Scientific Discovery Case Studies

OUGHT PHILOSOPHERS CONSIDER SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY”. A DARWINIAN CASE-STUDY My concern in this paper will be with Darwin's discovery of his theory of evolution, particularly the part centered on its mechanisms.

Scientific Discovery  Case Studies

The history of science is articulated by moments of discovery. Yet, these 'moments' are not simple or isolated events in science. Just as a scientific discovery illuminates our understanding of nature or of society, and reveals new connections among phenomena, so too does the history of scientific activity and the analysis of scientific reasoning illuminate the processes which give rise to moments of discovery and the complex network of consequences which follow upon such moments. Understanding discovery has not been, until recently, a major concern of modem philosophy of science. Whether the act of discoyery was regarded as mysterious and inexplicable, or obvious and in no need of explanation, modem philosophy of science in effect bracketed the question. It concentrated instead on the logic of scientific explanation or on the issues of validation or justification of scientific theories or laws. The recent revival of interest in the context of discovery, indeed in the acts of discovery, on the part of philosophers and historians of science, represents no one particular method'ological or philosophical orientation. It proceeds as much from an empiricist and analytical approach as from a sociological or historical one; from considerations of the logic of science as much as from the alogical or extralogical contexts of scientific tho'¢tt and practice. But, in general, this new interest focuses sharply on the actual historical and contem porary cases of scientific discovery, and on an examination of the act or moment of discovery in situ.

The Philosophy of Historical Case Studies

A conflict of principles: The discovery of argon and the debate over its existence. Ambix 28(3): 121–130. Kuhn, T.S. 1962. Historical structure of scientific discovery. Science 136(3518): 760–764. ... Scientific discovery: Case studies.

The Philosophy of Historical Case Studies

This volume collects reflections on the role of philosophy in case studies in the history of science. Case studies have played a prominent role in recent history and philosophy of science. They have been used to illustrate, question, explore, or explicate philosophical points of view. Even if not explicitly so, historical narratives are always guided by philosophical background assumptions. But what happens if different philosophies lead to different narratives of the same historical episodes? Can historical case studies decide between competing philosophical viewpoints? What are the criteria that a case study has to fulfill in order to be philosophically relevant? Bringing together leading practitioners in the fields of history and philosophy of the physical and the life sciences, this volume addresses this methodological problem and proposes ways of rendering explicit philosophical assumptions of historical work.

Scientific Discovery Logic and Rationality

1, Philosophy of Science Association, East Lansing, Michigan. Darden, L.; in press, “Theory Construction in Genetics', in T. Nickles (ed.), Scientific discovery: Case Studies, D. Reidel, Dordrecht. Elgin, C.: unpublished, “Quine's ...

Scientific Discovery  Logic  and Rationality

It is fast becoming a cliche that scientific discovery is being rediscovered. For two philosophical generations (that of the Founders and that of the Followers of the logical positivist and logical empiricist movements), discovery had been consigned to the domain of the intractable, the ineffable, the inscrutable. The philosophy of science was focused on the so-called context of justification as its proper domain. More recently, as the exclusivity of the logical reconstruc tion program in philosophy of science came under question, and as the critique of justification developed within the framework of logical and epistemological analysis, the old question of scientific discovery, which had been put on the back burner, began to emerge once again. Emphasis on the relation of the history of science to the philosophy of science, and attention to the question of theory change and theory replacement, also served to legitimate a new concern with the origins of scientific change to be found within discovery and invention. How welcome then to see what a wide range of issues and what a broad representation of philosophers and historians of science have been brought together in the present two volumes of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science! For what these volumes achieve, in effect, is the continuation of a tradition which had once been strong in the philosophy of science - namely, that tradition which addressed the question of scientific discovery as a central question in the understanding of science.

The Art of Scientific Discovery

ScientificJudgment: Creativity andDiscovery in ScientificThought. Teoksessa Thomas Nickles(toim.), Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Dordrecht:D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1–16. Watson, James D. (1968). The Double Helix.

