Science for All

Peter J. Bowler surveys the books, serial works, magazines, and newspapers published between 1900 and the outbreak of World War II to show that practicing scientists were very active in writing about their work for a general readership.

Science for All

Recent scholarship has revealed that pioneering Victorian scientists endeavored through voluminous writing to raise public interest in science and its implications. But it has generally been assumed that once science became a profession around the turn of the century, this new generation of scientists turned its collective back on public outreach. Science for All debunks this apocryphal notion. Peter J. Bowler surveys the books, serial works, magazines, and newspapers published between 1900 and the outbreak of World War II to show that practicing scientists were very active in writing about their work for a general readership. Science for All argues that the social environment of early twentieth-century Britain created a substantial market for science books and magazines aimed at those who had benefited from better secondary education but could not access higher learning. Scientists found it easy and profitable to write for this audience, Bowler reveals, and because their work was seen as educational, they faced no hostility from their peers. But when admission to colleges and universities became more accessible in the 1960s, this market diminished and professional scientists began to lose interest in writing at the nonspecialist level. Eagerly anticipated by scholars of scientific engagement throughout the ages, Science for All sheds light on our own era and the continuing tension between science and public understanding.

Animal Subjects Volume 1

As historians have shown, scientific ideas circulated in a public discourse in the early twentieth century, ... Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (University of Chicago Press, ...

Animal Subjects  Volume 1

Animal Subjects identifies a new understanding of animals in modernist literature and science. Drawing on Darwin's evolutionary theory, British writers and scientists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries began to think of animals as subjects dwelling in their own animal worlds. Both science and literature aimed to capture the complexity of animal life, and their shared attention to animals pulled the two disciplines closer together. It led scientists to borrow the literary techniques of fiction and poetry, and writers to borrow the observational methods of zoology. Animal Subjects tracks the coevolution of literature and zoology in works by H. G. Wells, Aldous Huxley, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, and modern scientists including Julian Huxley, Charles Elton, and J. B. S. Haldane. Examining the rise of ecology, ethology, and animal psychology, this book shows how new, subject-centered approaches to the study of animals transformed literature and science in the modernist period.

Making 20th Century Science

493 a scientist like Eddington could write for the public Bowler, Science for All: The Popularization of Science in early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: university of Chicago Press, 2009). See the review by Melinda Baldwin in ...

Making 20th Century Science

Historically, the scientific method has been said to require proposing a theory, making a prediction of something not already known, testing the prediction, and giving up the theory (or substantially changing it) if it fails the test. A theory that leads to several successful predictions is more likely to be accepted than one that only explains what is already known but not understood. This process is widely treated as the conventional method of achieving scientific progress, and was used throughout the twentieth century as the standard route to discovery and experimentation. But does science really work this way? In Making 20th Century Science, Stephen G. Brush discusses this question, as it relates to the development of science throughout the last century. Answering this question requires both a philosophically and historically scientific approach, and Brush blends the two in order to take a close look at how scientific methodology has developed. Several cases from the history of modern physical and biological science are examined, including Mendeleev's Periodic Law, Kekule's structure for benzene, the light-quantum hypothesis, quantum mechanics, chromosome theory, and natural selection. In general it is found that theories are accepted for a combination of successful predictions and better explanations of old facts. Making 20th Century Science is a large-scale historical look at the implementation of the scientific method, and how scientific theories come to be accepted.

Evangelicals and the Philosophy of Science

Bebbington, D. W., Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: a history from the 1730s to the 1980s (2nd ed., London, 1993). ... Bowler, P. J., Science for all: the popularization of science in early- twentieth century Britain (Chicago, 2009).

Evangelicals and the Philosophy of Science

This book investigates the debates around religion and science at the influential Victoria Institute. Founded in London in 1865, and largely drawn from the evangelical wing of the Church of England, it had as its prime objective the defence of ‘the great truths revealed in Holy Scripture’ from ‘the opposition of science, falsely so called’. The conflict for them was not between science and religion directly, but what exactly constituted true science. Chapters cover the Victoria Institute’s formation, its heyday in the late nineteenth century, and its decline in the years following the First World War. They show that at stake was more than any particular theory; rather, it was an entire worldview, combining theology, epistemology, and philosophy of science. Therefore, instead of simply offering a survey of religious responses to evolutionary theory, this study demonstrates the complex relationship between science, evangelical religion, and society in the years after Darwin’s Origin of Species. It also offers some insight as to why conservative evangelicals did not display the militancy of some American fundamentalists with whom they shared so many of their intellectual commitments. Filling in a significant gap in the literature around modern attitudes to religion and science, this book will be of keen interest to scholars of Religious Studies, the History of Religion, and Science and Religion.

