Tacit and Explicit Knowledge

The intermixing of the three kinds of tacit knowledge has led to confusion in the past; Collins’s book will at last unravel the complexities of the idea.

Tacit and Explicit Knowledge

Much of what humans know we cannot say. And much of what we do we cannot describe. For example, how do we know how to ride a bike when we can’t explain how we do it? Abilities like this were called “tacit knowledge” by physical chemist and philosopher Michael Polanyi, but here Harry Collins analyzes the term, and the behavior, in much greater detail, often departing from Polanyi’s treatment. In Tacit and Explicit Knowledge, Collins develops a common conceptual language to bridge the concept’s disparate domains by explaining explicit knowledge and classifying tacit knowledge. Collins then teases apart the three very different meanings, which, until now, all fell under the umbrella of Polanyi’s term: relational tacit knowledge (things we could describe in principle if someone put effort into describing them), somatic tacit knowledge (things our bodies can do but we cannot describe how, like balancing on a bike), and collective tacit knowledge (knowledge we draw that is the property of society, such as the rules for language). Thus, bicycle riding consists of some somatic tacit knowledge and some collective tacit knowledge, such as the knowledge that allows us to navigate in traffic. The intermixing of the three kinds of tacit knowledge has led to confusion in the past; Collins’s book will at last unravel the complexities of the idea. Tacit knowledge drives everything from language, science, education, and management to sport, bicycle riding, art, and our interaction with technology. In Collins’s able hands, it also functions at last as a framework for understanding human behavior in a range of disciplines.

A Teleological Model for the Transformation of Tacit to Explicit Knowledge

The illuminating experience was the observation of the contextual interplay between tacit knowledge; explicit knowledge; and the application of discrimination and judgment which is stereotypical of the work of knowledge workers.pondents ...

A Teleological Model for the Transformation of Tacit to Explicit Knowledge

The sharing of knowledge was conducted verbally, on an ad hoc basis through brainstorming sessions either face to face, by telephone, or round robin e℗Ơmails. This process allowed tacit knowledge to be transferred, but did not allow for its capture or later retrieval. The central aim of this study was to find a means of capturing individual respondent's tacit knowledge. The capture of this particular tacit knowledge relied upon the development of a commonly agreed vocabulary. This vocabulary incorporated the language used by the Agency to describe the risk factors associated with the client groups. The respondents were engaged in a business activity in which they sought to find the people who influenced the information needs of their clients; the respondents built relationships and then partnerships with these intermediaries. It was this subject, relationship management, which formed the content of the tacit knowledge that was the topic of this study. The device designed for this study was the construction of a `living database' and the development of an iterative and interactive process employed during its construction and implementation. The capture of tacit knowledge was one aspect of the study; the use of a database as an enabling technology; another, and a third, was the retrieval of the knowledge captured against the various corporate lenses. A further dimension explored was the `willingness' of the respondents to share their tacit knowledge: to declare its existence and enable its capture in an online active-reflective triggering database. The illuminating experience was the observation of the contextual interplay between tacit knowledge; explicit knowledge; and the application of discrimination and judgment which is stereotypical of the work of knowledge workers.pondents foun.

Revealing Tacit Knowledge

As the established distinction between tacit and explicit or discursive forms of knowledge does not explain this question, the contributions in this volume reconstruct, describe, and analyze the manifold processes by which the tacit reveals ...

Revealing Tacit Knowledge

How does tacit knowledge inscribe itself into cultural and social practices? As the established distinction between tacit and explicit or discursive forms of knowledge does not explain this question, the contributions in this volume reconstruct, describe, and analyze the manifold processes by which the tacit reveals itself: They focus, for example, on metaphors, feelings, and visualizations as explications of the tacit as well as on processes of embodiment. Taken together, they demonstrate that the tacit does not constitute a single or unified knowledge complex, but has to be understood in its differentiated and fragmented forms. In addition to scholarly essays, the volume features interviews with Mark Johnson, Theodore Schatzki, and Loïc Wacquant.

Tacit Knowledge Versus Explicit Knowledge

This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management.

 Tacit Knowledge  Versus  Explicit Knowledge

This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit and knowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for the knowledge management practices in a given organization.

Explicit Knowledge 58 Success Secrets 58 Most Asked Questions on Explicit Knowledge What You Need to Know

Get the information you need--fast! This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about Explicit Knowledge.

