Spies for Hire

Analyzing data from spy satellites and intercepted phone calls. All of these are vital intelligence tasks that traditionally have been performed by government officials accountable to Congress and the American people.

Spies for Hire

In Spies for Hire, investigative reporter Tim Shorrock lifts the veil off a major story the government doesn't want us to know about -- the massive outsourcing of top secret intelligence activities to private-sector contractors. Running spy networks overseas. Tracking down terrorists in the Middle East. Interrogating enemy prisoners. Analyzing data from spy satellites and intercepted phone calls. All of these are vital intelligence tasks that traditionally have been performed by government officials accountable to Congress and the American people. But that is no longer the case. Starting during the Clinton administration, when intelligence budgets were cut drastically and privatization of government services became national policy, and expanding dramatically in the wake of 9/11, when the CIA and other agencies were frantically looking to hire analysts and linguists, the Intelligence Community has been relying more and more on corporations to perform sensitive tasks heretofore considered to be exclusively the work of federal employees. This outsourcing of intelligence activities is now a $50 billion-a-year business that consumes up to 70 percent of the U.S. intelligence budget. And it's a business that the government has tried hard to keep under wraps. Drawing on interviews with key players in the Intelligence-Industrial Complex, contractors' annual reports and public filings with the government, and on-the-spot reporting from intelligence industry conferences and investor briefings, Spies for Hire provides the first behind-the-scenes look at this new way of spying. Shorrock shows how corporations such as Booz Allen Hamilton, Lockheed Martin, SAIC, CACI International, and IBM have become full partners with the CIA, the National Security Agency, and the Pentagon in their most sensitive foreign and domestic operations. He explores how this partnership has led to wasteful spending and threatens to erode the privacy protections and congressional oversight so important to American democracy. Shorrock exposes the kinds of spy work the private sector is doing, such as interrogating prisoners in Iraq, managing covert operations, and collaborating with the National Security Agency to eavesdrop on Americans' overseas phone calls and e-mails. And he casts light on a "shadow Intelligence Community" made up of former top intelligence officials who are now employed by companies that do this spy work, such as former CIA directors George Tenet and James Woolsey. Shorrock also traces the rise of Michael McConnell from his days as head of the NSA to being a top executive at Booz Allen Hamilton to returning to government as the nation's chief spymaster. From CIA covert actions to NSA eavesdropping, from Abu Ghraib to Guantánamo, from the Pentagon's techno-driven war in Iraq to the coming global battles over information dominance and control of cyberspace, contractors are doing it all. Spies for Hire goes behind today's headlines to highlight how private corporations are aiding the growth of a new and frightening national surveillance state.

Spies for Hire

The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing Tim Shorrock. a major NGA contract. Under its new name, GeoEye operates a constellation of four earth-imaging satellites, including the IKONOS, which provides high-resolution images from its ...

Spies for Hire

Reveals the formidable organization of intelligence outsourcing that has developed between the U.S. government and private companies since 9/11, in a report that reveals how approximately seventy percent of the nation's funding for top-secret tasks is now being funneled to higher-cost third-party contractors. 35,000 first printing.

Outsourcing US Intelligence

Posner, Richard A., Uncertain Shield: The US Intelligence System in the Throes of Reform (Oxford: Rowman and ... Shorrock, Tim, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008).

Outsourcing US Intelligence

In the 21st century, more than any other time, US agencies have relied on contractors to conduct core intelligence functions. This book charts the swell of intelligence outsourcing in the context of American political culture and considers what this means for the relationship between the state, its national security apparatus and accountability within a liberal democracy. Through analysis of a series of case studies, recently declassified documents and exclusive interviews with national security experts in the public and private sectors, the book provides an in-depth and illuminating appraisal of the evolving accountability regime for intelligence contractors.

The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence

The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America. ... Chatter: Dispatches from the Secret World of Global Eavesdropping. ... Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing.

