Self-theories

Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development

Self-theories

This innovative text sheds light on how people work -- why they sometimes function well and, at other times, behave in ways that are self-defeating or destructive. The author presents her groundbreaking research on adaptive and maladaptive cognitive-motivational patterns and shows: * How these patterns originate in people's self-theories * Their consequences for the person -- for achievement, social relationships, and emotional well-being * Their consequences for society, from issues of human potential to stereotyping and intergroup relations * The experiences that create them This outstanding text is a must-read for researchers in social psychology, child development, and education, and is appropriate for both graduate and senior undergraduate students in these areas.

Handbook of Dialogical Self Theory

Handbook of Dialogical Self Theory

In a boundary-crossing and globalizing world, the personal and social positions in self and identity become increasingly dense, heterogeneous and even conflicting. In this handbook scholars of different disciplines, nations and cultures (East and West) bring together their views and applications of dialogical self theory in such a way that deeper commonalities are brought to the surface. As a 'bridging theory', dialogical self theory reveals unexpected links between a broad variety of phenomena, such as self and identity problems in education and psychotherapy, multicultural identities, child-rearing practices, adult development, consumer behaviour, the use of the internet and the value of silence. Researchers and practitioners present different methods of investigation, both qualitative and quantitative, and also highlight applications of dialogical self theory.

Handbook of Motivation Science

Handbook of Motivation Science

Integrating significant advances in motivation science that have occurred over the last two decades, this volume thoroughly examines the ways in which motivation interacts with social, developmental, and emotional processes, as well as personality more generally. The Handbook comprises 39 clearly written chapters from leaders in the field. Cutting-edge theory and research is presented on core psychological motives, such as the need for esteem, security, consistency, and achievement; motivational systems that arise to address these fundamental needs; the process and consequences of goal pursuit, including the role of individual differences and contextual moderators; and implications for personal well-being and interpersonal and intergroup relations.

Applications of Dialogical Self Theory

New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, Number 137

Applications of Dialogical Self Theory

In an increasingly interconnected world, a dialogical self isnot only possible but even necessary. People are closer togetherthan ever, yet they are confronted with apparent and sometimes eveninsurmountable differences. While there is a need of increased dialogue between individuals,groups, and cultures, it is equally important to develop ofdialogical potentials within the self of the individual person.Elaborating on these concerns, the authors present and discuss aDialogical Self Theory based on the assumption that the selffunctions as a society of mind. The self is not simplyparticipating in a “surrounding” society, but functionsitself as a mini-society, which is, at the same time, part of thesociety at large. The authors: Present the theory in detail Explore the developmental origins of the dialogical self Elaborate on the identity development of adolescents growing upin multicultural societies Discuss a striking example of a social movement in India, whereindividual and collective voices merge in a nationwideprotest. This is the 137th volume in this series. Its missionis to provide scientific and scholarly presentations on cuttingedge issues and concepts in child and adolescent development. Eachvolume focuses on a specific new direction or research topic and isedited by experts on that topic.

The Relational Self

Theoretical Convergences in Psychoanalysis and Social Psychology

The Relational Self

In recent years, the traditional psychoanalytic view of the self as an autonomous entity has been shifting to a more relational perspective. This evolution from a solely intrapsychic stance brings psychoanalysis closer to the viewpoint of social psychology, formerly a highly divergent discipline. Bridging these different literatures, THE RELATIONAL SELF describes the extent and meaning of these convergences. The book is divided into four sections. The first two examine current perspectives from psychoanalytic self psychology and social psychology, and the latter two present an integration of psychoanalytic and social-personality approaches. Part One reviews the psychoanalytic theories of character "structure" that focus upon identity maintenance, self-esteem regulation, and resistance to change. Also presented is an interactional view of the self that explores the intersubjective context of intrapsychic experience. Part Two shifts from the largely unconscious intrapsychic self to the self as affected by situational variables. Considered here are the relationship between self-image and attitudes, the social categories deemed by people as important to their identity, and the effects of physical relocation upon self-concept change. Part Three presents a theory of the self with separate rational and experiential processing systems and also explores cultural influences on the self from a psychoanalytic vantage point. Part Four considers psychotherapy, self-verification, and self-concept change, including self-defeating behavior and self-consistency striving; the avoidance of self-awareness; self-evaluation maintenance; and self-with-other representations. Bringing together the work of leading theorists in social, psychoanalytic, and personality psychology on the interaction of self-organization with the social and physical environment, THE RELATIONAL SELF fosters a better understanding of both situational and dispositional variables and a deeper appreciation of the changing theoretical sense of a relational self as the ultimate stage of development.

Self-Esteem Research, Theory, and Practice

Toward a Positive Psychology of Self-Esteem, Third Edition

Self-Esteem Research, Theory, and Practice

Dr. Mruk has produced a highly readable new edition of his original work on an often misunderstood psychological construct--self-esteem. Mruk's view that self-esteem is a critically important influence on psychological adjustment and quality of life is now an accepted tenet in personality theory. Lack of self-esteem is frequently a precursor to depression, suicidal behavior, and other personality disorders. Nonetheless, the clinical diagnosis of self-esteem problems has lacked the basis of an overarching theory. Dr. Mruk's comprehensive analysis distills the literature on self-esteem into practical and reliable treatment methods for both clinicians and researchers. The new edition contains updated research and current terms, and addresses the self-esteem "backlash." He concludes with worksheets and detailed guidelines for conducting self-esteem building workshops. Added features include: Major theories of self-esteem Chapter on the new positive psychology 150 new references Dr. Mruk has developed a writing style that is successfully oriented toward both academic and clinical audiences in the areas of counseling, education, nursing, psychology, and social work, thus providing much-needed information for teachers, students, and practicing clinicians in a clear, concise way.

Dual-process Theories in Social Psychology

Dual-process Theories in Social Psychology

This informative volume presents the first comprehensive review of research and theory on dual-process models of social information processing. These models distinguish between qualitatively different modes of information processing in making decisions and solving problems (e.g., associative versus rule-based, controlled versus uncontrolled, and affective versus cognitive modes). Leading contributors review the basic assumptions of these approaches and review the ways they have been applied and tested in such areas as attitudes, stereotyping, person perception, memory, and judgment. Also examined are the relationships between different sets of processing modes, the factors that determine their utilization, and how they work in combination to affect responses to social information.

Theories of Human Nature - Third Edition

Theories of Human Nature - Third Edition

This book explores the idea of human nature and the many understandings of it put forward by such diverse figures as Aristotle, Rousseau, Marx, Freud, Darwin, and E.O. Wilson. Each chapter looks at a different theory and offers a concise explanation, assessing the theory's plausibility without forcing it into a mould. Some chapters deal with the ideas of only one thinker, while others (such as the chapters on liberalism and feminism) present a variety of different positions. A clear distinction is made between theories of human nature and the political theories which so often follow from them. For the new edition, Loptson has addressed the new developments in the rapidly expanding genetic and paleontological record, as well as expanded the discussion of the Christian theory of human nature by incorporating the ideas of the Marx scholar and social theorist G.A. Cohen. The new edition has also been substantively revised and updated throughout.

Life Crises and Experiences of Loss in Adulthood

Life Crises and Experiences of Loss in Adulthood

A result of a conference at the University of Trier, Germany, this volume mirrors its goals: * to provide an overview of recent advances in research on critical life events and the losses associated with them * to collect and stimulate new perspectives for the analysis of these events * to compare the psychology of victims experiencing stress and losses with the psychology of observers in their reactions to victims. Designed to prevent developmental psychological myths in the area of life crises, this collection questions, on an empirical basis, the adequacy of several widespread generalizations. At the same time its contributors attempt to draw paths to conceptualizations and theories in general psychology and social psychology which promise to be helpful in analyzing and interpreting phenomena in the field of life crises.

The Self in European and North American Culture

Development and Processes

The Self in European and North American Culture

How diverse or potentially overlapping are the numerous self-models, self-theories, and directions of self-research? It has become clear that the processes associated with the self are complex and diverse, and that many of the approaches associated with the self have been pursued in isolation. Moreover, the fact of there being different traditions within developmental and social psychology, as well as different traditions in Europe and North America, has also led to a certain cacophony when we examine the self-field as a whole. The chapters here confront these differences, trying to come to terms with phenomena that are overarching, that extend through the dimensions of developmental psychology, social psychology, motivation psychology, and parts of clinical psychology. The book as whole gives a clear presentation of the issues, questions and phenomena that surface in research fields known as self psychology.