The Food Industries of Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

The Food Industries of Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

The industrialization of food preservation and processing has been a dramatic development across Europe during modern times. This book sets out its story from the beginning of the nineteenth century when preservation of food from one harvest to another was essential to prevent hunger and even famine. Population growth and urbanization depended upon a break out from the ’biological ancien regime’ in which hunger was an ever-present threat. The application of mass production techniques by the food industries was essential to the modernization of Europe. From the mid-nineteenth century the development of food industries followed a marked regional pattern. After an initial growth in north-west Europe, the spread towards south-east Europe was slowed by social, cultural and political constraints. This was notable in the post-Second World War era. The picture of change in this volume is presented by case studies of countries ranging from the United Kingdom in the west to Romania in the east. All illustrate the role of food industries in creating new products that expanded the traditional cereal-based diet of pre-industrial Europe. Industrially preserved and processed foods provided new flavours and appetizing novelties which led to brand names recognized by consumers everywhere. Product marketing and advertising became fundamental to modern food retailing so that Europe’s largest food producers, Danone, Nestlé and Unilever, are numbered amongst the world’s biggest companies.

From Ship's Cook to Baronet

Sir William Reardon Smith's Life in Shipping, 1856-1935

From Ship's Cook to Baronet

Sir William Reardon Smith (1856-1935) was one of the foremost figures in south Wales in the early twentieth century. His was a classic story of ‘rags to riches’ - starting life as a deck-hand and ship’s cook sailing from his native Appledore in 1870, he was a master mariner at the age of twenty-two and subsequently commanded many of the fine sailing ships owned by Hugh Hogarth & Sons of Glasgow. A long-cherished ambition to become a shipowner was eventually realised in 1906 when he acquired his first steamship, City of Cardiff. The venture prospered and nine vessels were owned on the eve of the First World War. He subsequently showed great entrepreneurial initiative during the depression, acquiring motor vessels and establishing new trade routes. He is also remembered as a great philanthropist, particularly through his association with the National Museum of Wales – during his term as treasurer (1925-28) and president (1928-32), he restored the museum’s faltering finances and enabled the construction of the it’s east wing which is now so integral a part of Cardiff’s dignified civic centre. His establishment of the Reardon Smith Nautical School in Cardiff in 1921 was another notable achievement; this school provided an opportunity for aspiring deck officers to learn the essential skills appropriate to their chosen careers. He also funded hospital developments in Cardiff and Bideford, and endowed the chair of geography at Exeter University. At the time of his death in December 1935, fulsome tributes were paid to him both by his fellow shipowners and by the principals of those organisations which had benefitted from his generosity; many of those who live in south Wales and the West country today still enjoy that legacy

Ship and Offshore Structure Design in Climate Change Perspective

Ship and Offshore Structure Design in Climate Change Perspective

This book summarizes results of longstanding research and scientific contributions from many projects and relevant working groups. It collects and evaluates wind and wave climate projections under changing climate having design needs and marine safety in focus. Potential impact of projected climate change in met-ocean conditions on ships and offshore structures is discussed and illustrated by an example of the expected wave climate change on tanker design. The monograph is intended for students, researchers and industry based engineers who want a summary of the many studies that have been carried out on climate change effects on wind and waves and their importance for design and operations of ship and offshore structures. The reader needs only a moderate knowledge of marine wind and wave climate to follow the text.

Congressional Record

Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress

Congressional Record


Congressional Record

Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress

Congressional Record


French Cruisers

1922-1956

French Cruisers

The French produced some of the most striking and innovatory interwar cruiser designs. A large amount of new information about these ships has become available over the past twenty years in France, but this book is the first to make this accessible to an English-speaking readership. Part I explains the design philosophy behind each of the classes built after 1922, and outlines the characteristics of each type, accompanied by detailed data tables and a comprehensive set of specially-drawn plans based on official documents, as well as carefully-selected photographs. Coverage includes the De Grasse, laid down in August 1939 and completed postwar as an AA cruiser, and also the heavy cruisers of the Saint Louis class intended to follow her, about which little has been published. Part II deals with the historical side, covering not only the eventful careers of these ships, but also explaining the peacetime organisation of the Marine Nationale, the complex politics of this turbulent period and their impact on the navy. Like its highly successful predecessor, French Battleships, this beautifully presented book subtly blends technical and historical analysis to produce what must become the standard reference work.

Elusive Victories

The American Presidency at War

Elusive Victories

On April 4, 1864, Abraham Lincoln made a shocking admission about his presidency during the Civil War. "I claim not to have controlled events," he wrote in a letter, "but confess plainly that events have controlled me." Lincoln's words carry an invaluable lesson for wartime presidents, writes Andrew J. Polsky in this seminal book. As Polsky shows, when commanders-in-chief do try to control wartime events, more often than not they fail utterly. In Elusive Victories, Polsky provides a fascinating study of six wartime presidents, drawing larger lessons about the limits of the power of the White House during armed conflict. He examines, in turn, Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, showing how each gravely overestimated his power as commander-in-chief. In each case, these presidents' resources did not match the key challenges that recur from war to war. Both Lincoln and Johnson intervened in military operations, giving orders to specific units; yet both struggled with the rising unpopularity of their conflicts. Both Wilson and Bush entered hostilities with idealistic agendas for the aftermath, yet found themselves helpless to enact them. With insight and clarity, Polsky identifies overarching issues that will inform current and future policymakers. The single most important dynamic, he writes, is the erosion of a president's freedom of action. Each decision propels him down a path from which he cannot turn back. When George W. Bush rejected the idea of invading Iraq with 400,000 troops, he could not send such a force two years later as the insurgency spread. In the final chapter, Polsky examines Barack Obama's options in light of these conclusions, and considers how the experiences of the past might inform the world we face now. Elusive Victories is the first book to provide a comprehensive account of presidential leadership during wartime, highlighting the key dangers that presidents have ignored at their peril.