South Sudan Crisis and New Democratic Tolerance

Our bloody, terrifying struggle with the Sudanese regime in Khartoum had come mercifully to an end. Now, however, came the difficult work of building our nation.

South Sudan Crisis  and New Democratic Tolerance

South Sudan Crisis, and New Democratic tolerance. Attempting a Consolidation, a Political History. Just five years ago, as dawn unfolded on January 9, 2011, millions of South Sudanese took the final steps on our seventy-year journey to independence. By barge and bus, on animal and foot, we came from the four corners of our homeland and beyond to stand in long lines under a hard sun so that our voices would be heard. And when the polling centers closed, the world did hear us. It heard our shouts of joy; it heard our thankful songs and quiet prayers. Above all, it heard the promise of an end to the crack of rifle and of the cry of mourning. Our bloody, terrifying struggle with the Sudanese regime in Khartoum had come mercifully to an end. Now, however, came the difficult work of building our nation. We knew instinctively that a nation was more than a border and a government, because for 70 years we had been shackled to something that was nothing more than a border and a government. In our own country, we said, our government would act for us and not against. Never again could an official or favored group simply take from us on a whim. And never again would any of us be treated as lesser than any other.

Tolerance Through Law

Self Governance and Group Rights In South Tyrol Jens Woelk, Francesco Palermo, Joseph Marko ... layer of authority with the specific purpose of conflict reso- lution (such as Mindanao, South Sudan and, with some qualifications, Crimea), ...

Tolerance Through Law

The autonomous province of South Tyrol in Northern Italy is generally considered to be one of the most successful examples for the solution of ethnic conflicts. This book gives an analysis of the evolution of the legal instruments and institutions of self-government and minority protection through power-sharing as well as of the experience gathered during decades of the implementation of a "working economy." It thus provides insights regarding the state and the evolution of this specific case as well as for the general tendencies in the development of territorial autonomy and minority protection.

Between Terror and Tolerance

One such NGO is an intercultural youth group SONAD, Sudanese Organization for Non-Violence and Democracy, ... and the vision is shared that there will eventually be a genuine postconflict Sudan and is now independent South Sudan.

Between Terror and Tolerance

Civil war and conflict within countries is the most prevalent threat to peace and security in the opening decades of the twenty-first century. A pivotal factor in the escalation of tensions to open conflict is the role of elites in exacerbating tensions along identity lines by giving the ideological justification, moral reasoning, and call to violence. Between Terror and Tolerance examines the varied roles of religious leaders in societies deeply divided by ethnic, racial, or religious conflict. The chapters in this book explore cases when religious leaders have justified or catalyzed violence along identity lines, and other instances when religious elites have played a critical role in easing tensions or even laying the foundation for peace and reconciliation. This volume features thematic chapters on the linkages between religion, nationalism, and intolerance, transnational intra-faith conflict in the Shi’a-Sunni divide, and country case studies of societal divisions or conflicts in Egypt, Israel and Palestine, Kashmir, Lebanon, Nigeria, Northern Ireland, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Tajikistan. The concluding chapter explores the findings and their implications for policies and programs of international non-governmental organizations that seek to encourage and enhance the capacity of religious leaders to play a constructive role in conflict resolution.

Microcredit Meltdown

The Rise and Fall of South Sudan's Post-conflict Microcredit Sector Crystal Murphy. JUBA'S NEW PEACE On January 9, 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)20 between the Government of National Unity in Khartoum and the Sudan ...

Microcredit Meltdown

Established to help people jump start their lives and economy after over a half century of conflict, the South Sudanese microcredit sector collapsed in 2012 to the detriment of some 80,000 participants. This book is an account of the ambitious launch and premature downfall of the Southern Sudanese microcredit industry.

Sudan South Fishing and Aquaculture Industry Handbook Strategic Information Regulations Opportunities

The longer term vision for the new Republic of South Sudan is guided by Vision 2040,41 which sets out a comprehensive ... productive and innovative; compassionate and tolerant; free, just and peaceful; democratic and accountable; safe, ...