The Art of Scientific Discovery

The book describes the scientific discovery and the nature of creative work. The creative process is covered specifically as experienced by researchers. The author's correspondence with almost 40 Nobel Prize winners provides unique material for the book. The Nobel Prize winners describe their creative processes, ways of working and the birth of their most important scientific inventions. How the big scientific insights formed? What kind of features are related to the scientific creativity? What kind of characteristics and conditions promote the creative process? How do such things as coincidence, motivation, or even beauty relate to the scientific discovery? The book will also look at the history of intelligence and creativity research. What is creative talent? The different ways of valuing creativity and scientific productivity are critically assessed. Are they reliable? Examples include the peaks of science from the mathematician Ramanujan to Einstein and the other major discoverers of the 20th century.

Prematurity in Scientific Discovery

"Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation in the Pneumococcus. ... The Professor, the Institute, and DNA: Oswald TAvery, His Life and Scientific Achievements. ... Scientific Discovery: Case Studies.

Prematurity in Scientific Discovery

"In preparing this remarkable book, Ernest Hook persuaded an eminent group of scientists, historians, sociologists and philosophers to focus on the problem: why are some discoveries rejected at a particular time but later seen to be valid? The interaction of these experts did not produce agreement on 'prematurity' in science but something more valuable: a collection of fascinating papers, many of them based on new research and analysis, which sometimes forced the author to revise a previously-held opinion. The book should be enthusiastically welcomed by all readers who are interested in how science works."—Stephen G. Brush, co-author of Physics, The Human Adventure: From copernicus to Einstein and Beyond "Prematurity and Scientific Discovery contains interesting and insightful papers by numerous well-known scientists and scholars. It will be of wide interest, not only to science studies scholars but also to working scientists and to science-literate general readers."—Thomas Nickles, editor of Scientific Discovery, Logic, and Rationality

Computer Simulations in Science and Technology Studies

A detailed technical commentary on Kepler's discovery of planetary ellipse orbits is on the way (Graßhoff & Neugebauer, forthcoming). Conventional case studies without computer models were conducted to study science developments.

Computer Simulations in Science and Technology Studies

What is it about the structure and organisation of science and technology that has led to the spectacularly successful growth of knowledge during this century? This book explores this important and much debated question in an innovative way, by using computer simulations. The computer simulation of societies and social processes is a methodology which is rapidly becoming recognised for its potential in the social sciences. This book applies the tools of simulation systematically to a specific domain: science and technology studies. The book shows how computer simulation can be applied both to questions in the history and philosophy of science and to issues of concern to sociologists of science and technology. Chapters in the book demonstrate the use of simulation for clarifying the notion of creativity and for understanding the logical processes employed by eminent scientists to make their discoveries. The book begins with three introductory chapters. The first introduces simulation for the social sciences, surveying current work and explaining the advantages and pitfalls of this new methodology. The second and third chapters review recent work on theoretical aspects of social simulation, introducing fundamental concepts such as self organisation and complexity and relating these to the simulation of scientific discovery.

Revisiting Discovery and Justification

Scientific Discovery, Logic, and Rationality (Dordrecht: Reidel), pp. 117–132. Arabatzis, T. (1992), “The Discovery of the Zeeman Effect: A Case Study of the Interplay between Theory and Experiment,” Studies in History and Philosophy of ...

Revisiting Discovery and Justification

The distinction between the contexts of discovery and justification has left a turbulent wake in the philosophy of science. This book recognizes the need to re-open the debate about the nature, development, and significance of the context distinction, about its merits and flaws. The discussion clears the ground for the productive and fruitful integration of these new developments into philosophy of science.

On Scientific Discovery

The Erice Lectures 1977 Mirko Drazen Grmek, Robert S. Cohen, Guido Cimino. PART II CASE STUDIES TWO SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES : THEIR GENESIS AND DESTINY If discovery CASE STUDIES.