Science Periodicals in Nineteenth Century Britain

In Innovators and Preachers: The Role of the Editor in Victorian England, edited by Joel Wiener, 275–92. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985. Bowler, Peter J. Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain.

Science Periodicals in Nineteenth Century Britain

Periodicals played a vital role in the developments in science and medicine that transformed nineteenth-century Britain. Proliferating from a mere handful to many hundreds of titles, they catered to audiences ranging from gentlemanly members of metropolitan societies to working-class participants in local natural history clubs. In addition to disseminating authorized scientific discovery, they fostered a sense of collective identity among their geographically dispersed and often socially disparate readers by facilitating the reciprocal interchange of ideas and information. As such, they offer privileged access into the workings of scientific communities in the period. The essays in this volume set the historical exploration of the scientific and medical periodicals of the era on a new footing, examining their precise function and role in the making of nineteenth-century science and enhancing our vision of the shifting communities and practices of science in the period. This radical rethinking of the scientific journal offers a new approach to the reconfiguration of the sciences in nineteenth-century Britain and sheds instructive light on contemporary debates about the purpose, practices, and price of scientific journals.

Catastrophes

As historians of science have recently shown, nineteenth-century Germany and Britain had thriving cultures of popular ... see Peter Bowler, Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: ...

Catastrophes

Catastrophic scenarios dominate our contemporary mindset. Catastrophic events and predictions have spurred new interest in re-examining the history of earlier disasters and the social and conceptual resources they have mobilized. The essays gathered in this volume reconsider the history and theory of different catastrophes and their aftermath. The emphasis is on the need to distance this process of reconsideration from previous teleological representations of catastrophes as an endpoint, and to begin considering their "operative" aspects, which unmask the nature of social and political structures. Among the essays in this volume are analyses, by leading scholars in their respective fields, concerning the role of catastrophes in theology, in the history of industrial accidents, in theory of history, in the history of law, in "catastrophe films", in the history of cybernetics, in post-Holocaust discussions of reparations, and in climate change.

The Routledge Research Companion to Nineteenth Century British Literature and Science

Bowler, Peter J. Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Brantlinger, Patrick, ed. Energy and Entropy: Science and Culture in Victorian Britain.

The Routledge Research Companion to Nineteenth Century British Literature and Science

Tracing the continuities and trends in the complex relationship between literature and science in the long nineteenth century, this companion provides scholars with a comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date foundation for research in this field. In intellectual, material and social terms, the transformation undergone by Western culture over the period was unprecedented. Many of these changes were grounded in the growth of science. Yet science was not a cultural monolith then any more than it is now, and its development was shaped by competing world views. To cover the full range of literary engagements with science in the nineteenth century, this companion consists of twenty-seven chapters by experts in the field, which explore crucial social and intellectual contexts for the interactions between literature and science, how science affected different genres of writing, and the importance of individual scientific disciplines and concepts within literary culture. Each chapter has its own extensive bibliography. The volume as a whole is rounded out with a synoptic introduction by the editors and an afterword by the eminent historian of nineteenth-century science Bernard Lightman.

Scientific governance in Britain 1914 79

Notes 1 Peter Bowler, Science for all: the popularization of science in early twentiethcentury Britain (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2009). 2 Ralph Desmarais, 'Promoting science: the BBC, scientists, and the British public, ...

Scientific governance in Britain  1914   79

Scientific governance in Britain, 1914-79 examines the connected histories of how science was governed, and used in governance, in twentieth-century Britain. During the middle portion of that century, British science grew dramatically in scale, reach and value. These changes were due in no small part to the two world wars and their associated effects, notably post-war reconstruction and the on-going Cold War. As the century went on, there were more scientists - requiring more money to fund their research - occupying ever more niches in industry, academia, military and civil institutions. Combining the latest research on twentieth-century British science with insightful discussion of what it meant to govern - and govern with - science, this volume provides both an invaluable introduction to science in twentieth-century Britain for students and a fresh thematic focus on science and government for researchers interested in the histories of science and governance. This volume features a foreword from Sir John Beddington, UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser 2008-13.

Being Modern

The Cultural Impact of Science in the Early Twentieth Century Robert Bud, Paul Greenhalgh, Frank James, ... All That is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity. ... 'Eugenics in Britain: The View from the Metropole'.

