Solar Energy

Solar Radiation Atlas of Africa , A. A. Balkema , Rotterdam for the Commission of European Communities , 155 pp . Reddy , S. J. 1973. An empirical method for the estimation of evaporation from free surface of water , Indian J.

Solar Energy

It is rare that a book draws together the knowledge and experience of scientists, each a world leader in their discipline, to create a work that presents the state of the art in a field as rich and diverse as solar energy.In Solar Energy -- the State of the Art this aim has been achieved. The book comprises 12 individual chapters, each dedicated to one of the major solar energy sub-disciplines and authored by an internationally recognized expert in the field. Areas covered range from solar radiation and meteorology, solar collectors and concentrators, solar energy and the built environment, to solar thermal electricity, photovoltaics, wind energy and the potential cost of ignoring solar energy resources. The papers examine the technology and field in question, discuss the rudiments and major applications, review the current science and technology and explore the remaining challenges for the future. TOPICS include:* solar and natural resources for a better efficiency in the built environment* glazings and coatings* selectively solar-absorbing coatings* solar collectors* solar water heating* photovoltaic physics and devices* solar concentrators* the cost of pollution and the benefit of solar energy* solar process heat: distillation, drying, agricultural and industrial uses* solar resource assessment: a review* solar thermal electricity* wind energy review Solar Energy -- the State of the Art is an essential reference work for all solar energy practitioners, students, researchers and engineers wishing to gain a broad-based understanding of the theory, technology, applications and issues surrounding the broad, interdisciplinary field of solar energy. The book will form an important component of any library's solar energy holding and will be of particular benefit as an academic reference, as well as being of practical value to professionals who wish to gain a clear understanding of the concepts required to move forward in this field.Solar Energy -- the State of the Art is an initiative of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES).

Atlas of Africa

With these different strategies, electricity mixes are becoming increasingly diversified in the different regions (see map). SOLAR ENERGY AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR AFRICA'S ENERGY TRANSITION With almost 600 million people living without ...

Atlas of Africa

This innovative Atlas of Africa, by the Agence Française de Développement, offers comprehensive insights into contemporary Africa through the use of full-colour maps, charts, graphics and text which demonstrate and explain Africa’s growing importance in the world and its demographic, economic, social and environmental transformation, while also outlining the challenges that the continent faces. The three sections, offering new perspectives on the continent, comprise: Taking Full Measure of Africa – examining the major economic, demographic, social and political transformations that Africa has undergone in a short space of time. A Multifaceted Continent with Shared Challenges – looking at the major intraregional economic, demographic, environmental and social dynamics that are currently shaping the continent. Africa Inventing Itself and Taking up the Key Challenges of Tomorrow – an overview of the challenges that Africa is currently facing and will need to face in the future, including the environment and climate change, social cohesion and demographic issues, economic development and governance. Full-colour maps, charts and graphics cover such wide-ranging topics as economic development, urbanization, education, the rule of law, gender, the blue economy, regional organizations, energy and culture, to form a volume which offers a wide-ranging overview in graphic form of Africa in the world today, of interest to all those studying, working in or with Africa, and those with a general interest in the continent.

Operational Remote Sensing for Sustainable Development

Northeast of USA Monthly means Solar Radiation Atlas of Africa ( Cologne method ) of daily sums Solar Radiation Atlas of Africa ( Heliosat ) Relative Relative root mean square error error approx . 10 % approx .

Operational Remote Sensing for Sustainable Development

This text presents papers from the 18th EARSeL Symposium, held in Enschede, Netherlands. The papers are followed by application-oriented contributions on specific themes such as land use and nature management; water quality and pollution monitoring; and coastal zone management.

World Mapping Today

Collins London: NÍacmillan, 1992 288 pp Solar radiation atlas of Africa Rotterdam and Brookfield: Elsevier Atlas des regimes pluviometriques de l'Afrique R.Emsalem Limoges: 1990 22 pp. 20 map plates Vegetation map of Africa / Carte de ...

World Mapping Today


European Directory of Sustainable and Energy Efficient Building 1999

ISBN 3 540 56882 4 SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS OF AFRICA E. Ras ke et al AA Balkema Publishers for the CEC 1991 EUR 13129 EN ISBN 90 5410 109 1 PREDICTION OF SOLAR RADIATION ON INCLINED SURFACES J.K. Page (Ed) Solar Energy R&D in the ...

European Directory of Sustainable and Energy Efficient Building 1999

This directory has become a valued source of information for energy-efficient building designers and specifiers throughout Europe and the details and scope of product, service and supplier listings have again been extensively updated for this edition.

The European Solar Radiation Atlas

This atlas offers a unique instrument dedicated to the knowledge and exploitation of the solar resources for Europe in a broad sense, from Ural to Azores and from Northern Africa to Polar Circle. It is a powerful tool for architects, ...

The European Solar Radiation Atlas

This atlas offers a unique instrument dedicated to the knowledge and exploitation of the solar resources for Europe in a broad sense, from Ural to Azores and from Northern Africa to Polar Circle. It is a powerful tool for architects, engineers, meteorologists, agronomists, local authorities, tourism professionals, as well as researchers and students. It covers the period 1981-1990. It offers fundamental knowledge on the solar radiation available at groundlevel, which is of primary importance for both the life and the climate (including the ocean) since it is the primary source of energy on Earth by far. This book describes the course of the Sun across the sky as it varieties throughout the year and with the geographical location. The interactions of the solar radiation with the atmosphere and its components (haze, turbidity, clouds, etc.), and the separation of the radiation into the direct and diffuse parts are discussed. The importance of the solar radiation in various domains is presented, with an emphasis on solar engineering, where solar energy is used to provide electricity in photovoltaics systems, to supply hot water or heat houses. Ground radiation measurement techniques and instruments are described. Satellite images are also used. They are combined with ground measurements to provide a synoptic view of the distribution of the solar radiation over Europe. The structure of the database and its main applications are described. 26 coloured maps (ten years average 1981-90) describe the solar radiation and its direct and diffuse parts. They also detail the changes with time. The value of the atlas can be usefully extended by using it in conjunction with the complementary volume and CD-ROM called : The European Solar Radiation Atlas - vol. 2: database and exploitation software, also published by Les Presses de l'Ecole des Mines. The database offers spatial (every 10 km approximately) and temporal knowledge for different timescales (front climatological means -more than 700 stations- to hourly values -7 stations-) on the solar resources: irradiation (global and its components), sunshine duration, as well as air temperatures, precipitation, water vapour pressure, air pressure in a number of stations. The software uses the database in either a "map" or a "station" mode at user choice. Once a station been selected, the program looks for all the data available for this station. The software includes algorithms covering the following fields: solar geometry, optical properties of the atmosphere, estimation of hourly slope irradiation under cloudless skies, estimation of solar irradiation values (going from daily to hourly values, conversion from horizontal to titled surfaces), spectral irradiance, illuminance, daily mean profiles of temperature and other statistical quantities (central moments, extremes, probability, cumulative probability and utilizability curves). Graphics can be displayed in 2 or 3 dimensions. Some applications studies on solar engineering can be performed too. This Atlas bas been realised on behalf of the European Commission, by a team led by the company GET (Jülich, Germany), and comprising the Deutsche Wetterdienst (Hamburg, Germany), Armines/Ecoles des Mines de Paris et de Nantes (France), Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial (Lisbon, Portugal), the Technical University of Lyngby (Denmark), the World Radiation Data Centre (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), and Institut Royal de Météorologie (Brussels, Belgium), John Page (Sheffield, United Kingdom) and Robert Dogniaux (Brussels, Belgium) acting as advisors.

West African Studies Regional Atlas on West Africa

OECD, Sahel and West Africa Club ... 247 248 249 250 251 252 Map 14.3. ... The quantity of greenhouse gases and atmospheric dust, solar energy and its distribution across the Earth's surface, ocean movement and the position of the ...

West African Studies Regional Atlas on West Africa

This atlas describes the West African region, its population, settlement, territories, its economy and its vulnerabilities. It analyses the developments and the ways in which West Africa is conforming to a constantly changing global environment.

South Africa s Energy Transition

... point.9 In South Africa, a renewable-energy-led mix has been stress tested using a simulated time-synchronous model,10 integrating wind and solar data from the Wind Atlas South Africa and the Solar Radiation Data respectively.

South Africa   s Energy Transition

South Africa’s energy transition has become a highly topical, emotive and politically contentious topic. Taking a systems perspective, this book offers an evidence-based roadmap for such a transition and debunks many of the myths raised about the risks of a renewable-energy-led electricity mix. Owing to its formidable solar and wind resources, South Africa has an almost unparalleled opportunity to turn solar photovoltaic and onshore wind generators into the country’s power generation workhorses – a role hitherto played by coal. This book shows that a renewables-led mix will not only provide the lowest cost, but will also create more jobs than any of the alternatives currently under consideration. In addition, it offers a glimpse of how South Africa’s low-cost and decarbonised electricity system can power a competitive industrial economy, an electric-mobility revolution and, in the long run, create new export opportunities. This book will be of great interest to energy industry practitioners, as well as students and scholars of energy policy and politics, environmental economics and sustainable development.

Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System

Raschke E, Rieland M (1989) Downward solar radiation from geostationary satellite data: A first global view. Weather 44; 311-314. Raschke E, Stuhlmann R, Palz W, Steemers TC (1991) Solar Radiation Atlas of Africa- Global and Diffuse ...

Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System

Water is the most effective agent in the climate system to modulate energy transfer by radiative processes, through its exchanges of latent heat and within cascades of chemical processes. It is the source of all life on earth, and once convective clouds are formed, it enables large vertical transports of momentum, heat and various atmospheric constituents up to levels above the tropical tropopause. Water triggers very complex processes at the earth's continental surfaces and within the oceans. At last, water in its gaseous phase is the most important greenhouse-gas! Numerical modelling and measurements of the state of the present climate system needs a very thorough understanding of all these processes and their various interactions and forcings. This is a prerequisite for more substantial forecasts of future states in all scales of time, from days to centuries. Therefore, the management of the World Climate Research Programme established in 1988 the new programme GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment). GEWEX is specifically defined to determine the energy and water transports in the fast components of the climate system with the presently available modelling and measurement means and to provide new capabilities for the future. Research in GEWEX must further develop methods to determine the influence of climatic anomalies on available water resources.

SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION AND PHOTOENERGY SYSTEMS Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants Volume III

Figure 8 shows the solar energy atlas for Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa giving the value of the direct normal irradiation in kWh/m2/y. Normal irradiance is defined as the irradiance perpendicular to a surface that ...

SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION AND PHOTOENERGY SYSTEMS  Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants Volume III

Solar Energy Conversion and Photoenergy Systems: Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants theme in five volumes is a component of Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Solar Energy Conversion and Photoenergy Systems: Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants with contributions from distinguished experts in the field, discusses solar energy, renewable energy, thermal systems, and desalination systems, some of which are already in commercial and practical applications and others are under research and testing level. The volumes provide an analysis and discussion about the reasons behind the current efforts of our society, considering both developed and developing countries, to accelerate the exploitation of the huge solar energy potential in our normal daily lives. The five volumes also provide some basic information about the solar energy potential, history and the amazing trip of a photon from its creation in the Sun until its arrival to the Earth. These five volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.

Energy Regionalism in ECOWAS and the EU

The project is part of a wider regional grid extension project, the West African Power Pool.433 With a commercial viability for ... There is no geothermal energy use in the country and with respect to solar energy use, it is minimal ...

Energy Regionalism in ECOWAS and the EU


Atlas of African agriculture research and development

The following maps indicate where the variability of total rainfall in SSA (Map 1) may influence maize yields (Map ... AgMIP Hybrid Baseline Climate Dataset (Ruane and Goldberg 2014) was used to retrieve site-specific solar radiation, ...

Atlas of African agriculture research and development

The Atlas of African Agriculture Research & Development is a multifaceted resource that high­lights the ubiquitous nature of smallholder agriculture in Africa; the many factors shaping the location, nature, and performance of agricultural enterprises; and the strong interde­pendencies among farming, natural resource stocks and flows, rural infrastructure, and the well-being of the poor.

Low Carbon Development

Map 6.1 Average Wind-Speed Map for Africa and Nigeria lwimspmaisomim'u Irswmqim Iron-".1 fibai'fl [60465 Isoaun 40.610 Imulhnn-'D Wind Speed ... SolarPhotovoltaics Like most tropical regions, Nigeria has abundant solar radiation. Map ...

Low Carbon Development

The Federal Government of Nigeria has adopted an ambitious strategy to make Nigeria the world’s 20th largest economy by 2020. Sustaining such a pace of growth will entail rapid expansion of the level of activity in key carbon-emitting sectors, such as power, oil and gas, agriculture and transport. In the absence of policies to accompany economic growth with a reduced carbon foot-print, emissions of greenhouse gases could more than double in the next two decades. This study finds that there are several options for Nigeria to achieve the development objectives of vision 20:2020 and beyond, but stabilizing emissions at 2010 levels, and with domestic benefits in the order of 2 percent of GDP. These benefits include cheaper and more diversified electricity sources; more efficient operation of the oil and gas industry; more productive and climate –resilient agriculture; and better transport services, resulting in fuel economies, better air quality, and reduced congestion. The study outlines several actions that the Federal Government could undertake to facilitate the transition towards a low carbon economy, including enhanced governance for climate action, integration of climate consideration in the Agriculture Transformation Agenda, promotion of energy efficiency programs, scale-up of low carbon technologies in power generation (such as renewables an combined cycle gas turbines), and enhance vehicle fuel efficiency.

Global Energy Interconnection

FIGURE 4.45 Distribution of Solar Energy Resources in Africa Source: http://solargis.info/doc/free-solar-radiation-maps-GHI. The distribution of solar energy resources in Namibia and South Africa in the southern region of Africa is ...

Global Energy Interconnection

Global energy network is an important platform to guarantee effective exploitation of global clean energy and ensure reliable energy supply for everybody. Global Energy Interconnection analyzes the current situation and challenges of global energy development, provides the strategic thinking, overall objective, basic pattern, construction method and development mode for the development of global energy network. Based on the prediction of global energy and electricity supply and demand in the future, with the development of UHV AC/DC and smart grid technologies, this book offers new solutions to drive the safe, clean, highly efficient and sustainable development of global energy. The concept and development ideas concerning global energy interconnection in this book are based on the author’s thinking of strategic issues about China’s and the world’s energy and electricity development for many years, especially combined with successful practices of China’s UHV development. This book is particularly suitable for researchers and graduated students engaged in energy sector, as well as energy economics researchers, economists, consultants, and government energy policy makers in relevant fields. Based on the author's many years' experience in developing Smart Grid solutions within national and international projects. Combines both solid background information and cutting-edge technology progress, coupled with a useful and impressive list of references. The key energy problems which are challenging us nowadays are well stated and explained in this book, which facilitates a better understanding of the development of global energy interconnection with UHV AC/DC and smart grid technologies.

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS AND DESALINATION Volume I

Solar Energy Solar desalination is used by nature to produce rain, which is the main source of fresh water supply. ... Figure 8 shows the solar energy atlas for Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa giving the value of the ...

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS AND DESALINATION   Volume I

Renewable Energy Systems and Desalination is a component of Encyclopedia of Water Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The two volumes present state-of-the art subject matter of various aspects of Renewable Energy Systems and Desalination such as: A Short Historical Review Of Renewable Energy; Renewable Energy Resources; Desalination With Renewable Energy - A Review; Renewable Energy And Desalination Systems; Why Use Renewable Energy For Desalination; Thermal Energy Storage; Electrical Energy Storage; Tidal Energy; Desalination Using Tidal Energy; Wave Energy; Availability Of Wind Energy And Its Estimation; The Use Of Geothermal Energy In Desalination; Solar Radiation Energy (Fundamentals); High Temperature Solar Concentrators; Medium Temperature Solar Concentrators (Parabolic-Troughs Collectors); Low Temperature Solar Collectors; Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion; Photovoltaics; Flat-Plate Collectors; Large Active Solar Systems: Load; Integration Of Solar Pond With Water Desalination; Large Active Solar Systems: Typical Economic Analysis; Evacuated Tube Collectors; Parabolic Trough Collectors; Central Receivers; Configuration, Theoretical Analysis And Performance Of Simple Solar Stills; Development In Simple Solar Stills; Multi-Effect Solar Stills; Materials For Construction Of Solar Stills; Reverse Osmosis By Solar Energy; Solar Distillation; Solar Photochemistry; Photochemical Conversion Of Solar Energy; Availability Of Solar Radiation And Its Estimation; Economics Of Small Solar-Assisted Multipleeffect Seawater Distillation Plants; A Solar-Assisted Sea Water Multiple Effect Distillation Plant 15 Years Of Operating Performance (1985-1999);Mathematical Simulation Of A Solar Desalination Plant; Mathematical Models Of Solar Energy Conversion Systems; Multiple Effect Distillation Of Seawater Using Solar Energy – The Case Of Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant; Solar Irradiation Fundamentals; Water Desalination By Humidification And Dehumidification Of Air, Seawater Greenhouse Process. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy and Decision Makers

Atlas of the Earth s Radiation Budget as Measured by Nimbus 7

This is basically caused by the fact that much less top - of - the - atmosphere solar irradiance is received in the ... The map shows a local minimum of -50 W / m ? off Southwest Africa and one of -56.7 W / m ? off the coast of South ...

Atlas of the Earth s Radiation Budget as Measured by Nimbus 7


Evolutionary Theory and Processes Modern Perspectives

... estimated for the latitude and longitude of each sample locality from a meteorological atlas of Africa ( Thompson 1965 ) . The variables were latitude , longitude , altitude , mean January solar radiation , mean July solar radiation ...

Evolutionary Theory and Processes  Modern Perspectives

This volume presents some of the most recent dramatic results of molecular, genomic, and organismal evolutionary processes. It represents analyses, experiments, observations, reviews, discussions and forecasts of evolutionary theory comprising both novel methods and results, reanalyzed and reviewed data sets based on comparative, experimental, and theoretical studies utilizing model organisms across phylogeny, including bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. It elucidates the revolution in molecular biology that ushered in our understanding of the evolutionary process over time and space. The topics discussed include major problems of evolutionary theory concerning origins, phylogeny, relative importance of evolutionary forces, structure and function, adaptation and speciation in space and time in changing and stressful environments. A major emerging generalization is the nonrandomness of genome structure highlighting the importance of natural selection as a major organizing evolutionaryforce not only at the phenotypic level, but most importantly at the interlinked genotypic molecular level. The integration between the molecular

Sustainable Hydropower in West Africa

TABLE 1 Solar Irradiance of West African Countries (NREL, 2005) Country Solar Resources (kWh/m2/day) Benin 4.89–5.68 Cape Verde 5.71–6.12 Gambia ... FIG. 6 Solar resource map of Africa (Solar Map of 84 Sustainable Hydropower in West Africa.

Sustainable Hydropower in West Africa

Sustainable Hydropower in West Africa: Planning, Operation, and Challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the planning, deployment and management of hydropower in West Africa and similar regions. The authors use a practical approach to analyze available technology, modeling methodologies and sustainability aspects, such as the dependence between climate and hydropower, and socio-economic and environmental impacts. They discuss the need for innovative solutions and how to close research gaps in the field for this region. Although more than 50% of West Africa’s hydropower potential is still untapped, re-engineering and maintenance of existing hydropower plants is a key issue and is discussed. Issues of productivity and optimization are also covered, as well as the introduction of new technology and integration of hydropower into existing energy systems—renewable energy systems, in particular. Policy and regulation are also examined, considering competing needs when managing water resources. The final chapter offers a summary of activities, strategies, policies and technology for easy reference and practical use. Due to its wide coverage and real life examples, this is a useful reference for engineering professionals in the field of hydropower, working in West Africa and regions with similar conditions. This book helps engineers make technology and location decisions for planning, deploying and operating hydropower plants. The book’s accessible language and international authorship also allows for easy use by energy researchers, analysts and policy makers who need information for the analysis, modeling, financing, implementation and regulation of hydropower in West Africa and related regions. Presents the most current issues related to hydropower deployment and management in West Africa and regions with similar conditions Discusses key challenges, focusing on practical aspects and methodologies Explores the technological, sustainability and economic aspects to be considered when deploying, operating and maintaining hydropower plants in West Africa and similar regions

Modeling Solar Radiation at the Earth s Surface

The information available is mainly solar radiation maps, but also some webs acts as data servers. On the next a general review of best ... covers Europe and a small region of the North Africa. The information provided concerns solar ...

Modeling Solar Radiation at the Earth s Surface

Solar radiation data is important for a wide range of applications, e.g. in engineering, agriculture, health sector, and in many fields of the natural sciences. A few examples showing the diversity of applications may include: architecture and building design, e.g. air conditioning and cooling systems; solar heating system design and use; solar power generation; evaporation and irrigation; calculation of water requirements for crops; monitoring plant growth and disease control; skin cancer research.

Solar Energy Update

... 86 : 2031 Poynton , R.J. , Tree species for fuelwood production in South Africa , 86 : 1384 ( J ; ZA ) Pozharnov ... for the British Isles and offshore waters , 86 : 1987 ( BA ; US ) Palz , W. , European Solar Radiation Atlas .

Solar Energy Update