Science Culture and Society

In this easily accessible text, Mark Erickson explains what science is and how it is carried out, the nature of the relationship between science and society, the representation of science in contemporary culture, and how scientific ...

Science  Culture and Society

In this easily accessible text, Mark Erickson explains what science is and how it is carried out, the nature of the relationship between science and society, the representation of science in contemporary culture, and how scientific institutions are structured.

Volta

"--Charles C. Gillispie, Princeton University "This work is a splendid contribution to knowledge that will have wide appeal.

Volta

Chronicles the life of the man who invented the battery, placing it within the social and scientific ferment of the era.

Science as Cultural Practice

This volume represents a collection of studies in cultural history and theory of science from the early modern era to the present.

Science as Cultural Practice

This volume represents a collection of studies in cultural history and theory of science from the early modern era to the present. The essays are linked by the conviction that one of the most significant developments in recent scientific historiography consists in its insistence that the relations between science, culture and history be understood and examined reciprocally. Not only does scientific practice take place under conditions shaped by social and cultural forces; it also generates and necessitates its own specific patterns of cultural, social and political activity. Sciences which have evolved into significant social systems produce their own cultures and politics. Through discussion of the common origin of scientific knowledge and the cultures and politics of research, this volume hopes to make a contribution toward a better understanding of the roles of scientific research from its inception in the 17th century up to the dramatic upheavals in the 20th century. With articles by Lorraine Daston, Sven Dierig, Moritz Epple, Evelyn Fox Keller, Mary Jo Nye , Dominique Pestre, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Simon Schaffer, Friedrich Steinle, Catherine Wilson, Norton M. Wise and Claus Zittel. Der Band in englischer Sprache versammelt Studien zur Kulturgeschichte und Theorie der Wissenschaften von der Frühen Neuzeit bis zur Gegenwart. Vereinigt sind die Beiträge durch die Überzeugung, dass eine der folgenreichsten Interventionen der jüngeren Wissenschaftsgeschichte darin liegt, dass die Beziehungen zwischen Wissenschaft, Kultur und Gesellschaft auf reziproke Weise verstanden und untersucht werden müssen. Wissenschaftliche Praxis findet nicht nur stets unter sozial und kulturell geprägten Bedingungen statt, sie erzeugt und erfordert auch eigene, spezifische Muster kulturellen, sozialen und politischen Handelns. Die Wissenschaften, die zu sozialen Systemen bedeutender Größe angewachsen sind, schaffen ihre eigenen Kulturen und Politiken. Durch die Diskussion der gemeinsamen Entstehung wissenschaftlichen Wissens und der Kulturen und Politiken der Forschung leistet der Band einen Beitrag zu einem besseren Verständnis der Rollen wissenschaftlicher Forschung von ihrer Formierung im 17. Jahrhundert bis zu den dramatischen Umbrüchen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Mit Beiträgen von Lorraine Daston, Sven Dierig, Moritz Epple, Evelyn Fox Keller, Mary Jo Nye , Dominique Pestre, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Simon Schaffer, Friedrich Steinle, Catherine Wilson, Norton M. Wise und Claus Zittel.

Science and Culture

(Similarly, ignorance of the cultural value of Science is not as objectionable as the denial that it exists, which rests on the combination of ignorance and pomposity.) The hostility to science is objectionable, since it is political at ...

Science and Culture

This work addresses scientism and relativism, two false philosophies that divorce science from culture in general and from tradition in particular. It helps break the isolation of science from the rest of culture by promoting popular science and reasonable history of science. It provides examples of the value of science to culture, discussions of items of the general culture, practical strategies and tools, and case studies. It is for practising professionals, political scientists and science policy students and administrators.

Science and Culture

And for many in the educated world during the second half of the nineteenth century , science and its relations with philosophy , culture , and society was what Helmholtz claimed it to be . For some years now , Helmholtz's essays have ...