Being Modern

In the early decades of the twentieth century, engagement with science was commonly used as an emblem of modernity. This phenomenon is now attracting increasing attention in different historical specialties. Being Modern builds on this recent scholarly interest to explore engagement with science across culture from the end of the nineteenth century to approximately 1940. Addressing the breadth of cultural forms in Britain and the western world from the architecture of Le Corbusier to working class British science fiction, Being Modern paints a rich picture. Seventeen distinguished contributors from a range of fields including the cultural study of science and technology, art and architecture, English culture and literature examine the issues involved. The book will be a valuable resource for students, and a spur to scholars to further examination of culture as an interconnected web of which science is a critical part, and to supersede such tired formulations as 'Science and culture'.

Respectably Catholic and Scientific

Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Brattain, Michelle. “Race, Racism, and Antiracism: UNESCO and the Politics of Presenting Science to the ...

Respectably Catholic and Scientific

"Examines the traditions of rational analysis and skeptical enquiry that fueled Catholic involvement with the science of evolution, eugenics, and birth control in the interwar period in the United States"--

Devices of Curiosity

Death': Some Remarks on the Flourishing of a Cinema of Scientific Vernacularization in France, 1909–1914,” Historical ... see Peter Bowler, Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: ...

Devices of Curiosity

4e de couv.: Beginning around 1903, a variety of producers began making films about scientific topics for general audiences, inspired by a vision of cinema as an educational medium. Excavating this largely unknown genre of early cinema, Devices of curiosity traces its development from its beginnings in England to its flourishing in France around 1910. Oliver Gaycken investigates how such films both relied upon previous traditions and created novel visual paradigms that led to the creation of ambitious new film collections. Gaycken also discerns a transit between nonfictional and fictional modes, seeing affinities between popular-science films and certain aspects of fiction films, particularly Louis Feuillade's crime melodramas. Drawing on the insights of the history of science as well as the history of cinema, Devices of curiosity reveals the extent to which popular-science films impacted the formation of documentary, educational, and avant-garde cinemas.

Virginia Woolf Science Radio and Identity

Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009). Bradshaw, David, 'Eugenics: “They Should Certainly Be Killed”' in David Bradshaw (ed.) ...

Virginia Woolf  Science  Radio  and Identity

This book offers an extensive analysis of Woolf's engagement with science, tracing the application of scientific concepts to questions of identity.

Science of the Seance

Working-Class Cultures in Britain, 1890–1960: Gender, Class and Ethnicity. London: Routledge, 1994. Bowler, Peter J. Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press ...

Science of the Seance

Beth A. Robertson resurrects the story of a group of men and women who sought to transform the seance into a laboratory of the spirits and a transnational empirical project. Her findings cast new light on how science, metaphysics, and the senses collided to inform gendered norms in the 1920s and ’30s. She reveals a world inhabited, on one side, by psychical researchers who represented themselves as masters of the senses, untainted by the effeminized subjectivity of the body and, on the other, by mediums and ghostly subjects who could and did challenge the researchers’ exclusive claims to scientific expertise and authority.

A History of the Future

Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain. University of Chicago Press, 2009. 'Popular Science Magazines in Interwar Britain: Authors and Readerships.' Science in Context, 26 (2013): 437–57.

A History of the Future

A wide-ranging survey of predictions about the future development and impact of science and technology through the twentieth century.

Contesting the Moral High Ground

Popular Moralists in Mid-Twentieth-Century Britain Paul T. Phillips ... 2001); and Peter J. Bowler, Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early TwentiethCentury Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).

Contesting the Moral High Ground

How four of Britain's best-known thinkers influenced the public consciousness on issues from God to the environment.

The History of the Brain and Mind Sciences

The Public Reconstruction of Science and Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996). In addition, see Peter J. Bowler, Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: University ...

The History of the Brain and Mind Sciences

How did epidemics, zoos, German exiles, methamphetamine, disgruntled technicians, modern bureaucracy, museums, and whipping cream shape the emergence of modern neuroscience?

Science in Wonderland

The scientific fairy tales of Victorian Britain Melanie Keene. 381. 382. 383. 384. 385. ... See Peter Bowler, Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early TwentiethCentury Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).

