapore: Networks of Power and Influence.

China s    Singapore Model    and Authoritarian Learning

This book explores to what extent China has drawn lessons from Singapore, both in terms of its ruling ideology and through the policy-specific learning process. In so doing, it provides insights into the opportunities but also the challenges of this long-term learning process, focusing attention to how non-democratic regimes deal with modernization. The stellar line-up of international contributors, from China, Singapore, Europe, and the US, offer a variety of perspectives on Singapore as a model of "authoritarian modernism" for China. The book discusses how the small Southeast Asian city-state became a major reference point for China, how mainland observers often misunderstood the nature of Singapore’s governance and instrumentalized it to bolster the CCP’s legitimacy, and why the Singapore model appears to be in decline under Xi Jinping. The chapters also analyze policy-specific learning processes, including bilateral mechanisms of policy exchange, the Chinese "mayor’s class" in Singapore, and joint industrial projects and lessons in social welfare provision. The book will be of interest to academics working on Chinese politics; development in China; state society and economy in the Asia-Pacific; international relations in the Asia-Pacific; and Southeast Asian politics.