Solar Energy Utilization

This volume contains both basic and applied information contributed during the Institute. The editors appreciate the cooperation of Martinus Nijhoff Publishezsin making the proceedings widely available.

Solar Energy Utilization

Until very recently, energy supply of the world has been treated as being nearly inexhaustible. Nowadays about 90 percent of the energy used is obtained from non-renewable resources: oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. These resources are being used up at an alarming rate. To meet our demands we are now searching for new sources of energy. One of these new sources of energy is solar energy which will assume increasing importance. It is free but means must be developed to use it economically. Research is actively under way to reduce the storage cost of this low intensity energy and for the design of economical systems. The purpose of this Institute is to provide an international forum for the dissemination of information on solar energy utilization: fundamentals and applications in industry. This meeting is primarily a high level teaching activity. The subject is treated in considerable depth by lecturers eminent in their field. The other participants include scientists, engineers, and senior graduate students who themselves are involved in a similar research and who wish to learn more about current developments, as well as scientists from other areas who are planning to research on solar energy. The lectures are supplemented by informal discussions designed to encourage the free and critical exchange of ideas. A limited number of contributions are also included. This volume contains both basic and applied information contributed during the Institute. The editors appreciate the cooperation of Martinus Nijhoff Publishezsin making the proceedings widely available.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

Synthetic fuels and chemicals produced by solar energy is one of them, where temperatures in the range of 600-1000°C or even higher are needed. In principle such high temperatures can be produced in solar towers.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

The ener~y crisis in 1973 and 1979 initiated a great number of activities and programs for low and high temperature applica tion of solar energy. Synthetic fuels and chemicals produced by solar energy is one of them, where temperatures in the range of 600-1000°C or even higher are needed. In principle such high temperatures can be produced in solar towers. For electricity tower plants production, the feasibility and operation of solar Solar Power has been examined during the SSPS - project (Small System) in Almeria, Spain. extend The objective of Solar Thermal Energy Utilization is to field the experience from the former SSPS - program in to the of solar produced synthetic fuels. New materials and technolo gies have to be developed in order to research this goal. Metallic components now in use for solar receivers need to be improved with respect to transient operation or possibly replaced by ceramics. High temperature processes, like steam-methane reforming, coal conversion and hydrogen produc tion need to be developed or at least adapted for the unconven tional solar operation. Therefore Solar Thermal Energy Utiliza tion is a long term program, which needs time for its develop ment much more time than the intervals expected in between further energy crisis. The "Studies on Technology and Applica tion on Solar Energy Utilization" is a necessary step in the right direction in order to prepare for the energy problems in the future.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

The objective of Solar Thermal Energy Utilization is to extend the experience from the former SSPS - program in to the field of solar produced synthetic fuels.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

The energy crisis in 1973 and 1979 initiated a great number of activities and programs for low and high temperature applica tion of solar energy. Synthetic fuels and chemicals produced by solar energy is one of them, where temperatures in the range of o 600-1000 e or even higher are needed. In principle such high temperatures can be produced in solar towers. For electricity production, the feasibility and operation of solar tower plants has been examined during the SSPS - project (Small Solar Power System) in Almeria, Spain. The objective of Solar Thermal Energy Utilization is to extend the experience from the former SSPS - program in to the field of solar produced synthetic fuels. New materials and technolo gies have to be developed in order to research this goal. Metallic components now in use for solar receivers need to be improved with respect to transient operation or possibly replaced by ceramics. High temperature processes, like steam-methane reforming, coal conversion and hydrogen produc tion need to be developed or at least adapted for the unconven tional solar operation. Therefore Solar Thermal Energy Utiliza tion is a long term program, which needs time for its develop ment much more time than the intervals expected in between further energy crisis. The "Studies on Technology and Applica tion on Solar Energy Utilization" is a npcessary stpp in the right direction in order to prepare for the energy problems in the future.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

The objective of Solar Thermal Energy Utilization is to extend the experience from the former SSPS - program in to the field of solar produced synthetic fuels.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

The energy crisis in 1973 and 1979 initiated a great number of activities and programs for low and high temperature applica tion of solar energy. Synthetic fuels and chemicals produced by solar energy is one of them, where temperatures in the range of 600-1000°C or even higher are needed. In principle such high temperatures can be produced in solar towers. For electricity production, the feasibility and operation of solar tower plants has been examined during the SSPS - project (Small Solar Power System) in Almeria, Spain. The objective of Solar Thermal Energy Utilization is to extend the experience from the former SSPS - program in to the field of solar produced synthetic fuels. New materials and technolo gies have to be developed in order to research this goal. Metallic components now in use for solar receivers need to be improved with respect to transient operation or possibly replaced by ceramics. High temperature processes, like steam-methane reforming, coal conversion and hydrogen produc tion need to be developed or at least adapted for the unconven tional solar operation. Therefore Solar Thermal Energy Utiliza tion is a long term program, which needs time for its develop ment much more time than the intervals expected in between further energy crisis. The "Studies on Technology and Applica tion on Solar Energy Utilization" is a necessary step in the right direction in order to prepare for the energy problems in the future.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization German Studies on Technology and Application

We would also like to thank Ms S. Preusser and Ms U. Rachow, who among many others contributed to the realization of this volume.

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization  German Studies on Technology and Application

The German R + D program "Solares Testzentrum Almeria" (SOTA) provided the scientific basis for the realization of advanced solar technologies including facility modifications, component tests and new lines of development. One of the working packages, WP 300, addressed the "Scientific Support" by the performance of preparatory studies, exploratory laboratory activities and qualified expertise. Universities, Research Institutes and Company R + D Entities in Germany were enabled to treat the following aspects: * Meteorological, system and cost investigations, * Development of important components as concentrator, receiver, storage, * Utilization of solar energy for process heat and chemical reactions. Besides the continued development of terminal concentrators, the studies concentrated in 1991 on the development of solar chemistry processes. The reports of the activities were finalized recently and collected in the present volume. The final reports were printed as received. The achieved results and the views expressed within the reports were under the responsibility of the authors. As organizers of these solar thermal activities and as editors of the corresponding final reports, we would like to thank BMFT and KFA-BEO for the farsighted funding (grant no. 0328823A) and the research groups for their engagement and consultations. We would also like to thank Ms S. Preusser and Ms U. Rachow, who among many others contributed to the realization of this volume.

Solar Energy Utilization

Solar Energy Utilization


Technology for Solar Energy Utilization

Technology for Solar Energy Utilization