Science in Wonderland

In Victorian Britain an array of writers captured the excitement of new scientific discoveries, and enticed young readers and listeners into learning their secrets, by converting introductory explanations into quirky, charming, and imaginative fairy-tales; forces could be fairies, dinosaurs could be dragons, and looking closely at a drop of water revealed a soup of monsters. Science in Wonderland explores how these stories were presented and read. Melanie Keene introduces and analyses a range of Victorian scientific fairy-tales, from nursery classics such as The Water-Babies to the little-known Wonderland of Evolution, or the story of insect lecturer Fairy Know-a-Bit. In exploring the ways in which authors and translators - from Hans Christian Andersen and Edith Nesbit to the pseudonymous 'A.L.O.E.' and 'Acheta Domestica' - reconciled the differing demands of factual accuracy and fantastical narratives, Keene asks why the fairies and their tales were chosen as an appropriate new form for capturing and presenting scientific and technological knowledge to young audiences. Such stories, she argues, were an important way in which authors and audiences criticised, communicated, and celebrated contemporary scientific ideas, practices, and objects.

The Oxford Illustrated History of Science

Films of Fact: A History of Science in Documentary Films and Television (London: Wallflower Press, 2008). Bowler, Peter J. Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago ...

The Oxford Illustrated History of Science

The Oxford Illustrated History of Science is the first ever fully illustrated global history of science, from Aristotle to the atom bomb - and beyond. The first part of the book tells the story of science in both East and West from antiquity to the Enlightenment: from the ancient Mediterranean world to ancient China; from the exchanges between Islamic and Christian scholars in the Middle Ages to the Chinese invention of gunpowder, paper, and the printing press; from the Scientific Revolution of sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe to the intellectual ferment of the eighteenth century. The chapters that follow focus on the increasingly specialized story of science since end of the eighteenth century, covering experimental science in the laboratory from Michael Faraday to CERN; the exploration of nature, from intrepid Victorian explorers to twentieth century primatologists; the mapping of the universe, from the discovery of Uranus to Big Bang theory; the impact of evolutionary ideas, from Lamarck, Darwin, and Wallace to DNA; and the story of theoretical physics, from James Clark Maxwell to Quantum Theory and beyond. A concluding chapter reflects on how scientists have communicated their work to a wider public, from the Great Exhibition of 1851 to the internet in the early twenty-first century.

Reimagining Dinosaurs in Late Victorian and Edwardian Literature

Black, Riley, 'Amid All the Fossils, Smithsonian's New Dinosaur Exhibition Tells the Complex Story of Life', ... Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ...

Reimagining Dinosaurs in Late Victorian and Edwardian Literature

When the term 'dinosaur' was coined in 1842, it referred to fragmentary British fossils. In subsequent decades, American discoveries—including Brontosaurus and Triceratops—proved that these so-called 'terrible lizards' were in fact hardly lizards at all. By the 1910s 'dinosaur' was a household word. Reimagining Dinosaurs in Late Victorian and Edwardian Literature approaches the hitherto unexplored fiction and popular journalism that made this scientific term a meaningful one to huge transatlantic readerships. Unlike previous scholars, who have focused on displays in American museums, Richard Fallon argues that literature was critical in turning these extinct creatures into cultural icons. Popular authors skilfully related dinosaurs to wider concerns about empire, progress, and faith; some of the most prominent, like Arthur Conan Doyle and Henry Neville Hutchinson, also disparaged elite scientists, undermining distinctions between scientific and imaginative writing. The rise of the dinosaurs thus accompanied fascinating transatlantic controversies about scientific authority.

A Pioneer of Connection

Bowler, Reconciling Science and Religion, 49–50, 95–97; Peter J. Bowler, Science for All: The Popularization of Science in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), 36, 95, 218–20. 13.

A Pioneer of Connection

Sir Oliver Lodge was a polymathic scientific figure who linked the Victorian Age with the Second World War, a reassuring figure of continuity across his long life and career. A physicist and spiritualist, inventor and educator, author and authority, he was one of the most famous public figures of British science in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A pioneer in the invention of wireless communication and later of radio broadcasting, he was foundational for twentieth-century media technology and a tireless communicator who wrote upon and debated many of the pressing interests of the day in the sciences and far beyond. Yet since his death, Lodge has been marginalized. By uncovering the many aspects of his life and career, and the changing dynamics of scientific authority in an era of specialization, contributors to this volume reveal how figures like Lodge fell out of view as technical experts came to dominate the public understanding of science in the second half of the twentieth century. They account for why he was so greatly cherished by many of his contemporaries, examine the reasons for his eclipse, and consider what Lodge, a century on, might teach us about taking a more integrated approach to key scientific controversies of the day.