Sudan South Fishing and Aquaculture Industry Handbook  Strategic Information  Regulations  Opportunities

South Sudan Fishing and Aquaculture Industry Handbook - Strategic Information, Regulations, Opportunities

Impact of Political Stability on Economic Development

Therefore, it is essential to recognize the government of South Sudan's ability to function and successfully implement ... productive and innovative; compassionate and tolerant; free, just and peaceful; democratic and accountable; safe, ...

Impact of Political Stability on Economic Development

The main theme of this study is chosen in response to the general consensus on the importance of conducting a comprehensive study that may shape the economic policies and promote the business sector as well as the government and other organizations. However, the key question posed by this study is whether the theory that political stability fosters economic development is simply the wishful thinking of people who value both stability and growth or whether it is a delusion of those who believe that most developing countries may enjoy rapid growth if they are stable. The importance of this study is clear: South Sudan is confronted with enormous challenges of administrative, ethnic, political, and economic development. In light of this, the current study addresses the following issues: "What is the impact of the political system in South Sudan on economic development? What is the impact of oil resources on sustainable development? What is the impact of the oil shutdown on political and economic stability, and what is the possibility of deficit financing? Is there any possibility for cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan?" In this context, the major objective of this study is to analyze the political development of the country to verify that political stability fosters the achievement of economic and social development. It also seeks to analyse the political history of Sudan in general and South Sudan in particular, emphasising the importance of political stability, among other considerations, as a precondition for socioeconomic development. Furthermore, other objectives of the study include suggestions on how political stability could be ensured in South Sudan and how good governance may promote political and economic stability. In light of the above, this study focuses on the issues of the political transition and policies that will improve the economic, political, and social well-being of the people of South Sudan. It seeks ways of setting up policies that will raise the standard of living of people with sustained growth and move from a simple, low-income economy to a modern, high-income economy. It also attempts to develop a framework for cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. The methodology that is adopted to address these issues is collecting, sorting, and analysing primary and secondary information relating to the history of political and economic development in South Sudan, using empirical approaches such as SWOT analysis, information sources, references, and books. However, this study is organized as follows: chapter 1 discusses political stability and economic development in a theoretical framework through which we explore the empirical analysis; it is divided into four sections. Section 1 focuses on definition, causes, and measurement of political stability with an aim to assess the effect of political stability on growth-related variables. In section 2, we define the concept of political instability and measure it by using indicators like the number of coups d'état, the number of major government crises, the number of cabinet changes, and the number of political revolutions as well as political assassinations. Section 3 discusses the concept and definition of economic development and summarizes the major theories of economic development in five fundamental elements. The last section explores the implications of financing economic development by discussing domestic resources (including deficit financing) and foreign financial resources and the role of each of them in achieving economic development. Chapter 2 presents the political and social background of South Sudan is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses South Sudan's ability to function and successfully implement its policies and strategic vision for the year 2040. Section 2 focuses on the demographic structure of South Sudan in terms of population, education, languages, and culture. Section 3 discusses the social indicators such as infrastructure, poverty, and corruption which affect improving social welfare as well as the political stability and economic development of the Republic of South Sudan. Chapter 3 focuses on the South Sudan economy and the challenges. Here we discuss the political and development challenges facing South Sudan as well as the investment opportunities. This chapter discusses the major challenges which face South Sudan, especially issues such as border demarcation, political reform, and oil shutdown as well as investment opportunities in oil and agriculture. In chapter 4, we discuss South Sudan's oil and economic development. It focuses on oil resources and their impact on sustainable development, the impact of oil shutdown on political and economic development and the possibility of deficit financing. In chapter 5, we discuss the future of stability and prosperity in South Sudan. It discusses how good governance and cooperation can be enormously beneficial to South Sudan in the process of building sustainable political and economic stability and what South Sudan can learn from other countries. The major findings of this study are as follows: - Political stability plays an important role in determining economic growth and economic development in many economies. - The degree of political stability is high if there is a high degree of democracy or autocracy. - Strong democracies or strong autocracies are best equipped to provide political stability that may lead to economic development. It is then the level of political stability within a given country, regardless of regime type, that results in economic growth. - Long-term sustainable economic growth depends on the ability to raise the rates of accumulation of physical and human capital by securing necessary sources (domestic, foreign, or deficit finance) to use efficiently for financing economic development. - Most economists view corruption as a major obstacle to development. It is seen as one of the causes of low income and is believed to play a critical role in generating poverty traps (e.g., Blackburn et al. 2006). Thus, corruption, according to this view, "sands" the wheels of development and it makes economic and political transitions difficult. - Not only is good governance critical to development, but it is also the most important factor in determining whether a country has the capacity to use resources effectively to promote economic growth and reduce poverty.

South Sudan s Civil War

... SPLM is the key to the resolution of the current crisis'.13 The parties also agreed to restore peace and stability, apologize for past atrocities, embrace policies that encourage tolerance and democracy, promote political pluralism, ...

South Sudan s Civil War

A mere two years after achieving independence, South Sudan in 2013 descended into violent civil war, refuting US government claims that the country's succession was a major foreign policy success and would end endemic conflict. Worse was to follow when the international community declared famine in 2017. In the first book-length study of the South Sudan civil war, John Young draws on his close but critical relationship with the rebel SPLM-IO leadership to reveal the true dynamics of the conflict, and exposes how the South Sudanese state was in crisis long before the outbreak of war. With insider knowledge of the histories and motivations of the rebellion's chief protagonists, Young argues considerable responsibility for the present state of South Sudan must be laid at the door of the US-led peace process. Linking the role of the international community with the country's opposition politics, South Sudan's Civil War is an essential guide to the causes and consequences of the violence that has engulfed one of Africa's most troubled nations.

Conflict in the Nuba Mountains

Though several factors may have contributed to this reversed pattern of move- ment, three key factors played a decisive role in this respect.89 First, the legacy of the shared armed struggle with the people of South Sudan promoted a ...

Conflict in the Nuba Mountains

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the embattled Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan, where the Government of Sudan committed "genocide by attrition" in the early 1990s and where violent conflict reignited again in 2011. A range of contributors – scholars, journalists, and activists – trace the genesis of the crisis from colonial era neglect to institutionalized insecurity, emphasizing the failure of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement to address the political and social concerns of the Nuba people. This volume is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the nuances of the contemporary crisis in the Nuba Mountains and explore its potential solutions.

National Democratic Reforms in Africa

In the newly independent country of South Sudan, political bickering and intolerance within the same liberation movement turned political party (SPLM—Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement) has led former “comrades at arms” to become ...

National Democratic Reforms in Africa

From putative 'success stories' such as Ghana and Rwanda to failed efforts in Zimbabwe and other countries, this volume brings together seven incisive case studies from diverse contexts including post-war Sierra Leone, Uganda, and the new nation of South Sudan to distil insights into the troubled progress of reform across the African continent.

The Crisis of Democratization in the Greater Horn of Africa

edly pronounced zero tolerance to corruption but abuses flourished without any concerted effort to punish the guilty. ... In 2014, South Sudan was ranked 171 out of 175 in the corruption perception index and, taking the first quarter of ...

The Crisis of Democratization in the Greater Horn of Africa

Analyses the structural and institutional obstacles to democratization in transitional societies - fractured societies, fragmented economies and institutions of governance, weak or deformed state structures - and how to overcome these.

Schooling for Peaceful Development in Post Conflict Societies

Teacher Education for a Democratic Society in England and South Africa. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(8), 986–997. Hilker, L. M. (2011). The Role of Education in Driving Conflict and Building Peace: The Case of Rwanda.

Schooling for Peaceful Development in Post Conflict Societies

This book explores how, and if, formal education affects peacebuilding in post-conflict societies. As schooling is often negatively implicated in violent conflict, the author highlights the widely expressed need to ‘build back better’ and ‘transform’ schooling by changing both its structures and processes, and its curriculum. Drawing upon research from a wide range of post-conflict developing societies including Cambodia, Colombia and Kenya, the author examines whether there is any empirical support for the idea that schooling can be transformed so it can contribute to more peaceful and democratic societies. In doing so, the author reveals how the ‘myth’ of building back better is perpetuated by academics and international organisations, and explains why formal education in post-conflict developing societies is so impervious to radical change. This important volume will appeal to students and scholars of education in post-conflict societies.

Political Tolerance in the Global South

Pressure from outside as well as inside Uganda mounted and finally in 2005, multiparty democracy became a reality ... Then politicization and mobilization along the conflict lines mentioned above is unfortunately the most likely.

Political Tolerance in the Global South

What makes people agree to the extension of political rights to those they clearly dislike? This book moves beyond the extensive research on this question in western contexts to focus on the global south, offering unique empirical studies of political tolerance in plural societies where poverty is prevalent and democratic institutions can often be fragile. Based on extensive data gathered in India, Pakistan and Uganda, this volume offers an account of the factors that shape the foundations of a society and its capacity to be democratic, but where the need for the protection of human rights is great and where the state is either weak or even constitutes a counter-force against the rights of individuals and groups. Combining large scale survey data with in-depth interviews in each national setting, the author exemplifies the great variation of factors which are related to political tolerance, shedding light on the fundamental patterns existing in the organisation of state-society relations and the ways in which they produce certain results owing to the manner in which the forces of modernisation operate. A broad and empirically informed study of what shapes the foundations of a democratic society in modernising nations, Political Tolerance in the Global South will appeal to scholars of sociology and political science with interests in democracy, human rights, diversity and tolerance.

South Sudan The Case for Independence Learning from Mistakes

Besetting a prudent rule of law and strictly following the principles of good governance also foments discipline and eliminates ethnic conflict. Introducing a policy of zero tolerance on tribalism, politics rooted on tribalism and ...

South Sudan  The Case for Independence   Learning from Mistakes

This work started some few years ago, motivated by internet discussions involving a group of South Sudanese in the Diaspora. A question was floated by the author: "Why must South Sudan become an independent state?" a number of forum discussants contributed with answers to this key question. The contributions were substantial and provided the mould of this book. I therefore want to salute the efforts of my compatriots Dr. Charles Bakhiet Saki, Mr. Rogato Ohide and others who added some bits of answers to that key question. Their individual intellectual contributions to the initial manuscript are invaluable. If this Book scored some mileage, these compatriots are part of the acclaim.

Political Science Abstracts

... R. LIBERALISM AND THE LIMITS OF PLURALISM DEMOCRACY, LIBERALISM, PLURALISM, TOLERANCE COLLINSON, S. INTERNATIONAL ... oVERVIEW CONFLICT, IRAN, KURDS, MIDEAST, TURKEY EICKELMAN, D. F. PAGE 265 03296 RUSSIA'S MUSLIM FRONTIERS, NEW ...

Political Science Abstracts

Political Science Abstracts is an annual supplement to the Political Science, Government, and Public Policy Series of The Universal Reference System, which was first published in 1967. All back issues are still available.

Just Peace After Conflict

... but do speak of democratic principles or democratic reform.61 Two of the agreements—South Sudan and ... and the Sudanese agreement includes the right to vote in its bill of rights.64 The New Law's requirement for elections, ...

Just Peace After Conflict

The interplay between peace and justice plays an important role in any contemporary conflict. Peace can be described in a variety ways, as being 'negative' or 'positive', 'liberal' or 'democratic'. But what is it that makes a peace just? This book draws together leading scholars to study this concept of a 'just peace', analysing different elements of the transition from conflict to peace. The volume covers six core themes: conceptual approaches towards just peace, macro-principles, the nexus to security and stability, protection of persons and public goods, rule of law, and economic reform and accountability. Contributions engage with understudied issues, such as the pros and cons of robust UN mandates, the link between environmental protection and indigenous peoples, the treatment of illegal settlements, the feasibility of vetting practices, and the protection of labour rights in post-conflict economies. Overall, the book puts forward a case that just peace requires not only negotiation, agreement, and compromise, but contextual understandings of law, multiple dimensions of justice, and strategies of prevention. This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations.

Reconciliation and Peace in South Sudan

... democracy, good governance, respect for fundamental rights, and freedoms of individual, mutual understanding, and tolerance of diversity within Sudan as a whole. The parties to the conflict should continue to resolve the root causes ...

Reconciliation and Peace in South Sudan

This work, carried out prior to the creation of The Republic of South Sudan, focuses on the Christian perspective of reconciliation and peace in South Sudan. In a country gripped in what was set to be, until recently, Africa’s longest running civil war the Sudanese state had been, on many occasions, inherently unjust, repressive, and extremely violent against sections of its own citizens resulting in long lasting conflict and war. This conflict stretches deep into the history and geography of the region. This study investigates people’s views and trends to find out whether the end of hostilities would mark the end of interpersonal, group, tribal, and interethnic conflict created by the war. It asks, are people ready to forgive those who have wronged them during the war without demanding justice? What would constitute true peace in Sudan? Do the church and the government in Sudan each have a role in bringing sustainable peace? Findings of the research show an overwhelming desire for reconciliation and peace but with very different ways of reaching it. It is however recognized that to constitute true peace in South Sudan there is need for equality and justice, observation of the law, democratic governance, complete transformation, equitable distribution of resources and services, and freedom of worship. For this to be achieved both the church and government must play critical roles. Memories of the war are still fresh in people’s minds. The government must recognize the trauma people have suffered, deal with the roots of the conflict and address the crimes committed so that wounds inflicted can be healed and people can then live harmoniously. The church must teach people the biblical understanding of peace and reconciliation through repentance and forgiveness so that peace can have true meaning.

Battle for Peace in Sudan

Its delegates defined the desired New Sudan as a ' united , secular , democratic , multi - racial , multi ... [ 3:43 Deng Alor ] They argued that the Sudan's identity crisis emerged right at independence because the South could not ' be ...

Battle for Peace in Sudan

This work represents the first detailed analysis of the negotiations between the Sudan government and the Sudanese Peoples Liberation Movement that were held in Abuja, attempting to put an end to the bloody Sudanese civil war that began in 1983. The study is based on the official minutes of the negotiations as well as other documents submitted by the parties. It examines the views of the parties on topics such as national identity, the relationship between religion and the state, security during the interim period, and self-determination. This work is an indispensable source that reveals the details of candid debates on crucial issues facing Sudan today.

SUDAN SOUTH Doing Business Investing and International Assistance in South Sudan Guide Volume 1 Strategic and Practical Information

Ensure that by 2014 South Sudan is a united and peaceful new nation, building strong foundations for good governance, ... These form four national policy goals, as follows: * Good governance: To build a democratic, transparent, ...

SUDAN SOUTH  Doing Business  Investing and International Assistance in South Sudan Guide Volume 1 Strategic and Practical Information

Doing Business, Investing and International Assistance in South Sudan Guide

Peacebuilding and NGOs

This is a dynamic currently seen in South Sudan and Afghanistan. ... is held to mitigate polarities of political conflict and develop a democratic culture of tolerance, moderation and compromise' (David Chandler 1999: 110).

Peacebuilding and NGOs

Analysing the relationship between civil society and the state, this book lays bare the assumptions informing peacebuilding practices and demonstrates through empirical research how such practices have led to new dynamics of conflict. The drive to establish a sustainable liberal peace largely escapes critical examination. When such attention is paid to peacebuilding practices, scholars tend to concentrate either on the military components of the mission or on the liberal economic reforms. This means that the roles of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the impact of attempting to nurture Northern forms of civil society is often overlooked. Focusing on the case of Cambodia, this book seeks to examine the assumptions underlying peacebuilding policies in order to highlight the reliance on a particular, linear reading of European / North American history. The author argues that such policies, in fostering a particular form of civil society, have affected patterns of conflict; dictating when and where politics can occur and who is empowered to participate in such practices. Drawing on interviews with NGO representatives and government representatives, this volume will assert that while the expansion of civil society may resolve some sources of conflict, its introduction has also created new dynamics of contestation. This book will be of much interest to students of peacebuilding, conflict resolution, development studies, S.E. Asian politics, and IR in general.