The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence

The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence is a state-of-the-art work on intelligence and national security. Edited by Loch Johnson, one of the world's leading authorities on the subject, the handbook examines the topic in full, beginning with an examination of the major theories of intelligence. It then shifts its focus to how intelligence agencies operate, how they collect information from around the world, the problems that come with transforming "raw" information into credible analysis, and the difficulties in disseminating intelligence to policymakers. It also considers the balance between secrecy and public accountability, and the ethical dilemmas that covert and counterintelligence operations routinely present to intelligence agencies. Throughout, contributors factor in broader historical and political contexts that are integral to understanding how intelligence agencies function in our information-dominated age. The book is organized into the following sections: theories and methods of intelligence studies; historical background; the collection and processing of intelligence; the analysis and production of intelligence; the challenges of intelligence dissemination; counterintelligence and counterterrorism; covert action; intelligence and accountability; and strategic intelligence in other nations.

Routledge Handbook of Private Security Studies

Cohen, R. S. (2010) 'Putting a Human and Historical Face on Intelligence Contracting', Orbis 54(2): 232–51. ... Shorrock,T. (2008) Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing, New York: Simon & Schuster.

Routledge Handbook of Private Security Studies

This new Handbook offers a comprehensive overview of current research on private security and military companies, comprising essays by leading scholars from around the world. The increasing privatization of security across the globe has been the subject of much debate and controversy, inciting fears of private warfare and even the collapse of the state. This volume provides the first comprehensive overview of the range of issues raised by contemporary security privatization, offering both a survey of the numerous roles performed by private actors and an analysis of their implications and effects. Ranging from the mundane to the spectacular, from secretive intelligence gathering and neighbourhood surveillance to piracy control and warfare, this Handbook shows how private actors are involved in both domestic and international security provision and governance. It places this involvement in historical perspective, and demonstrates how the impact of security privatization goes well beyond the security field to influence diverse social, economic and political relationships and institutions. Finally, this volume analyses the evolving regulation of the global private security sector. Seeking to overcome the disciplinary boundaries that have plagued the study of private security, the Handbook promotes an interdisciplinary approach and contains contributions from a range of disciplines, including international relations, politics, criminology, law, sociology, geography and anthropology. This book will be of much interest to students of private security companies, global governance, military studies, security studies and IR in general.

Intelligence in An Insecure World

Prime Minister, Government response to the Intelligence and Security Committee inquiry into intelligence, ... Tim Shorrock, Spies for hire: The secret world of intelligence outsourcing (New York, Simon & Schuster, 2008), pp. 6, 81–114.

Intelligence in An Insecure World

Security intelligence continues to be of central importance to the contemporary world: individuals, organizations and states all seek timely and actionable intelligence in order to increase their sense of security. But what exactly is intelligence? Who seeks to develop it and to what ends? How can we ensure that intelligence is not abused? In this third edition of their classic text, Peter Gill and Mark Phythian set out a comprehensive framework for the study of intelligence, discussing how states organize the collection and analysis of information in order to produce intelligence, how it is acted upon, why it may fail and how the process should be governed in order to uphold democratic rights. Fully revised and updated throughout, the book covers recent developments, including the impact of the Snowden leaks on the role of intelligence agencies in Internet and social media surveillance and in defensive and offensive cyber operations, and the legal and political arrangements for democratic control. The role of intelligence as part of ‘hybrid’ warfare in the case of Russia and Ukraine is also explored, and the problems facing intelligence in the realm of counterterrorism is considered in the context of the recent wave of attacks in Western Europe. Intelligence in an Insecure World is an authoritative and accessible guide to a rapidly expanding area of inquiry – one that everyone has an interest in understanding.

Studies in Intelligence

Tim Shorrock , Spies For Hire : The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing ( New York : Simon & Schuster , 2008 ) , 439 pp . , endnotes , index . Outsourcing is a real problem for author Tim Shorrock .

Studies in Intelligence


Essentials of Strategic Intelligence

... 1996); and, on the connection between the intelligence agencies and outside contractors (outsourcing), see Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New york: Simon & Schuster, 2008).