Science and Culture

Hermann von Helmholtz was a leading figure of nineteenth-century European intellectual life, remarkable even among the many scientists of the period for the range and depth of his interests. A pioneer of physiology and physics, he was also deeply concerned with the implications of science for philosophy and culture. From the 1850s to the 1890s, Helmholtz delivered more than two dozen popular lectures, seeking to educate the public and to enlighten the leaders of European society and governments about the potential benefits of science and technology to a developing modern society. David Cahan has selected fifteen of these lectures, which reflect the wide range of topics of crucial importance to Helmholtz and his audiences. Among the subjects discussed are the origins of the planetary system, the relation of natural science to science in general, the aims and progress of the physical sciences, the problems of perception, and academic freedom in German universities. This collection also includes Helmholtz's fascinating lectures on the relation of optics to painting and the physiological causes of harmony in music, which provide insight into the relations between science and aesthetics. Science and Culture makes available again Helmholtz's eloquent arguments on the usefulness, benefits, and, intellectual pleasures of understanding the natural world. With Cahan's Introduction to set these essays in their broader context, this collection makes an important contribution to the philosophical and intellectual history of Europe at a time when science played an increasingly significant role in social, economic, and cultural life.

Science in Culture

Throughout this century scholars in all the branches of learning have treated culture as an entity apart, comprehensible only on its own terms and not those of the natural sciences. By this conception culture stands apart even if the ...

Science in Culture

Twenty-five years ago, Gerald Holton's Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought introduced a wide audience to his ideas. Holton argued that from ancient times to the modern period, an astonishing feature of innovative scientific work was its ability to hold, simultaneously, deep and opposite commitments of the most fundamental sort. Over the course of Holton's career, he embraced both the humanities and the sciences. Given this background, it is fitting that the explorations assembled in this volume reflect both individually and collectively Holton's dual roots. In the opening essay, Holton sums up his long engagement with Einstein and his thematic commitment to unity. The next two essays address this concern. In historicized form, Lorraine Daston returns the question of the scientific imagination to the Enlightenment period when both sciences and art feared imagination. Daston argues that the split whereby imagination was valued in the arts and loathed in the sciences is a nineteenth-century divide. James Ackerman on Leonardo da Vinci meshes perfectly with Daston's account, showing a form of imaginative intervention where it is irrelevant to draw analogies between art and science. Historians of religion Wendy Doniger and Gregory Spinner pursue the imagination into the bedroom with literary-theological representations. Science, culture, and the imagination also intersect with biologist Edward Wilson and physicist Steven Weinberg. Both tackle the big question of the unity of knowledge and worldviews from a scientific perspective while art historian Ernst Gombrich does the same from the perspective of art history. To emphasize the nitty-gritty of scientific practice, chemists Bretislav Fredrich and Dudley Herschback provide a remarkable historical tour at the boundary of chemistry and physics. In the concluding essay, historian of education Patricia Albjerg Graham addresses pedagogy head-on. In these various reflections on science, art, literature, philosophy, and education, this volume gives us a view in common: a deep and abiding respect for Gerald Holton's contribution to our understanding of science in culture. Peter Galison is Mallinckrodt Professor of History of Science and of physics at Harvard University. Stephen R. Graubard is editor of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and its journal, Daedalus, and professor of history emeritus at Brown University. Everett Mendelsohn is director of the History of Science Program at Harvard University.

The Utopian Human Right to Science and Culture

benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic ... for example, the right to science and culture, the right to education or the right 37 See also W.A. Schabas, ...

