Suppose a Sentence

An elegant work of literary criticism from the author of ESSAYISM.

Suppose a Sentence

An elegant work of literary criticism from the author of ESSAYISM.

Semantic Theory

That is to say , in talking of truth conditions on sentences , I have assumed that a
sentence has two possible truth ... However , suppose the sentence The King of
France is bald is uttered at a time when there is no king of France : it is here that ...

Semantic Theory

An introduction to the central topics of linguistic semantics and the philosophy of language, assuming no special knowledge of philosophy or logic.

What is Value

The objectionable sort of relativism may be called epistemological and is
perhaps most easily grasped in the case of descriptive sentences not involving
value-terms. Suppose one says that truth is relative in the sense that any
descriptive ...

What is Value

First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Commonplace Book

He talks as if it were sentences, not props., which were "tautologies"; & as if it
were sentences, not props., of which the "truth- ... Suppose the sentence "The
moon is round" were an "elementary" sentence (it can't be, if he's right in saying
that no ...

Commonplace Book

First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Handbook of Law and Economics

The optimal prison sentence could lead to either underdeterrence or
overdeterrence due to the costs of prison sentences. To see why, suppose the
sentence were such that individuals committed the harmful act if and only if their
gain equaled ...

Handbook of Law and Economics

Law can be viewed as a body of rules and legal sanctions that channel behavior in socially desirable directions — for example, by encouraging individuals to take proper precautions to prevent accidents or by discouraging competitors from colluding to raise prices. The incentives created by the legal system are thus a natural subject of study by economists. Moreover, given the importance of law to the welfare of societies, the economic analysis of law merits prominent treatment as a subdiscipline of economics. Our hope is that this two volume Handbook will foster the study of the legal system by economists. *The two volumes form a comprehensive and accessible survey of the current state of the field. *Chapters prepared by leading specialists of the area. *Summarizes received results as well as new developments.

First Course in Mathematical Logic

The molecular sentence can be joined to something else by a connective just as
an atomic sentence can. Notice that in the English sentence which we
symbolized above, the same job is done by the comma. But suppose the
sentence had ...

First Course in Mathematical Logic

Rigorous introduction is simple enough in presentation and context for wide range of students. Symbolizing sentences; logical inference; truth and validity; truth tables; terms, predicates, universal quantifiers; universal specification and laws of identity; more.

Main Currents in Contemporary German British and American Philosophy

Singular sentences – in particular those in which the natural scientists formulate
their observational data – behave the same with respect to the question of
verifiability as the universal sentences. Suppose the sentence to be tested is “
There is ...

Main Currents in Contemporary German  British  and American Philosophy


Knowledge and the Known

In a sense they can be fully understood only if we know what moment this 'now' is
, i.e., when the sentence in question was uttered or is thought of as ... Suppose
this sentence is uttered on two different occasions, say yesterday and today.

Knowledge and the Known

A word of warning concerning the aims of this volume is in order. Other wise some readers might be unpleasantly surprised by the fact that two of the chapters of an ostensibly historical book are largely topical rather than historical. They are Chapters 7 and 9, respectively entitled 'Are Logical Truths Analytic?' and 'A Priori Truths and Things-In-Them selves'. Moreover, the history dealt with in Chapter 11 is so recent as to have more critical than antiquarian interest. This mixture of materials may seem all the more surprising as I shall myself criticize (in Chapter I) too facile assimilations of earlier thinkers' concepts and problems to later ones. There is no inconsistency here, it seems to me. The aims of the present volume are historical, and for that very purpose, for the purpose of understanding and evaluating earlier thinkers it is vital to know the conceptual landscape in which they were moving. A crude analogy may be helpful here. No military historian can afford to neglect the topo graphy of the battles he is studying. If he does not know in some detail what kind of pass Thermopylae is or on what sort of ridge the battle of Bussaco was fought, he has no business of discussing these battles, even if this topographical information alone does not yet amount to historical knowledge.

The Intelligent Web

Suppose the following sentence occurs somewhere in a book or letter: 'One day,
from among his city views of Ülm, Otto ... It would need to figure out that the
proper noun Ülm was a city, while Einstein referred to a person; that the sentence
 ...

The Intelligent Web

As we use the Web for social networking, shopping, and news, we leave a personal trail. These days, linger over a Web page selling lamps, and they will turn up at the advertising margins as you move around the Internet, reminding you, tempting you to make that purchase. Search engines such as Google can now look deep into the data on the Web to pull out instances of the words you are looking for. And there are pages that collect and assess information to give you a snapshot of changing political opinion. These are just basic examples of the growth of "Web intelligence", as increasingly sophisticated algorithms operate on the vast and growing amount of data on the Web, sifting, selecting, comparing, aggregating, correcting; following simple but powerful rules to decide what matters. While original optimism for Artificial Intelligence declined, this new kind of machine intelligence is emerging as the Web grows ever larger and more interconnected. Gautam Shroff takes us on a journey through the computer science of search, natural language, text mining, machine learning, swarm computing, and semantic reasoning, from Watson to self-driving cars. This machine intelligence may even mimic at a basic level what happens in the brain.

More Grammar Games

Mending sentences GRAMMAR : Varied LEVEL : Post beginner to advanced
TIME : 20 - 30 minutes MATERIALS ... Suppose the sentence is : New shoes hurt
my feet then rewrite the sentence four times this way : Shoes new hurt my feet ...

More Grammar Games

Cognitive, affective and drama activities for EFL students This resource book for teachers contains an exciting collection of activities which present and practise vital grammatical content in an original way. Each game is clearly introduced with a summary specifying the area of grammar to be practised, the level it is aimed at, the time required and the material needed. The activity is then presented using a step-by-step approach.

