The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay The Gospel of Wealth

This volume includes Carnegie's essay "The Gospel of Wealth," in which he outlines his philanthropic views, stating that "the millionaire will be but a trustee for the poor," bestowing charity on those willing to help themselves.

The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay The Gospel of Wealth

One of the earliest memoirs of an American capitalist, this 1920 volume recounts an immigrant's rise from clerk to captain of industry and steel magnate. Includes Carnegie's treatise on his philanthropic views.

The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and the Gospel of Wealth

From his humble beginnings as a Scottish immigrant to his ascension to wealth and power as a 'captain of industry, ' Andrew Carnegie embodied the American 'rags to riches' dream.

The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and the Gospel of Wealth

From his humble beginnings as a Scottish immigrant to his ascension to wealth and power as a 'captain of industry, ' Andrew Carnegie embodied the American 'rags to riches' dream. Alive in the time of the Civil War, Carnegie was the epitome of a self-made man, first working his way up in a telegraph company and then making astute investments in the railroad industry. Through hard work, perseverance, and an earnest desire to develop himself in his education, culture, and personal economy, Carnegie finally made his considerable fortune in steel. What is perhaps most remarkable about this historical figure, however, was his overwhelmingly generous practice of philanthropy in his later life. In his essay "The Gospel of Wealth," Carnegie relates his ideas on the distribution of the rich's wealth to the poor in a responsible capitalistic society. In setting an example of his own beliefs, Carnegie gave away millions of dollars for the public good, demonstrating his own willingness to promote human welfare and the betterment of man

The Gospel of Wealth Essays and Other Writings

Words of wisdom from American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie Focusing on Carnegie's most famous essay, "The Gospel of Wealth," this book of his writings, published here together for the first time, demonstrates the late steel magnate's ...

The Gospel of Wealth Essays and Other Writings

Words of wisdom from American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie Focusing on Carnegie's most famous essay, "The Gospel of Wealth," this book of his writings, published here together for the first time, demonstrates the late steel magnate's beliefs on wealth, poverty, the public good, and capitalism. Carnegie's commitment to ensuring and promoting the welfare of his fellow human beings through philanthropic deeds ranged from donations to universities and museums to establishing more than 2,500 public libraries in the English-speaking world, and he gave away more than $350 million toward those efforts during his lifetime. The Gospel of Wealth is an eloquent testament to the importance of charitable giving for the public good. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.

Opening Carnegie Hall

70. Andrew Carnegie, “The Gospel of Wealth,” in The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay “The Gospel of Wealth” (Mineola, NY: Dover, 2014, 1920, 1889), 277. 71. Schickel, World of Carnegie Hall, 25. 72. Carnegie, Autobiography ...

Opening Carnegie Hall

Carnegie Hall is recognized worldwide, associated with the heights of artistic achievement and a multitude of famous performers. Yet its beginnings are not so well known. In 1887, a chance encounter on a steamship bound for Europe brought young conductor Walter Damrosch together with millionaire philanthropist Andrew Carnegie and his new wife, Louise. Their subsequent friendship led to the building of this groundbreaking concert space. This book provides the first comprehensive account of the conception and building of Carnegie Hall, which culminated in a five-day opening festival in May 1891, featuring spectacular music, a host of performers and Tchaikovsky as a special guest conductor.

Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie

This volume includes Carnegie's essay "The Gospel of Wealth," in which he outlines his philanthropic views, stating that "the millionaire will be but a trustee for the poor," bestowing charity on those willing to help themselves ...

Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie

A native of Scotland, Andrew Carnegie emigrated to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in his youth and through voracious reading and personal initiative became one of the richest men in American history. His autobiography recounts the real-life, rags-to-riches tale of an immigrant's rise from telegrapher's clerk to captain of industry and steel magnate. One of the earliest memoirs of an American capitalist, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie appeared shortly after the 84-year-old author's death in 1919.Industrialist, innovator, scholar, and philanthropist, Carnegie gave away more than 90 percent of his wealth for the establishment of libraries, schools, and hospitals. In addition to describing how he amassed his enormous fortune, his memoirs chronicle the deliberate and systematic distribution of his fortune for the enlightenment and betterment of humanity. This volume includes Carnegie's essay "The Gospel of Wealth," in which he outlines his philanthropic views, stating that "the millionaire will be but a trustee for the poor," bestowing charity on those willing to help themselves.FultonClassics.com

Economics The Definitive Encyclopedia from Theory to Practice 4 volumes

Although his business was booming, not all was well at the Carnegie Steel Company. While he ran a very efficient mill that ... The autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and his essay: The gospel of wealth. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Economics  The Definitive Encyclopedia from Theory to Practice  4 volumes

A comprehensive four-volume resource that explains more than 800 topics within the foundations of economics, macroeconomics, microeconomics, and global economics, all presented in an easy-to-read format. • Provides readers with a comprehensive one-stop reference source on the subject of economics that serves as an easy-to-read "textbook" • Presents more than 800 entries in four books that address economics foundations, macroeconomics, microeconomics, and global economics as well as a glossary and a documents section • Spotlights the concepts, movements, events, people, organizations, places, and objects relevant to the study of economics at the macro, micro, and global levels • Includes excerpts from key court and legislative documents that influenced the U.S. economy

Corporate Spirit

James Barron, “Overlooked Influences in Trump's Life: A Famous Minister and His Church,” New York Times, September 6, 2016. 9. Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay “The Gospel of Wealth,” (New York: North ...

Corporate Spirit

In this groundbreaking work, Amanda Porterfield explores the long intertwining of religion and commerce in the history of incorporation in the United States. Beginning with the antecedents of that history in western Europe, she focuses on organizations to show how corporate strategies in religion and commerce developed symbiotically, and how religion has influenced the corporate structuring and commercial orientation of American society. Porterfield begins her story in ancient Rome. She traces the development of corporate organization through medieval Europe and Elizabethan England and then to colonial North America, where organizational practices derived from religion infiltrated commerce, and commerce led to political independence. Left more to their own devices than under British law, religious groups in the United States experienced unprecedented autonomy that facilitated new forms of communal governance and new means of broadcasting their messages. As commercial enterprise expanded, religious organizations grew apace, helping many Americans absorb the shocks of economic turbulence, and promoting new conceptions of faith, spirit, and will power that contributed to business. Porterfield highlights the role that American religious institutions played a society increasingly dominated by commercial incorporation and free market ideologies. She also shows how charitable impulses long nurtured by religion continued to stimulate reform and demand for accountability.

Political Groups Parties and Organizations that Shaped America An Encyclopedia and Document Collection 3 volumes

2006. The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay: The Gospel of Wealth. New York: Signet Classics. Carnegie Corporation. 2015. “Andrew Carnegie's Story.” https://www.carnegie.org/interactives /foundersstory/#!/. Influence Watch.

Political Groups  Parties  and Organizations that Shaped America  An Encyclopedia and Document Collection  3 volumes

This three-volume set explores the multiple roles that parties and interest groups have played in American politics from the nation's beginnings to the present. • Provides expert analysis of the emergence and effect of parties and interest groups on the American political system • Offers a broader and more complete understanding of both parties and interest groups in American politics than has been offered previously • Helps readers to move beyond an event-driven knowledge of parties and interest groups to explore the systematic and structural bases for interest group and party behavior • Includes primary source documents that allow readers to discover for themselves the means by which groups or parties place items on the public agenda and thereby come to (or sometimes fail to) shape our governmental system

Natural

Fitness is not the equivalent of morality . 22. Andrew Carnegie , The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay the Gospel of Wealth ( 1920 ; Mineola , NY : Dover Thrift Editions , 2014 ) , 249-50 .