Essentials of Strategic Intelligence

A highly valuable resource for students of intelligence studies, strategy and security, and foreign policy, this volume provides readers with an accessible and comprehensive exploration of U.S. espionage activities that addresses both the practical and ethical implications that attend the art and science of spying. • Provides a comprehensive, up-to-date examination of all aspects of intelligence by experts in the field, from collection-and-analysis and counterintelligence to covert action and accountability • Probes into how the United States' intelligence agencies attempt to protect the nation from cyberattacks by foreign nations and terrorist groups—and documents the successes and failures • Documents the involvement of the National Security Agency (NSA) in bulk "metadata" collection of information on the telephone records and social media communications of American citizens • Examines the effects that have resulted from major leaks in the U.S. government, from Wikileaks to the NSA Snowden leaks

Cyber Mercenaries

Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009), 191. Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Key Facts About Contractors (Washington, DC: Office of the Director ...

Cyber Mercenaries

Cyber Mercenaries explores the secretive relationships between states and hackers. As cyberspace has emerged as the new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power. Such modern-day mercenaries and privateers can impose significant harm undermining global security, stability, and human rights. These state-hacker relationships therefore raise important questions about the control, authority, and use of offensive cyber capabilities. While different countries pursue different models for their proxy relationships, they face the common challenge of balancing the benefits of these relationships with their costs and the potential risks of escalation. This book examines case studies in the United States, Iran, Syria, Russia, and China for the purpose of establishing a framework to better understand and manage the impact and risks of cyber proxies on global politics.

National Security Intelligence

12 See Jennifer Kibbe, “Covert Action and the Pentagon,” in Loch K. Johnson, ed., Strategic Intelligence, Vol. ... and Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008).

National Security Intelligence

National security intelligence is a vast, complex, and important topic, made doubly hard for citizens to understand because of the thick veils of secrecy that surround it. In the second edition of his definitive introduction to the field, leading intelligence expert Loch K. Johnson guides readers skilfully through this shadowy side of government. Drawing on over forty years of experience studying intelligence agencies and their activities, he explains the three primary missions of intelligence: information collection and analysis, counterintelligence, and covert action, before moving on to explore the wider dilemmas posed by the existence of secret government organizations in open, democratic societies. Recent developments including the controversial leaks by the American intelligence official Edward J. Snowden, the U.S. Senate's Torture Report, and the ongoing debate over the use of drones are explored alongside difficult questions such as why intelligence agencies inevitably make mistakes in assessing world events; why some intelligence officers choose to engage in treason against their own country on behalf of foreign regimes; and how spy agencies can succumb to scandals -including highly intrusive surveillance against the very citizens they are meant to protect. Comprehensively revised and updated throughout, National Security Intelligence is tailor-made to meet the interests of students and general readers who care about how nations shield themselves against threats through the establishment of intelligence organizations, and how they strive for safeguards to prevent the misuse of this secret power.

New Technologies and Human Rights

58 See Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing 18–19 (2009). 59A small sampleof the literature can be found on Issue No. 863 of the International Review of the RedCross (2006), which is dedicated ...

New Technologies and Human Rights

Whilst advances in biotechnology and information technology have undoubtedly resulted in better quality of life for mankind, they can also bring about global problems. The legal response to the challenges caused by the rapid progress of technological change has been slow and the question of how international human rights should be protected and promoted with respect to science and technology remains unexplored. The contributors to this book explore the political discourse and power relations of technological growth and human rights issues between the Global South and the Global North and uncover the different perspectives of both regions. They investigate the conflict between technology and human rights and the perpetuation of inequality and subjection of the South to the North. With emerging economies such as Brazil playing a major role in trade, investment and financial law, the book examines how human rights are affected in Southern countries and identifies significant challenges to reform in the areas of international law and policy.

Spies and Lies

—Confucius, Analects “Truth is the beginning of every good thing, both in heaven and on earth; and he who would be blessed ... —Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing CONTENTS Introduction Prologue ...

Spies and Lies

It seems like an ordinary night inside the Alexandria Fitness Center-that is, until a gym patron suddenly discovers Cardiff Shapiro lying next to a treadmill in a pool of his own blood. Someone has just assassinated of the State Department's Undersecretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence. The nation is stunned. Worse yet, it appears a cold-blooded killer has just gotten away with murder. As Alexandria police department detectives immerse themselves in an investigation into Shapiro's murder, they find themselves taken off the case by the FBI. Meanwhile, David Pearl, owner and CEO of a new security company, prides himself on his integrity, even in the face of both a career and a love first won, then lost. When Pearl receives an offer to provide temporary security for a Greek diplomat whose life has been repeatedly threatened, Pearl enthusiastically accepts, not realizing that in a matter of days, another murder will propel him onto a dangerous journey through death, lies, and treachery. With national security at stake, Pearl must overcome adversity and the ultimate betrayal in order to determine whom he can trust, before an assassin strikes again. "Spies and Lies: The Paradox" is a gripping story about espionage, politics, deceit, and romance as one man risks everything to defend his country-and his reputation-from evil forces.

The Black Box Society

Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008). 190. Luke Harding, The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man (London: Vintage, 2014). 191.

The Black Box Society

Every day, corporations are connecting the dots about our personal behavior—silently scrutinizing clues left behind by our work habits and Internet use. But who connects the dots about what firms are doing with all this information? Frank Pasquale exposes how powerful interests abuse secrecy for profit and explains ways to rein them in.

Obama and the World

... Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing, New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Spiegel Staff (2013) 'Embassy espionage: the NSA's secret spy hub in Berlin', Der Spiegel, 27 October. Stein, J. (2010) 'Former State ...

Obama and the World

This significantly revised, updated and extended second edition of New Directions in US Foreign Policy retains the strongest aspects of its original structure but adds a comprehensive account of the latest theoretical perspectives, the key actors and issues, and new policy directions. Offering a detailed and systematic outline of the field, this text: Explains how international relations theories such as realism, liberalism and constructivism can help us to interpret US foreign policy under President Obama Examines the key influential actors shaping foreign policy, from political parties and think tanks to religious groups and public opinion Explores the most important new policy directions under the Obama administration from the Arab Spring and the rise of China to African policy and multilateralism Supplies succinct presentation of relevant case material, and provides recommendations for further reading and web sources for pursuing future research. Written by a distinguished line-up of contributors actively engaged in original research on the topics covered, and featuring twelve brand new chapters, this text provides a unique platform for rigorous debate over the contentious issues that surround US foreign policy. This wide-ranging text is essential reading for all students and scholars of US foreign policy.

Intelligence Governance and Democratisation

Shorrock, Tim, 2008, Spies for Hire: The secret world of intelligence outsourcing, New York: Simon & Schuster. Singer, Peter, 2003, Corporate Warriors: The rise of the privatized military industry, Ithaca, NJ: Cornell University Press.

Intelligence Governance and Democratisation

This book analyses changes in intelligence governance and offers a comparative analysis of intelligence democratisation. Within the field of Security Sector Reform (SSR), academics have paid significant attention to both the police and military. The democratisation of intelligence structures that are at the very heart of authoritarian regimes, however, have been relatively ignored. The central aim of this book is to develop a conceptual framework for the specific analytical challenges posed by intelligence as a field of governance. Using examples from Latin America and Europe, it examines the impact of democracy promotion and how the economy, civil society, rule of law, crime, corruption and mass media affect the success or otherwise of achieving democratic control and oversight of intelligence. The volume draws on two main intellectual and political themes: intelligence studies, which is now developing rapidly from its original base in North America and UK; and democratisation studies of the changes taking place in former authoritarian regimes since the mid-1980s including security sector reform. The author concludes that, despite the limited success of democratisation, the dangers inherent in unchecked networks of state, corporate and para-state intelligence organisations demand that academic and policy research continue to meet the challenge. This book will be of much interest to students of intelligence studies, democracy studies, war and conflict studies, comparative politics and IR in general.

No More Secrets

Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008). 37. J. F. Holden-Rhodes, Sharing the Secrets: Open Source Intelligence and the War on Drugs (Albuquerque: University of New ...

No More Secrets

This in-depth analysis shows how the high stakes contest surrounding open source information is forcing significant reform within the U.S. intelligence community, the homeland security sector, and among citizen activists. * Critique and commentary from intelligence officials and analysts regarding open source reforms within the intelligence community and homeland security sector * Three interrelated case studies through which post-9/11 U.S. intelligence reform is analyzed and critiqued * Examples of collateral, including official and unofficial photos, from the 2007 and 2008 Open Source Conferences sponsored by the Director of National Intelligence * A timeline of key open source developments, including the establishment of associated commissions and changes in organizational structures, policies, and cultures * Appendices containing excerpts of key open source legislation and policy documents * A bibliography of open source-related scholarship and commentary

Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies

Shorrock, T. (2008) Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing, New York: Simon & Schuster. Shouten (Focus) (2004) 'The 50 Years of Security Police', No. 269, September, 43. Shukman, H. (ed.) (2001) Agents for Change: ...

Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies

The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion will be essential reading for students of intelligence studies and strategic studies, and highly recommended for students of defence studies, foreign policy, Cold War studies, diplomacy and international relations in general.

Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Risk Management and Cyber Intelligence

This information work would usefully be placed in the national intelligence context by providing a precious link between the national security services and the company ... Spies for hire: the secret world of intelligence outsourcing.

Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Risk Management and Cyber Intelligence

The emergence of artificial intelligence has created a vast amount of advancements within various professional sectors and has transformed the way organizations conduct themselves. The implementation of intelligent systems has assisted with developing traditional processes including decision making, risk management, and security. An area that requires significant attention and research is how these companies are becoming accustomed to computer intelligence and applying this technology to their everyday practices. Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Risk Management and Cyber Intelligence is a pivotal reference source that provides vital research on the application of intelligent systems within various professional sectors as well as the exploration of theories and empirical findings. While highlighting topics such as decision making, cognitive science, and knowledge management, this publication explores the management of risk and uncertainty using training exercises, as well as the development of managerial intelligence competency. This book is ideally designed for practitioners, educators, researchers, policymakers, managers, developers, analysts, politicians, and students seeking current research on modern approaches to the analysis and performance of cyber intelligence.

International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability

Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008. Shulsky, Abram N. and Gary Schmitt. Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence.

International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability

This book examines how international intelligence cooperation has come to prominence post-9/11 and introduces the main accountability, legal and human rights challenges that it poses.

Covert Capital

Frank, Wrecking Crew, 23; Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008), 4; Jane Mayer, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror ...

Covert Capital

The capital of the U.S. Empire after World War II was not a city. It was an American suburb. In this innovative and timely history, Andrew Friedman chronicles how the CIA and other national security institutions created a U.S. imperial home front in the suburbs of Northern Virginia. In this covert capital, the suburban landscape provided a cover for the workings of U.S. imperial power, which shaped domestic suburban life. The Pentagon and the CIA built two of the largest office buildings in the country there during and after the war that anchored a new imperial culture and social world. As the U.S. expanded its power abroad by developing roads, embassies, and villages, its subjects also arrived in the covert capital as real estate agents, homeowners, builders, and landscapers who constructed spaces and living monuments that both nurtured and critiqued postwar U.S. foreign policy. Tracing the relationships among American agents and the migrants from Vietnam, El Salvador, Iran, and elsewhere who settled in the southwestern suburbs of D.C., Friedman tells the story of a place that recasts ideas about U.S. immigration, citizenship, nationalism, global interconnection, and ethical responsibility from the post-WW2 period to the present. Opening a new window onto the intertwined history of the American suburbs and U.S. foreign policy, Covert Capital will also give readers a broad interdisciplinary and often surprising understanding of how U.S. domestic and global histories intersect in many contexts and at many scales. American Crossroads, 37