Soil Carbon Dynamics

This book provides an integrated view on measuring and modeling soil carbon dynamics.

Soil Carbon Dynamics

Carbon stored in soils represents the largest terrestrial carbon pool and factors affecting this will be vital in the understanding of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This book provides an integrated view on measuring and modeling soil carbon dynamics. Based on a broad range of in-depth contributions by leading scientists it gives an overview of current research concepts, developments and outlooks and introduces cutting-edge methodologies, ranging from questions of appropriate measurement design to the potential application of stable isotopes and molecular tools. It includes a standardised soil CO2 efflux protocol, aimed at data consistency and inter-site comparability and thus underpins a regional and global understanding of soil carbon dynamics. This book provides an important reference work for students and scientists interested in many aspects of soil ecology and biogeochemical cycles, policy makers, carbon traders and others concerned with the global carbon cycle.

Disturbance Restoration and Soil Carbon Dynamics in Desert and Tropical Ecosystems

Disturbances, natural or anthropogenic, alter ecosystem functioning by changing the biotic composition, biogeochemical cycling, or the physical structure of an environment.

Disturbance  Restoration  and Soil Carbon Dynamics in Desert and Tropical Ecosystems

Disturbances, natural or anthropogenic, alter ecosystem functioning by changing the biotic composition, biogeochemical cycling, or the physical structure of an environment. As carbon dioxide is a major contributor to global climate change, disturbances to different components of the carbon (C) cycle may further affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Soils store vast amounts of C and have the potential to sequester or release CO2. Two of the most extreme ecosystems, deserts and tropical forests, play an important role in the global C cycle, storing C in soils and vegetative biomass. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to quantify changes in soil C cycling after a disturbance in desert and tropical ecosystems. My first chapter addressed how soil inorganic C cycling changes with vegetation removal in a Colorado desert ecosystem. Through manipulative field and lab experiments, I explored changes in C pools after vegetation removal by measuring changes in the isotopic composition of C pools and effluxed CO2. I found that there were significant changes in C cycling after the vegetation was removed; there were fewer newer C inputs and that a greater proportion of CO2 comes soil inorganic C in unvegetated soils. For my second chapter, I looked at soil C recovery with revegetation of Larrea tridentata, finding that there was some recovery of the water extractable organic and microbial biomass C pools. Although the isotopic composition of soil carbon pools did not change with restoration, I also found some seasonal patterns such that changes in soil C pools may have been linked to timing of shrub and microbial activity. My third chapter addressed spatial differences in root and hyphal dynamics and production associated with soil disturbances created by leaf cutter ants (LCA). I collected continuous soil data and automated minirhizotron images to assess belowground dynamics, finding that LCA altered their soil environment and increase root and hyphal production in LCA nests. Overall, my dissertation work demonstrates that disturbances impact various components of the C cycle and that changes to C cycling processes may change how relevant those processes are at different temporal and spatial scales.

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems

This Special Issue provides an important update on the disturbance effects on soil carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosystems in different climate regions.

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems

Forest ecosystems are often disturbed by agents such as harvesting, fire, wind, insects and diseases, and acid deposition, with differing intensities and frequencies. Such disturbances can markedly affect the amount, form, and stability of soil organic carbon in, and the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4, and N2O from, forest ecosystems. It is vitally important that we improve our understanding of the impact of different disturbance regimes on forest soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions to guide our future research, forest management practices, and policy development. This Special Issue provides an important update on the disturbance effects on soil carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosystems in different climate regions.

Soil Erosion and Carbon Dynamics

Ecology—Managing soil carbon. Science 304(5669):393. Liu, S.G., N.Bliss, E.
Sundquist, and T.G.Huntington. 2003. Modeling carbon dynamics in vegetation
and soil under the impact of soil erosion and deposition. Global Biogeochemical
 ...

Soil Erosion and Carbon Dynamics

The most complete, nonpartisan source of information on this hot agronomic topic available today, this book brings together a diverse group of papers and data to resolve the debate between sedimentologists and soil scientists and agronomists over whether the effects of soil erosion on carbon and atmospheric CO2 is beneficial or destructive. Divided

Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle

In addition, this book deals with modeling the carbon cycle in soil, and with methods of soil carbon determinations.

Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle

World soils contain about 1500 gigatons of organic carbon. This large carbon reserve can increase atmospheric concentrations of CO2 by soil misuse or mismanagement, or it can reverse the 'greenhouse' effect by judicious land use and proper soil management. Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle describes soil processes and their effects on the global carbon cycle while relating soil properties to soil quality and potential and actual carbon reserves in the soil. In addition, this book deals with modeling the carbon cycle in soil, and with methods of soil carbon determinations.

Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils

This compilation of techniques, methodologies and scientific data arises from a four-year Italian research project, which took place at university research stations in Turin, Piacenza, Naples and Potenza.

Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils

This compilation of techniques, methodologies and scientific data arises from a four-year Italian research project, which took place at university research stations in Turin, Piacenza, Naples and Potenza. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) represents an active and essential pool of the total organic carbon on the planet. Consequently, even small changes in this SOM carbon pool may have a significant impact on the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Recent new understanding of the chemical nature of SOM indicates that innovative and sustainable technologies may be applied to sequester carbon in agricultural soils. Overall results of the project have been applied to develop an innovative model for the prediction and description, both quantitatively and qualitatively, of carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. This book provides experts in different areas of soil science with a complete picture of the effects of new soil management methods and their potentials for practical application in farm management.

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon

A Simple Method to Estimate Soil Carbon Dynamics at the BOREAS Northern
Study Area , Manitoba , Canada G. Rapalee I. Introduction High latitude
ecosystems would be expected to experience the largest temperature changes if
the Earth ...

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon

Since carbon sequestration in soils reduces the amount of carbon available to the atmosphere, the Kyoto Protocols have heightened interest in soil carbon pools and their effect on carbon fluxes. Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon addresses many of the questions related to the measurement, monitoring, and verification of organic and inorganic carbon in soils. The major topics covered are: carbon pools; soil sampling and preparation, analytical techniques for soil carbon; soil erosion and sedimentation; remote sensing, GIS and modeling; procedures for scaling carbon data from point and local measurements to regional and even national scales; and economic and policy issues. In Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon, leading researchers show that we now have the ability to measure, monitor, and verify changes to soil carbon. The book establishes the need for standardized methods that can be used by anyone, and helps us better understand the link between the pedosphere (soils) and the atmosphere. It also shows the importance of developing links between the economics of carbon sequestration and the amounts sequestered, and highlights the need for scientists and policy makers to interact to ensure that policies fit within the scope of present technologies.

Soil Management and Climate Change

This book is for students and academics in soil science and environmental science, land managers, public administrators and legislators, and will increase understanding of organic matter preservation in soil and mitigation of greenhouse gas ...

Soil Management and Climate Change

Soil Management and Climate Change: Effects on Organic Carbon, Nitrogen Dynamics, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions provides a state of the art overview of recent findings and future research challenges regarding physical, chemical and biological processes controlling soil carbon, nitrogen dynamic and greenhouse gas emissions from soils. This book is for students and academics in soil science and environmental science, land managers, public administrators and legislators, and will increase understanding of organic matter preservation in soil and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Given the central role soil plays on the global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, there is an urgent need to increase our common understanding about sources, mechanisms and processes that regulate organic matter mineralization and stabilization, and to identify those management practices and processes which mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, helping increase organic matter stabilization with suitable supplies of available N. Provides the latest findings about soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions Covers the effect of practices and management on soil organic matter stabilization Includes information for readers to select the most suitable management practices to increase soil organic matter stabilization

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

This book is about the concept of the Greenhouse Effect is more than a century old, but today the observed and predicted climate changes.

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

This book is about the concept of the Greenhouse Effect is more than a century old, but today the observed and predicted climate changes. This second edition of Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect is essential reading for understandingthe processes, properties, and practices affecting the soil carbon pool and its dynamics.

Water Carbon Dynamics in Eastern Siberia

Old soil carbon may become an increasing source of carbon for the ecosystem
respiration upon warming of the permafrost in Eastern Siberia. Estimates of the
soil carbon stocks in the Arctic are improving (Tarnocai et al. 2009; Strauss et al.