Explicit Knowledge 58 Success Secrets   58 Most Asked Questions on Explicit Knowledge   What You Need to Know

The latest and the greatest Explicit Knowledge. There has never been a Explicit Knowledge Guide like this. It contains 58 answers, much more than you can imagine; comprehensive answers and extensive details and references, with insights that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast! This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about Explicit Knowledge. A quick look inside of some of the subjects covered: Community of practice - Individuals in communities of practice, Standard Young tableau - Skew tableaux, Explicit knowledge, IDEF - IDEF9, Expert system - Advantages, Implicit learning - Methodological issues, Text and conversation theory - Weakness, Modeling language - Modeller appropriateness, Organizational learning - Models, Innovation management - Manage Complex Innovation, Tacit, Knowledge management Technologies, Enterprise integration - Identification and use of information, Know-how, Knowledge sharing - Explicit Knowledge Sharing, Tacit - Differences with explicit knowledge, Interplanetary Phenomena Unit, Explicit knowledge - Forms, Rate of adoption - Technology, Organisational learning - Models, Structuration - Methodology of structuration theory, Explication - Explication as an interpretative process, Harry Collins - Selected works, Two-phase locking, Knowledge capture - Technologies, Tacit knowledge - Transmission models for tacit knowledge, Tacit knowledge - Differences with explicit knowledge, Explication - Explication as a process versus explication as an outcome, Tacit knowledge - Examples, Organizational Memory System - The difference between explicit and tacit knowledge, Economic calculation problem - Comparing heterogeneous goods, SECI model of knowledge dimensions, and much more...

Tacit Knowledge in Organizations

Here, Philippe Baumard develops an alternative analysis and with it a new approach to management' - Frank Blackler, Lancaster University This landmark book delves below the surface of organizations in order to understand the complex ...

Tacit Knowledge in Organizations

`Philippe Baumard has observed that strategic success seems to lie more in top managers' ability to use tacit knowledge than in their gaining or updating explicit knowledge' - William H Starbuck, New York University `This important new book effectively illustrates how, in conditions of ambiguity, managers `over-manage', i.e. rely too much on explicit plans and interpretations. Here, Philippe Baumard develops an alternative analysis and with it a new approach to management' - Frank Blackler, Lancaster University This landmark book delves below the surface of organizations in order to understand the complex processes of top managers' decision making. Philippe

Tacit Knowledge

This book seeks to bring a unity to these diverse philosophical discussions by clarifying their conceptual underpinnings.

Tacit Knowledge

Tacit knowledge is the form of implicit knowledge that we rely on for learning. It is invoked in a wide range of intellectual inquiries, from traditional academic subjects to more pragmatically orientated investigations into the nature and transmission of skills and expertise. Notwithstanding its apparent pervasiveness, the notion of tacit knowledge is a complex and puzzling one. What is its status as knowledge? What is its relation to explicit knowledge? What does it mean to say that knowledge is tacit? Can it be measured? Recent years have seen a growing interest from philosophers in understanding the nature of tacit knowledge. Philosophers of science have discussed its role in scientific problem-solving; philosophers of language have been concerned with the speaker's relation to grammatical theories; and phenomenologists have attempted to describe the relation of explicit theoretical knowledge to a background understanding of matters that are taken for granted. This book seeks to bring a unity to these diverse philosophical discussions by clarifying their conceptual underpinnings. In addition the book advances a specific account of tacit knowledge that elucidates the importance of the concept for understanding the character of human cognition, and demonstrates the relevance of the recommended account to those concerned with the communication of expertise. The book will be of interest to philosophers of language, epistemologists, cognitive psychologists and students of theoretical linguistics.

The Development of a Tacit Knowledge Spectrum Based on the Interrelationships Between Tacit and Explicit Knowledge

Following the review, cases studies are carried out to test a series of interventions designed to promote understanding of knowledge management and the conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge.

The Development of a Tacit Knowledge Spectrum Based on the Interrelationships Between Tacit and Explicit Knowledge

Tacit knowledge is a valuable asset to organisations which is not readily being recognised. Years of experience and understanding of an organisations processes, operations and clients, is being lost on a daily basis through the turnover of employees, whether through natural wastage or in these times of recession a cutting back of the workforce. The loss of this information (tacit knowledge) can be critical to the day to day running of the organisation and in many cases it is irreplaceable. Organisations need to capture this knowledge and turn it into explicit knowledge to enhance the future knowledge capital of the organisation. The undertaking of this thesis is to explore the relationship between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge and their interaction when converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. A review is carried out of current methodologies available to organisations for the management of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. Following the review, cases studies are carried out to test a series of interventions designed to promote understanding of knowledge management and the conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. From the findings of the case studies, it can be found that tacit knowledge is not a single entity that can be converted into explicit knowledge, but it can be broken down into elements, which have to be considered independently in order to facilitate the knowledge transfer process. From evaluation of the research for this thesis, a Tacit Knowledge Spectrum Model is developed to represent the elements of tacit knowledge. The Model gives a clear view of the complexity of tacit knowledge and the inter-relationship of the elements that make up tacit knowledge. By creating a better understanding of tacit knowledge and its elements and their interaction with explicit knowledge, organisations will be better placed to manage tacit knowledge and their knowledge capital.

Knowledge Management

Tacit knowledge is capable of becoming explicit knowledge and vice versa. “The Logic of Tacit Inference” firmly supports the notion that explicit knowledge ...

Knowledge Management

Wallace links current and historical works to the development of knowledge management concepts across domains and disciplines, demystifying this area of increasing intellectual import.