The Utopian Human Right to Science and Culture

This book explores the question of whether the ideal right to science and culture exists. It proposes that the human right to science and culture is of a utopian character and argues for the necessity of the existence of such a right by developing a philosophical project situated in postmodernity, based on the assumption of ’thinking in terms of excendence’. The book brings a novel and critical approach to human rights in general and to the human right to science and culture in particular. It offers a new way of thinking about access to knowledge in the postanalogue, postmodern society. Inspired by twentieth-century critical theorists such as Levinas, Gadamer, Bauman and Habermas, the book begins by using excendence as a way of thinking about the individual, speech and text. It considers paradigms arising from postanalogue society, revealing the neglected normative content of the human right to science and culture and proposes a morality, dignity and solidarity situated in a postmodern context. Finally the book concludes by responding to questions on happiness, dignity and that which is social. Including an Annex which presents the author’s private project related to thinking in the context of the journey from ’myth to reason’, this book is of interest to researchers in the fields of philosophy and the theory of law, human rights, intellectual property and social theory.

Astrology Science and Culture

With the long tradition, notably Platonic and Aristotelian, of viewing them as perfect and superior to our sublunary muddle, the heavens offered far too important a resource to modern science to be passed up. Not only did they promise ...

Astrology  Science and Culture

Mainstream science has long dismissed astrology as a form of primitive superstition, despite or perhaps even because of its huge popular interest. From daily horoscopes to in-depth and personalized star forecasts, astrology, for many, plays a crucial role in the organization of everyday life. Present-day scholars and scientists remain baffled as to why this pseudo-science exercises such control over supposedly modern, rational and enlightened individuals, yet so far they have failed to produce any meaningful analysis of why it impacts on so many lives and what lies behind its popular appeal. Moving beyond scientific scepticism, Astrology, Science and Culture finally fills the gap by probing deeply into the meaning and importance of this extraordinary belief system. From the dawn of pre-history, humankind has had an intimate connection with the stars. With its roots in the Neolithic culture of Europe and the Middle East, astrology was traditionally heralded as a divinatory language. Willis and Curry argue that, contrary to contemporary understanding including that of most astrologers astrology was originally, and remains, a divinatory practice. Tackling its rich and controversial history, its problematic relationship to Jungian theory, and attempts to prove its grounding in objective reality, this book not only persuasively demonstrates that astrology is far more than a superstitious relic of years gone by, but that it enables a fundamental critique of the scientism of its opponents. Groundbreaking in its reconciliation of astrologys ancient traditions and its modern day usage, this book impressively unites philosophy, science, anthropology, and history, to produce a powerful exploration of astrology, past and present.

The Science and Culture of Nutrition 1840 1940

The Science and Culture of Nutrition , 1840 - 1940 Modern nutrition science is usually considered to have started in the 1840s , a period of great social and political turmoil in western Europe . Yet the relations between the production ...

The Science and Culture of Nutrition  1840 1940

Modern nutrition science is usually considered to have started in the 1840s, a period of great social and political turmoil in western Europe. Yet the relations between the production of scientific knowledge about nutrition and the social and political valuations that have entered into the promotion and application of nutritional research have not yet received systematic historical attention. The Science and Culture of Nutrition, 1840-1940 for the first time looks at the ways in which scientific theories and investigations of nutrition have made their impact on a range of social practices and ideologies, and how these in turn have shaped the priorities and practices of the science of nutrition. In these reciprocal interactions, nutrition science has affected medical practice, government policy, science funding, and popular thinking. In uniting major scientific and cultural themes, the twelve contributions in this book show how Western society became a nutrition culture.

The Muse of History and the Science of Culture

term for the science of culture — was the last. The stars and constellations, so distant from the earth and so lightly impinging on people's daily lives, were closely observed and their movements carefully charted by the Babylonians ...

The Muse of History and the Science of Culture

Is history more than (in Boswell's words) a `chronological series of remarkable events'? Does it have a pattern? Is it fraught with `meaning'? Can we discern its trends? What determines its course? In short, can a substantial and coherent philosophy of history be devised that offers answers to these questions? These issues, which have intrigued -and bedeviled - historians for centuries, are explored in this thoughtful book.

Science and Culture and Other Essays

... University men remain in their present state of barbarous ignorance of even the rudiments of scientific culture. Yet another step needs to be made before Science can be said to have taken its proper place in the Universities.