On Scientific Discovery

The 1977 lectures of the International School for the History of Science at Erice in Sicily were devoted to that vexing but inexorable problem, the nature of scientific discovery. With all that has been written, by scientists themselves, by historians and philosophers and social theorists, by psycholo gists and psychiatrists, by logicians and novelists, the problem remains elusive. Happily we are able to bring the penetrating lectures from Erice that summer to a wider audience in this volume of theoretical investigations and detailed case studies. The ancient and lovely town of Erice in Northwest Sicily, 750 m above the sea, was famous throughout the Mediterranean for its temple of the goddess of nature, Venus Erycina, said to have been built by Daedalus. As philosophers and historians of the natural sciences, we hope that the stimulating atmo sphere of Erice will to some extent be transmitted by these pages. We are especially grateful to that generous and humane physician and historian of science, Dr. Vincenzo Cappelletti, himself a creative scientist, for his collaboration in bringing this work to completion. We admire his intelligent devotion to fostering creative interaction between scientists and historians of science as Director of the School of History of Science within the great Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture at Erice, as well as for his imaginative leadership of the Istituto della Encic10pedia Italiana.

Person Centered Studies in Psychology of Science

This limitation of the individual teaching case studies does not, however, restrict the reader from considering the ... Scientific Discovery From M.A. Khalid's, Johannes Kepler, born in the 16th century and building the foundation of ...

Person Centered Studies in Psychology of Science

This unique collection examines "the acting person" as an important unit of analysis for science studies, using an integrative approach of in-depth case studies to explore the cognitive, social, cultural, and personal dimensions of a series of key figures in the sciences, from Goethe to Kepler to Rachel Carson. Opening up key questions about what science is, and what comprises a scientist, the volume offers an accessible introductory approach to psychology of science, a growing area in Science and Technology Studies (STS). Case studies focus on the psychological contexts of the contributions for which the scientist is known. Without diminishing its epistemic authority, science is presented as a psychologically saturated human activity, one that is especially illustrative of the way social, cognitive, and personal processes intermingle to both facilitate and impede scientific accomplishment. Each case study ends with a set of discussion questions, providing a valuable resource for student reflection and discussion, inviting analysis of similarities and differences in science in the context of very different lives and different projects. Person-Centered Studies in Psychology of Science is essential reading for scholars and graduates interested in the psychology of science, personality theory, social, or cognitive psychology, general psychologists, and theoretical psychologists.

Creativity

Scientific discovery, in this interpretation, is an objective process: Objects, events, and facts available to all of us are what scientists discover. As we work through the two case studies, I will try to make note of aspects of each ...

Creativity

How cognitive psychology explains human creativity Conventional wisdom holds that creativity is a mysterious quality present in a select few individuals. The rest of us, the common view goes, can only stand in awe of great creative achievements: we could never paint Guernica or devise the structure of the DNA molecule because we lack access to the rarified thoughts and inspirations that bless geniuses like Picasso or Watson and Crick. Presented with this view, today's cognitive psychologists largely differ finding instead that "ordinary" people employ the same creative thought processes as the greats. Though used and developed differently by different people, creativity can and should be studied as a positive psychological feature shared by all humans. Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts presents the major psychological theories of creativity and illustrates important concepts with vibrant and detailed case studies that exemplify how to study creative acts with scientific rigor. Creativity includes: * Two in-depth case studies--Watson and Crick's modeling of the DNA structure and Picasso's painting of Guernica-- serve as examples throughout the text * Methods used by psychologists to study the multiple facets of creativity * The "ordinary thinking" or cognitive view of creativity and its challengers * How problem-solving and experience relate to creative thinking * Genius and madness and the relationship between creativity and psychopathology * The possible role of the unconscious in creativity * Psychometrics--testing for creativity and how personality factors affect creativity * Confluence theories that use cognitive, personality, environmental, and other components to describe creativity Clearly and engagingly written by noted creativity expert Robert Weisberg, Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts takes both students and lay readers on an in-depth journey through contemporary cognitive psychology, showing how the discipline understands one of the most fundamental and fascinating human abilities. "This book will be a hit. It fills a large gap in the literature. It is a well-written, scholarly, balanced, and engaging book that will be enjoyed by students and faculty alike." --David Goldstein, University of Toronto

Reasoning in Biological Discoveries

(1999), Scientific Discovery and Creativity: Case Studies and Computational Approaches. Special Issue of Foundations of Science 4 (4). Morange, Michel (1998), A History of Molecular Biology. Trans. from French by Matthew Cobb.

Reasoning in Biological Discoveries

Reasoning in Biological Discoveries brings together a series of essays, which focus on one of the most heavily debated topics of scientific discovery. Collected together and richly illustrated, Darden's essays represent a groundbreaking foray into one of the major problems facing scientists and philosophers of science. Divided into three sections, the essays focus on broad themes, notably historical and philosophical issues at play in discussions of biological mechanism; and the problem of developing and refining reasoning strategies, including interfield relations and anomaly resolution. Darden summarizes the philosophy of discovery and elaborates on the role that mechanisms play in biological discovery. Throughout the book, she uses historical case studies to extract advisory reasoning strategies for discovery. Examples in genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, neuroscience and evolutionary biology reveal the process of discovery in action.

Scientific Controversies

Case Studies in the Resolution and Closure of Disputes in Science and Technology Hugo Tristram Engelhardt (Jr.), ... In this respect , the topic of controversy resembles that of discovery , about which so much has been written of late ...

Scientific Controversies

This collection of essays examines the ways in which disputes and controversies about the application of scientific knowledge are resolved. Four concrete examples of public controversy are considered in detail: the efficacy of Laetrile, the classification of homosexuality as a disease, the setting of safety standards in the workplace, and the utility of nuclear energy as a source of power. The essays in this volume show that debates about these cases are not confined to matters of empirical fact. Rather, as is seen with most scientific and technical controversies, they focus on and are structured by complex ethical, economic, and political interests. Drs. Engelhardt and Caplan have brought together a distinguished group of scholars from the sciences and humanities, who sketch a theory of scientific controversy and attempt to provide recommendations about the ways in which both scientists and the public ought to seek more informed resolutions of highly contentious issues in science and technology. Scientific Controversies is offered as a contribution to the better understanding of the roles of both science and nonscientific interests in disputes and controversies pertaining to science and technology.

Logic Epistemology and the Unity of Science

Meheus, Joke: 1993, 'Adaptive Logic in Scientific Discovery: The Case of Clausius', Logique et Analyse 143–144, 359–389, appeared in 1996. ... Frontiers of Paraconsistent Logic, Baldock, UK, Research Studies Press, pp. 189–201.

Logic  Epistemology  and the Unity of Science

The first volume in this new series explores, through extensive co-operation, new ways of achieving the integration of science in all its diversity. The book offers essays from important and influential philosophers in contemporary philosophy, discussing a range of topics from philosophy of science to epistemology, philosophy of logic and game theoretical approaches. It will be of interest to philosophers, computer scientists and all others interested in the scientific rationality.

Chemical Creativity

Scientific Controversies Case Studies in Resolution and Closure of Dispute in Science and Technology, Cambridge University Press, 1983. (6) Nickles, T. Scientific Discovery, Case Studies, Kluwer, Boston, MA, 1980.

Chemical Creativity

Where are the origins of chemical ideas? How did the pioneers in chemistry recognize the fundamental intellectual issues of their time? What skills of reasoning and experiment did they use to solve these problemes? How did the circumstances of personality and competition influence their careers and scientific accomplishments? If we can answer these questions, we may be able to improve our own chances of success in research. »This is a marvelous book of people and chemical ideas! The author, Jerry Berson, is known as a chemical stylist, a physical organic chemist possessed of the highest analytical powers. In a unique approach to the history of chemistry (indeed the history of science) he brings that style, as well as his insider's knowledge and a perceptive sensivity to the societal setting of chemists, to the analysis of some key chapters in modern organic chemistry.« Roald Hoffmann, Nobel Laureate

Companion to the History of Modern Science

Yet Ludwik Fleck, in his long-neglected work, Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact (Basel, 1935; Chicago, 1979), ... Scientific discovery, logic, and rationality and Scientific discovery: case studies (Dordrecht, 1980).

Companion to the History of Modern Science

The 67 chapters of this book describe and analyse the development of Western science from 1500 to the present day. Divided into two major sections - 'The Study of the History of Science' and 'Selected Writings in the History of Science' - the volume describes the methods and problems of research in the field and then applies these techniques to a wide range of fields. Areas covered include: * the Copernican Revolution * Genetics * Science and Imperialism * the History of Anthropology * Science and Religion * Magic and Science. The companion is an indispensable resource for students and professionals in History, Philosophy, Sociology and the Sciences as well as the History of Science. It will also appeal to the general reader interested in an introduction to the subject.

Scrutinizing Science

Scientific Discovery: Case Studies, Dordrecht: D. Reidel, pp. 345–366. Frankel, H. (1981), 'The Paleobiogeographical Debate over the Problem of Disjunctively Distributed Life Forms', Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 12, ...

Scrutinizing Science


Reader s Guide to the History of Science

In some cases , this meant that people studying for the professions had to take science courses . ... STEVE FULLER Discovery Blachowicz , James , “ Discovery as Correction " , Synthèse , 71 ( 1987 ) : 235-321 Boden , Margaret A. ( ed . ) ...

Reader s Guide to the History of Science

The Reader's Guide to the History of Science looks at the literature of science in some 550 entries on individuals (Einstein), institutions and disciplines (Mathematics), general themes (Romantic Science) and central concepts (Paradigm and Fact). The history of science is construed widely to include the history of medicine and technology as is reflected in the range of disciplines from which the international team of 200 contributors are drawn.

The Cognitive Science of Science

Study 1: Scientific Discovery Case studies in the history, philosophy, and psychology of science have usefully looked in detail at select examples of advances in science and technology (e.g., Gorman et al., 2005).

The Cognitive Science of Science

A cognitive science perspective on scientific development, drawing on philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, and computational modeling. Many disciplines, including philosophy, history, and sociology, have attempted to make sense of how science works. In this book, Paul Thagard examines scientific development from the interdisciplinary perspective of cognitive science. Cognitive science combines insights from researchers in many fields: philosophers analyze historical cases, psychologists carry out behavioral experiments, neuroscientists perform brain scans, and computer modelers write programs that simulate thought processes. Thagard develops cognitive perspectives on the nature of explanation, mental models, theory choice, and resistance to scientific change, considering disbelief in climate change as a case study. He presents a series of studies that describe the psychological and neural processes that have led to breakthroughs in science, medicine, and technology. He shows how discoveries of new theories and explanations lead to conceptual change, with examples from biology, psychology, and medicine. Finally, he shows how the cognitive science of science can integrate descriptive and normative concerns; and he considers the neural underpinnings of certain scientific concepts.

Philosophy of Social Science

(Abercrombie et al 1984, 14) While this strong view is not universally a nowledged, even sympathetic treatments of case studies use them as devices for discovery. For example, Alexander George and Andrew Benne 's Case Studies and ...

Philosophy of Social Science

Philosophy of Social Science: A Contemporary Introduction examines perennial questions of philosophy through engaging the empirical study of society. Questions of normativity concern the place of values in social scientific inquiry. Questions of naturalism concern the relationship between the natural and the social sciences. And questions of reductionism ask how social institutions relate to the people who constitute them. This accessible text offers a comprehensive overview of debates in the field, with special attention to new research programs. Topics include the relationship of social policy to social science, interpretive research, cognitive and evolutionary explanations, intentional action explanation, rational choice theory, conventions and social norms, joint intentionality, causal inference, and experimentation. Detailed examples of social scientific research motivate the philosophical questions and illustrate the important concepts. Treating philosophical commitments as implicit in social science, students of the social sciences will benefit from its application of philosophical argument to methodological and theoretical problems. The text argues that social science transforms philosophical questions, and students of philosophy will benefit from its direct engagement with contemporary debates. The Second Edition provides updates with the most recent literature and adds two new chapters: one on modeling and one on the role of race and gender in the social sciences. Key Updates to the Second Edition: A new chapter on "Modeling and Explaining," which explores how models represent social systems and whether highly idealized models explain A new chapter on "Race and Other Social Constructions," capturing much of the recent empirical research and philosophical interest in the social construction of categories like race and gender Revised and updated chapters throughout, clarifying earlier presentations and bringing discussions from the First Edition into line with new research Updated annotated Further Reading lists, which now include relevant publications from 2013 to 2022.