Human Resource Development

EXPLICIT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE One major perspective for considering knowledge is whether it is explicit or tacit. The word 'explicit' means open, and 'tacit' ...

Human Resource Development

"The book will provide both thought-provoking questions and stimulating answers to the key factors in HR development today." IT Training Human Resource Development is the ideal handbook for all professional trainers and provides core information needed by all professional students of this subject. This new second edition has been fully updated and revised, with the inclusion of three new chapters making this the most topical book in this field: *Design, Development and Application of E-learning; *Knowledge Management & Transfer; *Human & Intellectual Capital. Clearly structured with detailed sections covering each aspect of the training cycle, the book also includes sections on: *The Role of Learning Training and Development in Organisations *Learning and Competitive Strategy * The Identification of Learning, Training and Development Needs * The Planning and Designing of Learning, Training and Development *Delivering Learning, Training and Development *Assessment and Evaluation of Learning, Training and development *Managing the Human Resource Development Function Co-ordinated and edited by Dr John P. Wilson, individual contributors include Professor Geoff Chivers, Professor of Continuing Education, Sheffield University, Joan Keogh OBE and Colin Beard both senior lecturers, Sheffield Hallam University, Alan Cattall, University of Bradford plus many more leading academics in the field of Human Resource Development.

Knowledge Emergence

Intemaiization Internalization. the process of embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge, is closely related to "learning by doing.

Knowledge Emergence

This book brings together the research of a number of scholars in the field of knowledge creation and imparts a sense of order to the field. The chapters share three characteristics: they are all grounded in extensive qualitative and/or quantitative research; they all go beyond the mere description of the knowledge-creation process and offer both theoretical and strategic implications; they share a view of knowledge creation and knowledge transfer as delicate processes, necessitating particular forms of support from managers.

Making Sense

Making Sense


Handbook of Research on Tacit Knowledge Management for Organizational Success

The Handbook of Research on Tacit Knowledge Management for Organizational Success is a pivotal reference source for the latest advancements and methodologies on knowledge administration in the business field.

Handbook of Research on Tacit Knowledge Management for Organizational Success

Continuous improvements in businesses practices have created enhanced opportunities for growth and development. This not only leads to higher success in day-to-day profitability, but it increases the overall probability of success for organizations. The Handbook of Research on Tacit Knowledge Management for Organizational Success is a pivotal reference source for the latest advancements and methodologies on knowledge administration in the business field. Featuring extensive coverage on relevant areas such as informal learning, quality management, and knowledge acquisition, this publication is an ideal resource for practitioners, marketers, human resource managers, professors, researchers, and students seeking academic material on knowledge management techniques.

The Knowledge Creating Company

To explain how this is done--and illuminate Japanese business practices as they do so--the authors range from Greek philosophy to Zen Buddhism, from classical economists to modern management gurus, illustrating the theory of organizational ...

The Knowledge Creating Company

How have Japanese companies become world leaders in the automotive and electronics industries, among others? What is the secret of their success? Two leading Japanese business experts, Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, are the first to tie the success of Japanese companies to their ability to create new knowledge and use it to produce successful products and technologies. In The Knowledge-Creating Company, Nonaka and Takeuchi provide an inside look at how Japanese companies go about creating this new knowledge organizationally. The authors point out that there are two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge, contained in manuals and procedures, and tacit knowledge, learned only by experience, and communicated only indirectly, through metaphor and analogy. U.S. managers focus on explicit knowledge. The Japanese, on the other hand, focus on tacit knowledge. And this, the authors argue, is the key to their success--the Japanese have learned how to transform tacit into explicit knowledge. To explain how this is done--and illuminate Japanese business practices as they do so--the authors range from Greek philosophy to Zen Buddhism, from classical economists to modern management gurus, illustrating the theory of organizational knowledge creation with case studies drawn from such firms as Honda, Canon, Matsushita, NEC, Nissan, 3M, GE, and even the U.S. Marines. For instance, using Matsushita's development of the Home Bakery (the world's first fully automated bread-baking machine for home use), they show how tacit knowledge can be converted to explicit knowledge: when the designers couldn't perfect the dough kneading mechanism, a software programmer apprenticed herself with the master baker at Osaka International Hotel, gained a tacit understanding of kneading, and then conveyed this information to the engineers. In addition, the authors show that, to create knowledge, the best management style is neither top-down nor bottom-up, but rather what they call "middle-up-down," in which the middle managers form a bridge between the ideals of top management and the chaotic realities of the frontline. As we make the turn into the 21st century, a new society is emerging. Peter Drucker calls it the "knowledge society," one that is drastically different from the "industrial society," and one in which acquiring and applying knowledge will become key competitive factors. Nonaka and Takeuchi go a step further, arguing that creating knowledge will become the key to sustaining a competitive advantage in the future. Because the competitive environment and customer preferences changes constantly, knowledge perishes quickly. With The Knowledge-Creating Company, managers have at their fingertips years of insight from Japanese firms that reveal how to create knowledge continuously, and how to exploit it to make successful new products, services, and systems.