Science and Culture and Other Essays

Reproduction of the original: Science and Culture and Other Essays by Thomas Henry Huxley

The Science of Culture and the Phenomenology of Styles

For example, in ancient and medieval times, there was undoubtedly a continuum that ensured the cultural status of all the arts, but tended to exclude them from the so-called “superior” culture of the content sciences and the discourse ...

The Science of Culture and the Phenomenology of Styles

How science and art have influenced each other throughout the ages.

Studies on Ottoman Science and Culture

The long text of the debate hitherto relives many unknown facts about the cultural milieu in the upper Ottoman ... who ended his life in the service of Sultan Mehmed II, and that it was part of the shared Ottoman scientific culture.

Studies on Ottoman Science and Culture

Studies on Ottoman Science and Culture brings together eleven articles by distinguished historian Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu. The book addresses multiple issues related to the histories of science and culture during the Ottoman era. Most of the articles contained in this volume were the first contributions to their respective topics, and they continue to provoke discussion and debate amongst academics to this day. The first volume of the author’s collected papers that appeared in the Variorum Collected Studies (2004) dispelled the negative opinions towards Ottoman science asserted by scholars of the previous generation. In this new volume, the author continues to explore and develop the paradigm of scientific activities and cultural interactions both within and beyond the Ottoman Empire. One of the topics examined is the attitude of Islamic scholars towards revolutionary notions in Western science, including Copernican heliocentrism and Darwin’s theory of evolution. This book will appeal to scholars and students of Ottoman history, as well as those interested in the history of science and cultural history.

Japanese Government Policies in Education Science and Culture

The Central Council for Education, the Lifelong Learning Council, and the University Council have produced reports on specific aspects of educational reform, while reports on science, culture, and sports have been submitted by the ...

Japanese Government Policies in Education  Science  and Culture


Architecture and the Body Science and Culture

While Het Dorp received immense press attention and left a powerful cultural imprint, it has been the subject of remarkably ... Joining forces with scientific and social science professions, Team 10 developed inclusive programs and ...

Architecture and the Body  Science and Culture

The relationship of architecture to the human body is a centuries-long and complex one, but not always symmetrical. This book opens a space for historians of the visual arts, archaeologists, architects, and digital humanities professionals to reflect upon embodiment, spatiality, science, and architecture in pre?modern and modern cultural contexts. Architecture and the Body, Science and Culture poses one overarching question: How does a period’s understanding of bodies as objects of science impinge upon architectural thought and design? The answers are sophisticated, interdisciplinary explorations of theory, technology, symbolism, medicine, violence, psychology, deformity, and salvation, and they have unexpected and fascinating implications for architectural design and history. The new research published in this volume reinvigorates the Western survey-style trajectory from Archaic Greece to post?war Europe with scientifically?framed, body?centred provocations. By adding the third factor—science—to the architecture and body equation, this book presents a nuanced appreciation for architectural creativity and its embeddedness in other sets of social, institutional and political relationships. In so doing, it spatializes body theory and ties it to the experience of the built environment in ways that disturb traditional boundaries between the architectural container and the corporeally contained.

Science as Public Culture

Examines the development of chemistry in Britain 1760-1820 and relates it to civic life.

Science as Public Culture

Examines the development of chemistry in Britain 1760-1820 and relates it to civic life.

Domesticating Modern Science

The essays in this volume examine the cultural reception of modern science in late colonial India.