Natural

Illuminates the far-reaching harms of believing that natural means “good,” from misinformation about health choices to justifications for sexism, racism, and flawed economic policies. People love what’s natural: it’s the best way to eat, the best way to parent, even the best way to act—naturally, just as nature intended. Appeals to the wisdom of nature are among the most powerful arguments in the history of human thought. Yet Nature (with a capital N) and natural goodness are not objective or scientific. In this groundbreaking book, scholar of religion Alan Levinovitz demonstrates that these beliefs are actually religious and highlights the many dangers of substituting simple myths for complicated realities. It may not seem like a problem when it comes to paying a premium for organic food. But what about condemnations of “unnatural” sexual activity? The guilt that attends not having a “natural” birth? Economic deregulation justified by the inherent goodness of “natural” markets? In Natural, readers embark on an epic journey, from Peruvian rainforests to the backcountry in Yellowstone Park, from a “natural” bodybuilding competition to a “natural” cancer-curing clinic. The result is an essential new perspective that shatters faith in Nature’s goodness and points to a better alternative. We can love nature without worshipping it, and we can work toward a better world with humility and dialogue rather than taboos and zealotry.

The Treasure Principle Revised and Updated

Andrew Carnegie, quoted in Lee Jenkins, Taking Care of Business: Establishing a Financial Legacy for Your Family (Chicago: ... Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay The Gospel of Wealth (Mineola, NY: Dover, ...

The Treasure Principle  Revised and Updated

Discover how the joy of giving can make your life richer, starting today. Bestselling author Randy Alcorn introduced readers to a revolution in material freedom and radical generosity with the release of the original The Treasure Principle in 2001. Now the revision to the compact, perennial bestseller includes a provocative new concluding chapter depicting God asking a believer questions about his stewardship over material resources. Jesus spent more time talking about money and possessions than about heaven and hell combined. But too often we’ve overlooked or misunderstood his most profound teaching on this topic, from his words in Matthew 6. Jesus offers us life-changing investment advice. He actually wants us to store up treasures for ourselves—just not here on earth. Instead, he urges us to store our treasure in heaven, where they will await us, and last forever. We can’t take it with us—but we can send it on ahead! Readers are moved from the realms of thoughtful Bible exposition into the highly personal arena of everyday life. Because when Jesus told His followers to “lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven,” He intended that they discover an astounding secret: how joyful giving brings God maximum glory and His children maximum pleasure. In The Treasure Principle, you’ll unearth a radical teaching of Jesus—a secret wrapped up in giving. Once you discover this secret, life will never look the same. And you won’t want it to be. “Supercharged with stunning, divine truth! Lightning struck over and over as I read it.” - John Piper, Senior Pastor, Bethlehem Baptist Church, Minneapolis

Nuclear Suburbs

Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay: The Gospel of Wealth (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 2014), 132, 133, 136. 70. Francis G. Couvares, The Remaking of Pittsburgh: Class and Culture in an Industrializing City, ...

Nuclear Suburbs

From submarines to the suburbs—the remaking of Pittsburgh during the Cold War During the early Cold War, research facilities became ubiquitous features of suburbs across the United States. Pittsburgh’s eastern and southern suburbs hosted a constellation of such facilities that became the world’s leading center for the development of nuclear reactors for naval vessels and power plants. The segregated communities that surrounded these laboratories housed one of the largest concentrations of nuclear engineers and scientists on earth. In Nuclear Suburbs, Patrick Vitale uncovers how the suburbs shaped the everyday lives of these technology workers. Using oral histories, Vitale follows nuclear engineers and scientists throughout and beyond the Pittsburgh region to understand how the politics of technoscience and the Cold War were embedded in daily life. At the same time that research facilities moved to Pittsburgh’s suburbs, a coalition of business and political elites began an aggressive effort, called the Pittsburgh Renaissance, to renew the region. For Pittsburgh’s elite, laboratories and researchers became important symbols of the new Pittsburgh and its postindustrial economy. Nuclear Suburbs exposes how this coalition enrolled technology workers as allies in their remaking of the city. Offering lessons for the present day, Nuclear Suburbs shows how race, class, gender, and the production of urban and suburban space are fundamental to technoscientific networks, and explains how the “renewal” of industrial regions into centers of the tech economy is rooted in violence and injustice.

Grant

Carnegie, Andrew. The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay “The Gospel of Wealth.” Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 2014. Reprint. Catton, Bruce. The Coming Fury. Vol. 1 of The Centennial History of the Civil War.

Grant

A dramatic portrait of one of America's most compelling generals and presidents, Ulysses S. Grant, by Pulitzer Prize winner Ron Chernow, author of the book on which the astonishing musical Hamilton is based. As late as April 1861, when the American Civil War broke out, Ulysses S. Grant was a dismal failure. A competent officer in the war against Mexico, he had resigned from the army over his drinking and had sunk into poverty as a civilian, losing all his money in hopeless investments. He had failed to secure the command of a volunteer unit and was about to return to his abject life working in his family's leather-goods store when he was offered the colonelcy of an Illinois regiment. Less than four years later he was the commanding general of the victorious Union armies and was hailed as a military genius. He later served two terms as President of the United States. This is the epic biography of a very unheroic American hero, a modest, reticent and principled man who surprised the world and changed it for the better.

America Aflame

Carnegie, Andrew. The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay “The Gospel of Wealth.” Edited by Gordon Hunter. New York: Signet, 2006; first published in 1920. ———. Triumphant Democracy; or, Fifty Years' March of the Republic.

America Aflame

In this spellbinding new history, David Goldfield offers the first major new interpretation of the Civil War era since James M. McPherson's Battle Cry of Freedom. Where past scholars have limned the war as a triumph of freedom, Goldfield sees it as America's greatest failure: the result of a breakdown caused by the infusion of evangelical religion into the public sphere. As the Second GreatAwakening surged through America, political questions became matters of good and evil to be fought to the death. The price of that failure was horrific, but the carnage accomplished what statesmen could not: It made the United States one nation and eliminated slavery as a divisive force in the Union. The victorious North became synonymous with America as a land of innovation and industrialization, whose teeming cities offered squalor and opportunity in equal measure. Religion was supplanted by science and a gospel of progress, and the South was left behind. Goldfield's panoramic narrative, sweeping from the 1840s to the end of Reconstruction, is studded with memorable details and luminaries such as HarrietBeecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Walt Whitman. There are lesser known yet equally compelling characters, too, including Carl Schurz-a German immigrant, warhero, and postwar reformer-and Alexander Stephens, the urbane and intellectual vice president of the Confederacy. America Aflame is a vivid portrait of the "fiery trial"that transformed the country we live in.

The Muleskinner and the Stars

Carnegie, Andrew, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay The Gospel of Wealth, Penguin Group, 2006. Christianson, Gale E, Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae, The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

The Muleskinner and the Stars

This is the story of the astronomer Milton La Salle Humason, whose career was integral to developing our understanding of stellar and universal evolution and who helped to build the analytical basis for the work of such notable astronomers and astrophysicists as Paul Merrill, Walter Adams, Alfred Joy, Frederick Seares, Fritz Zwicky, Walter Baade and Edwin Hubble. Humason’s unlikely story began on the shores of the Mississippi River in Winona, Minnesota, in 1891 and led to the foot of Mount Wilson outside Los Angeles, California, twelve years later. It is there where he first attended summer camp in 1903 and was captivated by its surroundings. The mountain would become the backdrop for his life and career over the next six decades as he helped first build George Ellery Hale’s observatory on the summit and then rose to become one of that institution’s leading figures through the first half of the twentieth century. The story chronicles Humason’s life on Mount Wilson, from his first trip to the mountain to his days as a muleskinner, leading teams of mules hauling supplies to the summit during the construction of the observatory, and follows him through his extraordinary career in spectroscopy, working beside Edwin Hubble as the two helped to reconstruct our concept of the universe. A patient, knowledgeable and persistent observer, Humason was later awarded an honorary doctorate for his work, despite having no formal education beyond the eighth grade. His skill at the telescope is legendary. During his career he photographed the spectra of stars, galaxies and other objects many thousands of times fainter than can be seen with the naked eye and pushed the boundary of the known universe deeper into space than any before him. His work, which included assisting in the formulation of Hubble’s Law of redshifts, helped to set the field of cosmology solidly on its foundation. Milton Humason was one of the most charismatic characters in science during the first half of the 20th century. Uneducated, streetwise, moonshining, roguish, humble and thoroughly down to earth, he rose by sheer chance, innate ability and incredible will to become the leading deep space observer of his day. “The Renaissance man of Mount Wilson,” as Harlow Shapley once referred to him, Humason’s extraordinary life reminds us that passion and purpose may find us at any moment.

Business Ethics

Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay, The Gospel of Wealth (Mineola, NY: Dover, 2014). 8. Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino Fine Books, 2014).

Business Ethics

Business Ethics teaches students how to create organizations of high integrity and superior performance. Author Denis Collins and new co-author Patricia Kanashiro walk readers through designing ethical organizations using an Ethical Systems Model that outlines best practices for hiring, training, making ethical decisions, and fostering trust. The substantially revised Third Edition integrates the most current research findings; includes three new chapters on corporate governance and stakeholder relationships, global sustainability, and global corporate citizenship; and explores timely topics through new case studies on the opioid crisis, the #MeToo movement, climate change, and business responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. This title is accompanied by a complete teaching and learning package. Contact your SAGE representative to request a demo. Digital Option / Courseware SAGE Vantage is an intuitive digital platform that delivers this text’s content and course materials in a learning experience that offers auto-graded assignments and interactive multimedia tools, all carefully designed to ignite student engagement and drive critical thinking. Built with you and your students in mind, it offers simple course set-up and enables students to better prepare for class. Assignable Video with Assessment Assignable video (available with SAGE Vantage) is tied to learning objectives and curated exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life. Watch a sample "What Would You Do?" video. Assignable Self-Assessments Assignable self-assessments (available with SAGE Vantage) help students evaluate the ethics of an organization or group that they are a part of. LMS Cartridge: Import this title’s instructor resources into your school’s learning management system (LMS) and save time. Don’t use an LMS? You can still access all of the same online resources for this title via the password-protected Instructor Resource Site. Learn more.

One Simple Idea

Carnegie is quoted on Swedenborg from Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1920). Carnegie is quoted on the “law of competition” from his essay “The Gospel of Wealth” as reprinted in The “Gospel ...

One Simple Idea

From the millions-strong audiences of Oprah and The Secret to the mass-media ministries of evangelical figures like Joel Osteen and T. D. Jakes, to the motivational bestsellers and New Age seminars to the twelve-step programs and support groups of the recovery movement and to the rise of positive psychology and stress-reduction therapies, this idea--to think positively--is metaphysics morphed into mass belief. This is the biography of that belief. No one has yet written a serious and broad-ranging treatment and history of the positive-thinking movement. Until now. For all its influence across popular culture, religion, politics, and medicine, this psycho-spiritual movement remains a maligned and misunderstood force in modern life. Its roots are unseen and its long-range impact is unacknowledged. It is often considered a cotton-candy theology for New Agers and self-help junkies. In response, One Simple Idea corrects several historical misconceptions about the positive-thinking movement and introduces us to a number of colorful and dramatic personalities, including Napoleon Hill and Norman Vincent Peale, whose books and influence have touched the lives of tens of millions across the world.

The Design of the University

17 Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and His Essay: The Gospel of Wealth (Miniola, NY: Dover Publications, 2014), 115. 18 Ibid. 28. 19 Alexis de Tocqueville, Memoir on Pauperism (London: Coronet Books Incorporated, ...

The Design of the University

What is the reason for the American university’s global preeminence? How did the American university succeed where the development of the German university, from which it took so much, stalled? In this closely-argued book, Meyer suggests that the key to the American university’s success is its institutional design of self-government. Where other university systems are dependent on the patronage of state, church, or market, the American university is the first to achieve true autonomy, which it attained through an intricate system of engagements with societal actors and institutions that simultaneously act as amplifiers of its impact and as checks on the university’s ever-present corrosive tendencies. Built on a searching analysis of the design thinking of Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adam Smith and closely tracing the learning process by which Americans adapted the German model, The Design of the University dismisses efforts to copy superficial features of the American university in order to achieve world-class rank. Calling attention to the design details of the university and the particulars of its institutional environment, this volume identifies the practices and choices that produced the gold standard for today’s world class higher education.

The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays

The main focus of this collection of essays is however on The Gospel of Wealth, in which Carnegie outlines his philosophy of philanthropy.

The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays

Andrew Carnegie was one of the wealthiest people to have ever lived. But by the time he had died he had given away ninety percent of his wealth. He followed his motto, which he set out in The Gospel of Wealth, "The man who dies thus rich dies disgraced," through to his end. Born in Scotland, to a poor weaving household, he emigrated to the United States of America with his family when he was thirteen. Through the course of the next fifty years he rose through the ranks of employment and invested widely until in 1901 he sold his Pittsburgh-based Carnegie Steel Company to J. P. Morgan for $480 million and became the richest American alive for a couple of years. Carnegie explains his remarkable early years and how he made his first investments in his initial essay, How I served my apprenticeship. He gives remarkable insight into his ability to see potentially lucrative opportunities, even at a young age. The main focus of this collection of essays is however on The Gospel of Wealth, in which Carnegie outlines his philosophy of philanthropy. He was aware that the United States in the late nineteenth century had produced a great number of self-made super-rich industrialists, like himself, and was concerned that they would waste their new found wealth through extravagance and instead urges everyone to think of and assist those less fortunate than ourselves. The following essays within the book cover a wide variety of topics that Carnegie was interested in from labor rights to imperialism, relations between Britain and America to the value of trusts. Each one is a fascinating insight into the opinions of a brilliant nineteenth century business leader who held views which are still relevant in the modern day. The Gospel of Wealth and other timely essays is essential reading for anyone interested in the opinions of one of the wealthiest Americans to have ever lived who valued giving away money more than earning it. Andrew Carnegie was one of the wealthiest people in America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. After he had earned his millions however he spent much of the remainder of life using his wealth to help with large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace, education, and scientific research. He passed away in 1919 and his book The Gospel of Wealth and other timely essays was first published in 1901.

Donors and Archives

Carnegie combined the two essays under the title “The Gospel of Wealth,” which appeared as part of a book of his essays in ... See Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948); David Nasaw, Andrew ...

Donors and Archives

Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

The Cultivation of Hatred The Bourgeois Experience Victoria to Freud The Bourgeois Experience Victoria to Freud

Carnegie's famous articles setting forth his philanthropic creed have been well edited by Edward C. Kirkland: Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays (1962). For the world of these industrial magnates, ...

The Cultivation of Hatred  The Bourgeois Experience  Victoria to Freud  The Bourgeois Experience  Victoria to Freud

With the same sweep, authority, and originality that marked his best-selling Freud: A Life for Our Time, Peter Gay here takes us on a remarkable journey through middle-class Victorian culture. Gay's search through middle-class Victorian culture, illuminated by lively portraits of such daunting figures as Bismarck, Darwin and his acolytes, George Eliot, and the great satirists Daumier and Wilhelm Busch, covers a vast terrain: the relations between men and women, wit, demagoguery, and much more. We discover the multiple ways in which the nineteenth century at once restrained aggressive behavior and licensed it. Aggression split the social universe into insiders and outsiders. "By gathering up communities of insiders," Professor Gay writes, the Victorians "discovered--only too often invented--a world of strangers beyond the pale, of individuals and classes, races and nations it was perfectly proper to debate, patronize, ridicule, bully, exploit, or exterminate." The aggressions so channeled or bottled could not be contained forever. Ultimately, they exploded in the First World War.