Linguistic Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus

There is no sharp distinction between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences
. ... respect to the various CHILDES corpora, but it is reasonable to suppose that
sentence lengths do decrease even more rapidly in informal spoken language.

Linguistic Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus

This unique contribution to the ongoing discussion of language acquisition considers the Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus in language learning in the context of the wider debate over cognitive, computational, and linguistic issues. Critically examines the Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus - the theory that the linguistic input which children receive is insufficient to explain the rich and rapid development of their knowledge of their first language(s) through general learning mechanisms Focuses on formal learnability properties of the class of natural languages, considered from the perspective of several learning theoretic models The only current book length study of arguments for the poverty of the stimulus which focuses on the computational learning theoretic aspects of the problem

A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors from the Earliest Period to the Year 1783 with Notes and Other Illustrations

soit to bave been instituted to impeach that cuser , to advance any doctrine which
they did marriage ; ia that suit , a sentence pronounced not believe to be founded
in law , or to suppress against the marriage ; suppose that suit and an ...

A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors from the Earliest Period to the Year 1783  with Notes and Other Illustrations


Cobbett s Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors from the Earliest Period 1163 to the Present Time 1820

Thomas Bayly Howell. * suit to have been institoted to impeach that cuser , to
advance any doctrine which they did marriage ; in that suit , a sentence
pronounced not believe to be founded in law , or to suppress against the
marriage ; suppose ...

Cobbett s Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors from the Earliest Period  1163  to the Present Time 1820


A Grammar of Ma di

(313) 1516 6pi 115-6315 16 suppose Opi 3-VE-(N)-bring-OBJ FOC 'Opi is
supposed to bring it.' (future and past) ... If the sentence has a nonverbal
predicate there is a meaning of 'supposed to be'. ésli reinforces this meaning. (
317) 1516 5p ...

A Grammar of Ma di

This grammar provides one of the most detailed accounts available of the syntax of a Nilo-Saharan language. It fully describes some of the unusual characteristics of Ma'di, including the different word orders associated with different tenses, the particle-based modal and focus systems, the full range of adverbials, and the structure and meaning of the noun phrase. The grammar also describes the phonetics, phonology, morphology, and aspects of the lexicon of the language.

Philosophical Troubles

Suppose we are explaining the word 'true' to someone who does not yet
understand it. We may say that we are entitled to assert (or deny) of any sentence
that it is true precisely under the circumstances when we can assert (or deny) the
 ...

Philosophical Troubles

"Includes a selection of published and unpublished papers"--Introd.

Frege

Let us suppose for simplicity that 4A' is not merely a fully analysed sentence, but
what Wittgenstein calls an 'elementary' sentence, i.e. one which, when fully
analysed, contains no logical operators. (Of course, we are here presupposing ...

Frege

No one has figured more prominently in the study of German philosopher Gottlob Frege than Michael Dummett. This highly acclaimed book is a major contribution to the philosophy of language as well as a systematic interpretation of Frege, indisputably the father of analytic philosophy. Frege: Philosophy of Language remains indispensable for an understanding of contemporary philosophy. Harvard University Press is pleased to reissue this classic book in paperback.

Cases Argued and Determined in the High Court of Chancery

But the question is , whether this is a proper nations . sentence , in a proper
cause , and between proper parties ? ... have made it good , supposing the
sentence not good , and that she was not , at the time of marriage , of the age of
consent .

Cases Argued and Determined in the High Court of Chancery


The Bloomsbury Companion to Metaphysics

Some have supposed that the sentence “God exists” is meaningless because it is
neither empirically verifiable nor true in virtue of meaning.5 Some have supposed
that the sentence “God exists” is meaningless because it has no proper use in ...

The Bloomsbury Companion to Metaphysics

Bridging the gap between the familiar figures of the history of philosophy and the technical approaches favoured by contemporary philosophers, The Bloomsbury Companion to Metaphysics introduces the key ideas and debates needed to understand analytic metaphysics. Presenting an effective syllabus for an introductory course in contemporary metaphysics, this companion brings together a team of leading metaphysicians. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to methodological problems and methods, before tackling the perennial metaphysical questions surrounding core topics such as: • Modality • Universals and Abstract Objects • Naturalism and Physicalism • Mind • Free Will • God

Discovery Science

Suppose that W is a set of Henkin structures, ('J is the set of all basic sentences,
and T is standard.~Let 01 74 0 begiven. Every sentence in E0, (respect. Ha)
prenex form belongs to E3,' (respect. Hg). Proof. Proof is by double induction on ...

Discovery Science

These are the conference proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Discovery Science (DS 2001). Although discovery is naturally ubiquitous in s- ence, and scientific discovery itself has been subject to scientific investigation for centuries, the term Discovery Science is comparably new. It came up in conn- tion with the Japanese Discovery Science project (cf. Arikawa's invited lecture on The Discovery Science Project in Japan in the present volume) some time during the last few years. Setsuo Arikawa is the father in spirit of the Discovery Science conference series. He led the above mentioned project, and he is currently serving as the chairman of the international steering committee for the Discovery Science c- ference series. The other members of this board are currently (in alphabetical order) Klaus P. Jantke, Masahiko Sato, Ayumi Shinohara, Carl H. Smith, and Thomas Zeugmann. Colleagues and friends from all over the world took the opportunity of me- ing for this conference to celebrate Arikawa's 60th birthday and to pay tribute to his manifold contributions to science, in general, and to Learning Theory and Discovery Science, in particular. Algorithmic Learning Theory (ALT, for short) is another conference series initiated by Setsuo Arikawa in Japan in 1990. In 1994, it amalgamated with the conference series on Analogical and Inductive Inference (AII), when ALT was held outside of Japan for the first time.