Domesticating Modern Science

The essays in this volume examine the cultural reception of modern science in late colonial India. They show how the first generation of Indian scientists responded to and creatively worked the theories and practices of modern science into their cultural idiom. The process of cultural legitimation of modern science is revealed through the debates surrounding these theories. The first set of essays deals with the encounter between the rationality of modern science and the exact sciences as portrayed by missionaries and British administrators, and so-called traditional ways of knowing. A second set of essays shifts the focus of attention to Calcutta between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when it virtually functioned as India s scientific capital. The essays examine the reception of theories of science such as that of biological evolution and the rejection of social Darwinism. Further, a new set of concerns of scientific and technical education and the installation of modern scientific and technological research systems acquired central importance by the end of the nineteenth century. These concerns dovetailed with the thinking of the emerging nationalist movement, and the essays that discuss the larger Indian picture indicate how the scientific community enlisted the political elite into its vision, and how this very elite drew upon the nascent scientific community in the project of decolonization. Dhruv Raina teaches at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. S. Irfan Habib is a scientist at the National Institute of Science Technology and Development Studies, New Delhi.. . . a collection of essays which seeks to examine . . . the cultural offensive [of modernity] during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.The Book Review

The Interpretive Turn

The Interpretive Turn


Like a Mother

Your obstetrician will cautiously quote statistics; online sources will scare you with conflicting and often inaccurate data; and even the most trusted books will offer information with a heavy dose of judgment.

Like a Mother

A candid, feminist, and personal deep dive into the science and culture of pregnancy and motherhood Like most first-time mothers, Angela Garbes was filled with questions when she became pregnant. What exactly is a placenta and how does it function? How does a body go into labor? Why is breast best? Is wine totally off-limits? But as she soon discovered, it’s not easy to find satisfying answers. Your obstetrician will cautiously quote statistics; online sources will scare you with conflicting and often inaccurate data; and even the most trusted books will offer information with a heavy dose of judgment. To educate herself, the food and culture writer embarked on an intensive journey of exploration, diving into the scientific mysteries and cultural attitudes that surround motherhood to find answers to questions that had only previously been given in the form of advice about what women ought to do—rather than allowing them the freedom to choose the right path for themselves. In Like a Mother, Garbes offers a rigorously researched and compelling look at the physiology, biology, and psychology of pregnancy and motherhood, informed by in-depth reportage and personal experience. With the curiosity of a journalist, the perspective of a feminist, and the intimacy and urgency of a mother, she explores the emerging science behind the pressing questions women have about everything from miscarriage to complicated labors to postpartum changes. The result is a visceral, full-frontal look at what’s really happening during those nine life-altering months, and why women deserve access to better care, support, and information. Infused with humor and born out of awe, appreciation, and understanding of the female body and its strength, Like a Mother debunks common myths and dated assumptions, offering guidance and camaraderie to women navigating one of the biggest and most profound changes in their lives.

The Emergence of a Scientific Culture

In The Emergence of a Scientific Culture, Stephen Gaukroger offers a detailed and comprehensive account of the formative stages of this development—-and one which challenges the received wisdom that science was seen to be self-evidently ...

The Emergence of a Scientific Culture

Why did science emerge in the West and how did scientific values come to be regarded as the yardstick for all other forms of knowledge? Stephen Gaukroger shows just how bitterly the cognitive and cultural standing of science was contested in its early development. Rejecting the traditional picture of secularization, he argues that science in the seventeenth century emerged not in opposition to religion but rather was in many respects driven by it. Moreover, science did not present a unified picture of nature but was an unstable field of different, often locally successful but just as often incompatible, programmes. To complicate matters, much depended on attempts to reshape the persona of the natural philosopher, and distinctive new notions of objectivity and impartiality were imported into natural philosophy, changing its character radically by redefining the qualities of its practitioners. The West's sense of itself, its relation to its past, and its sense of its future, have been profoundly altered since the seventeenth century, as cognitive values generally have gradually come to be shaped around scientific ones. Science has not merely brought a new set of such values to the task of understanding the world and our place in it, but rather has completely transformed the task, redefining the goals of enquiry. This distinctive feature of the development of a scientific culture in the West marks it out from other scientifically productive cultures. In The Emergence of a Scientific Culture, Stephen Gaukroger offers a detailed and comprehensive account of the formative stages of this development—-and one which challenges the received wisdom that science was seen to be self-evidently the correct path to knowledge and that the benefits of science were immediately obvious to the disinterested observer.