Water Carbon Dynamics in Eastern Siberia

This book discusses the water and carbon cycle system in the permafrost region of eastern Siberia, Providing vitalin sights into how climate change has affected the permafrost environment in recent decades. It analyzes the relationships between precipitation and evapotranspiration, gross primary production and runoff in the permafrost regions, which differ from those intropical and temperate forests. Eastern Siberia is located in the easternmost part of the Eurasian continent, and the land surface with underlying permafrost has developed over a period of seventy thousand years. The permafrost ecosystem has specific hydrological and meteorological characteristics in terms of the water and carbon dynamics, and the current global warming and resulting changes in the permafrost environment are serious issues in the high-latitude regions. The book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and professionals interested in forest meteorology and hydrology, forest ecology, and boreal vegetation, as well as the impact of climate change and water-carbon cycles in permafrost and non-permafrost regions.

Soil Carbon

7 Soil Carbon Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling David Powlson*, Zucong Cai and
Philippe Lemanceau Abstract The quantity of organic carbon in soil and the
quantity and type of organic inputs have profound impacts on the dynamics of ...

Soil Carbon

This book brings together the essential evidence and policy opportunities regarding the global importance of soil carbon for sustaining Earth's life support system for humanity. Covering the science and policy background for this important natural resource, it describes land management options that improve soil carbon status and therefore increase the benefits that humans derive from the environment. Written by renowned global experts, it is the principal output from a SCOPE rapid assessment process project.

Recarbonization of the Biosphere

This book describes comprehensively carbon (C) cycle process in global ecosystems and the potential and co-benefits of recarbonization of the biosphere.

Recarbonization of the Biosphere

Human activities are significantly modifying the natural global carbon (C) cycles, and concomitantly influence climate, ecosystems, and state and function of the Earth system. Ever increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are added to the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion but the biosphere is a potential C sink. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of C cycling in the biosphere is crucial for identifying and managing biospheric C sinks. Ecosystems with large C stocks which must be protected and sustainably managed are wetlands, peatlands, tropical rainforests, tropical savannas, grasslands, degraded/desertified lands, agricultural lands, and urban lands. However, land-based sinks require long-term management and a protection strategy because C stocks grow with a progressive improvement in ecosystem health.

Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter in Tropical Ecosystems

Constituents of organic matter in temperate and tropical soils. Soil organic matter as a source and a sink of plant nUtrients. Interactions of soil organic matter and variable-charge clays.

Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter in Tropical Ecosystems

Constituents of organic matter in temperate and tropical soils. Soil organic matter as a source and a sink of plant nUtrients. Interactions of soil organic matter and variable-charge clays. Biological processes regulating organic matter dynamics in tropical soils.

Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems

The chapters cover: Characteristics of tropical ecosystems Soil and biotic carbon pools Impacts of land use and soil management Slash-and-burn practices Crop residue and fertility management This volume adds to the understanding of ...

Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems

Tropical ecosystems - the regions between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn - play an important role in global processes, economic issues, and political concerns. In their natural state, tropical ecosystems support a large quantity of above- and below-ground biomass, and constitute a major part of the terrestrial carbon pool. Conversion of the natural ecosystem to agriculture and forestry ecosystems disturbs this ecological balance. Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems presents data on carbon pool fluxes from case studies in 12 countries in tropical regions. The chapters cover: Characteristics of tropical ecosystems Soil and biotic carbon pools Impacts of land use and soil management Slash-and-burn practices Crop residue and fertility management This volume adds to the understanding of pedospheric processes in tropical ecosystems and how to better use soils as a sink for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. With Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems you will understand the link between soil productivity, environmental quality and the global carbon cycle, not only in these ecologically sensitive regions but worldwide.

Soil Organic Matter in Temperate AgroecosystemsLong Term Experiments in North America

A database is included with the book, presenting tabular data for 34 sites in North America. Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems discusses all of these issues and more, answering such questions as:

Soil Organic Matter in Temperate AgroecosystemsLong Term Experiments in North America

The presence - or absence - of soil organic matter (SOM) has important implications for agricultural productivity. It could also have significant implications for global climate due to its role as a source/sink of carbon. Therefore, it is important to understand the issues related to the accumulation or loss of SOM, to use what we have learned from experiments to make sound decisions about soil and crop management, and to test models and future concepts concerning SOM management. A database is included with the book, presenting tabular data for 34 sites in North America. Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems discusses all of these issues and more, answering such questions as: