Air Pollution and Turbulence

Modeling and Applications

Air Pollution and Turbulence

Since its discovery in early 1900, turbulence has been an interesting and complex area of study. Written by international experts, Air Pollution and Turbulence: Modeling and Applications presents advanced techniques for modeling turbulence, with a special focus on air pollution applications, including pollutant dispersion and inverse problems. The

Boreal Forest and Climate Change

Boreal Forest and Climate Change

The Forest Primary Production Research Group was born in the Department of S- viculture, University of Helsinki in the early 1970s. Intensive ?eld measurements of photosynthesis and growth of forest vegetation and use of dynamic models in the interpretation of the results were characteristic of the research in the group. Electric instrumentation was based on analogue techniques and the analysis of the obtained measurements was based on self-written programs. Joint research projects with the Research Group of Environmental Physics at the Department of Physics, lead by Taisto Raunemaa (1939–2006) started in the late 1970s. The two research groups shared the same quantitative methodology, which made the co-operation fruitful. Since 1980 until the collapse of the Soviet Union the Academy of Finland and the Soviet Academy of Sciences had a co-operation program which included our team. The research groups in Tartu, Estonia, lead by Juhan Ross (1925–2002) and in Petrozawodsk, lead by Leo Kaipiainen (1932–2004) were involved on the Soviet side. We had annual ?eld measuring campaigns in Finland and in Soviet Union and research seminars. The main emphasis was on developing forest growth models. The research of Chernobyl fallout started a new era in the co-operation between forest ecologists and physicists in Helsinki. The importance of material ?uxes was realized and introduced explicitly in the theoretical thinking and measurements.

Virga: Cities of the Air

Sun of Suns and Queen of Candesce

Virga: Cities of the Air

It is the distant future. The world known as Virga is a fullerene balloon three thousand kilometers in diameter, filled with air, water, and floating chunks of rock. The humans who live in this vast environment must build their own fusion suns and "towns" —enormous wood and rope wheels that are spun for centripetal gravity. This complex and fascinating world is the setting for the novels of Virga, Karl Schroeder's interstellar far-future space habitat sealed off from contamination by the rest of the inhabited universe. These books have set a high standard for hard SF adventure in the last decade, and now the first two novels, Sun of Suns and Queen of Candesce, are brought out for the first time in one trade paper omnibus. At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

Walking in Space

Walking in Space

Over the past 35 years more than 100 individual astronauts and cosmonauts have performed nearly 200 EVAs, (spacewalks), either singularly or in teams in Earth orbit, deep space or on the Moon. In 'Walking in Space: Development of Space Walking Techniques' the author, Dave Shayler, shows how hardware and crew members are prepared for, protected and supported during every EVA. He demonstrates how past experiences have led to improved training techniques and how this, in turn, has provided many successes and future developments.

Electronic Media

Then, Now, and Later

Electronic Media

Electronic Media connects the traditional world of broadcasting with the contemporary universe of digital electronic media. It provides a synopsis of the beginnings of electronic media in broadcasting, and the subsequent advancements into digital media. Underlying the structure of the book is a "See It Then, See It Now, See It Later approach that focuses on how past innovations lay the groundwork for changing trends in technology, providing the opportunity and demand for change in both broadcasting and digital media. FYI and Zoom-In boxes point to further information, tying together the immediate and long-ranging issues surrounding electronic media. Career Tracks feature the experiences of industry experts and share tips in how to approach this challenging industry. Check out the companion website at http://www.routledge.com/cw/medoff-9780240812564/ for materials for both students and instructors.

Alexander P. de Seversky and the Quest for Air Power

Alexander P. de Seversky and the Quest for Air Power

Today, air power is a vital component of the U.S. armed forces. James Libbey, in Alexander P. de Seversky and the Quest for Air Power, highlights the contributions of an aviation pioneer who made much of it possible. Graduating from the Imperial Russian Naval Academy at the start of World War I, de Seversky lost a leg in his first combat mission. He still shot down thirteen German planes and became the empire's most decorated combat naval pilot. While serving as a naval attache in the United States in 1918, de Seversky elected to escape the Bolshevik Revolution and offered his services as a pilot and consulting engineer to the U.S. War Department. He proved inventive both in the technology of advanced military aircraft and in the strategy of exercising air power. He worked for famed aviation advocate Gen. William "Billy" Mitchell, who encouraged the naturalized citizen to patent his inventions, such as an in-flight refueling system and a gyroscopically synchronized bombsight. His creative spirit then spurred him to design and manufacture advanced military aircraft. When World War II broke out in Europe, de Seversky became America's best-known philosopher, prophet, and advocate for air power, even serving as an adviser to the chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. The highlight of his life occurred in 1970 when the Aviation Hall of Fame enshrined de Seversky for "his achievements as a pilot, aeronautical engineer, inventor, industrialist, author, strategist, consultant, and scientific advances in aircraft design and aerospace technology." This book will appeal to readers with a special interest in military history and to anyone who wants to learn more about American air power's most important figures.

High Speed Rail in the United States

High Speed Rail in the United States

Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What is High Speed Rail (HSR)?; (3) HSR Options; (4) Components of a HSR System: Conventional HSR; Track; Signal and Commun. Networks; Magnetic Levitation; (5) HSR In: Japan; France; Germany; Spain; China; (6) Background of Intercity Passenger Rail in the U.S.; (7) Previous Efforts in the U.S.; (8) Recent Congress. Initiatives to Promote HSR; (9) Potential Benefits: Alleviating Highway and Airport Congestion; Alleviating Pollution and Reducing Energy Consumption by the Transport. Sector; Promoting Econ. Develop.; Improving Transport. Safety; Providing a Choice of Modes; Making the Transport. System More Reliable; (10) Infrastructure and Operating Costs; (11) Ridership Potential; (12) Funding Consider.

Health Risks of Ozone from Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

Health Risks of Ozone from Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

Ozone is a highly oxidative compound formed in the lower atmosphere (from gases originating to a large extent from anthropogenic sources) by photochemistry driven by solar radiation. Owing to its highly reactive chemical properties, ozone is harmful to vegetation, materials and human health. In the troposphere, ozone is also an efficient greenhouse gas. This report summarizes the results of a multidisciplinary analysis to assess the effects of ozone on health. The analysis indicates that ozone pollution affects the health of most of the populations of the WHO European Region, leading to a wide range of health problems. The effects include some 21,000 premature deaths each year in 25 countries in the European Union on and after days with high ozone levels. Current policies are not sufficient to reduce ozone levels in the Region or their impact in the next decade.

Sound

Sound

Professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution between 1853 and 1887, the British physicist John Tyndall (1820-93) sought to share scientific understanding with the Victorian public. In this collection of eight illustrated lectures, first published in 1867, he explains numerous acoustic phenomena for a non-specialist audience.

The Story of Space Station Mir

The Story of Space Station Mir

* Details how a succession of Salyut space stations led to the development of Mir. * Depicts Mir’s assembly piece by piece, in space, between 1982 and 1996. * Describes how Mir became an international research laboratory. * Advises how Mir technology went on to form the ‘core modules’ of the ISS. * The definitive account of Mir throughout its life through to de-orbiting in March 2001.