Variable Definition Relative elementary* Relative elementary Cleveland* Elementary value added* Share minority teachers* Share hispanic* Income tax rate School tax rate* City tax rate Tax break rate No A-to-S Not a city Commute 1* ...
Author: John Yinger
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
Category: Political Science
The field of urban economics is built on an analysis of housing prices, land rents, housing consumption, spatial form, and other aspects of urban residential structure. Drawing on the journal publications and teaching notes of Professor John Yinger of Syracuse University, Housing and Commuting: The Theory of Urban Residential Structure presents a simple model of urban residential structure and shows how the model's results change when key assumptions are made more realistic. This book provides a wide-ranging introduction to research on urban residential structure. Topics covered range from theoretical analysis of urban structure with different transportation systems or multiple worksites to empirical work on the impact of local public services on house values and the impact of racial prejudice and discrimination on housing choices. Graduate students and scholars who want to learn about research in urban economics will find this book to be a good starting point. Request Inspection Copy
About 25% of public transportation commuters living in the urban fringe used the railroads as opposed to about 2% of central city residents. The jCPS divided job location into three categories: (1) the central business district (GED) or ...
Author: Meni Koslowsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Several people have asked what motivated us to write a book about commut ing, something that we all do but over which we have very little control. As a matter of fact, the general reaction from professional colleagues and friends alike was first a sort of knowing smile followed by some story. Everyone has a story about a personal commuting experience. Whether it was a problem with a delayed bus, a late arrival, broken-down automobiles, hot trains or subways, during the past year we have heard it all. Many of these stories must be apocryphal because, if they were all true, it is amazing that anyone ever arrived at work on time, at home, or at some other destination. The interest for us likely stems from many factors that over the years have probably influenced our thinking. All of the authors studied and/or grew up in the New York City metropolitan area. For illustration, let's devote a few paragraphs to describing some of the senior author's (Koslowsky's) life experiences. As a young man in New York City, he was a constant user of the New York City subway system. The whole network was and still is quite impressive. For a relatively small sum, one can spend the whole day and night in an underground world (growing up in New York often makes one think that the whole world is contained in its five boroughs).
An investigation of the principles of commuting in one hundred meditations.
Author: Peter Hunt Welch
An investigation of the principles of commuting in one hundred meditations. Subjects include, but are not limited to, the implications of autonomy, the attitudes of whales, the perfidy of signage, and the optimal positioning of feet when approaching one's subway disembarkation.
The next section describes geographic approaches focused on commuting and urban structure . ... When applying this benchmark , the observed level of commuting in a city is compared to an estimated theoretical minimum commute for the ...
Author: Donald G. Janelle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
WorldMinds provides broad exposure to a geography that is engaged with discovery, interpretation, and problem solving. Its 100 succinct chapters demonstrate the theories, methods, and data used by geographers, and exemplify the conceptual and topical richness of contemporary geography. The 150 contributing authors and co-authors address the challenges posed by issues such as globalization, regional and ethnic conflict, environmental hazards, terrorism, poverty, and sustainable development. This volume demonstrates the utility of geography as a conceptual discipline that contributes theoretically; as an applied practice that informs policy-making; and as a coherent set of methodologies to gather and analyze data about Earth and its occupants. WorldMinds is the ideal general reader to supplement textbooks in the full range of academic geography courses. In addition to geography students and instructors, it is relevant to researchers, applied geographers and policy makers.
Private and public buses play an important role in connecting Jamwaramgarh town to Jaipur, and the heart of the city is a 35– 45 min bus journey away. Around one-quarter of our sample population reported that they commute to the city of ...
Author: Eric Denis
Category: Social Science
This volume decentres the view of urbanisation in India from large agglomerations towards smaller urban settlements. It presents the outcomes of original research conducted over three years on subaltern processes of urbanization. The volume is organised in four sections. A first one deals with urbanisation dynamics and systems of cities with chapters on the new census towns, demographic and economic trajectories of cities and employment transformation. The interrelations of land transformation, social and cultural changes form the topic of the “land, society, belonging” section based on ethnographic work in various parts of India (Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). A third section focuses on public policies, governance and urban services with a set of macro-analysis based papers and specific case studies. Understanding the nature of production and innovation in non-metropolitan contexts closes this volume. Finally, though focused on India, this research raises larger questions with regard to the study of urbanisation and development worldwide.
Release on 1994 | by New Hampshire. Department of Employment Security. Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau
COMMUTING PATTERNS workforce in the PMSA , followed by Merrimack and percent of the City of Nashua's commute - out num15.0 - NASHUANH Hudson ( see Table 15.1 ) . The PMSA produced fig- ber . Hudson and Merrimack followed with 3,091 and ...
Author: New Hampshire. Department of Employment Security. Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau
The relatively high cost of housing in the capital, as well as the challenges of urban living (traffic and crime, for instance) and high food costs, has encouraged commuting rather than settling in the city (Smith 2007).
Author: Jeffrey H. Cohen
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Category: Social Science
Around the globe, people leave their homes to better themselves, to satisfy needs, and to care for their families. They also migrate to escape undesirable conditions, ranging from a lack of economic opportunities to violent conflicts at home or in the community. Most studies of migration have analyzed the topic at either the macro level of national and global economic and political forces, or the micro level of the psychology of individual migrants. Few studies have examined the "culture of migration"—that is, the cultural beliefs and social patterns that influence people to move. Cultures of Migration combines anthropological and geographical sensibilities, as well as sociological and economic models, to explore the household-level decision-making process that prompts migration. The authors draw their examples not only from their previous studies of Mexican Oaxacans and Turkish Kurds but also from migrants from Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific, and many parts of Asia. They examine social, economic, and political factors that can induce a household to decide to send members abroad, along with the cultural beliefs and traditions that can limit migration. The authors look at both transnational and internal migrations, and at shorter- and longer-term stays in the receiving location. They also consider the effect that migration has on those who remain behind. The authors' "culture of migration" model adds an important new dimension to our understanding of the cultural beliefs and social patterns associated with migration and will help specialists better respond to increasing human mobility.
Reverse Commuting Commuting is taking transportation for some distance to go to work, attend school, or for some other regular activity. After World War II, a great many people moved from the city to the suburbs.
Author: Mark Garrett
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
Viewing transportation through the lens of current social, economic, and policy aspects, this four-volume reference work explores the topic of transportation across multiple disciplines within the social sciences and related areas, including geography, public policy, business, and economics. The book’s articles, all written by experts in the field, seek to answer such questions as: What has been the legacy, not just economically but politically and socially as well, of President Eisenhower’s modern interstate highway system in America? With that system and the infrastructure that supports it now in a state of decline and decay, what’s the best path for the future at a time of enormous fiscal constraints? Should California politicians plunge ahead with plans for a high-speed rail that every expert says—despite the allure—will go largely unused and will never pay back the massive investment while at this very moment potholes go unfilled all across the state? What path is best for emerging countries to keep pace with dramatic economic growth for their part? What are the social and financial costs of gridlock in our cities? Features: Approximately 675 signed articles authored by prominent scholars are arranged in A-to-Z fashion and conclude with Further Readings and cross references. A Chronology helps readers put individual events into historical context; a Reader’s Guide organizes entries by broad topical or thematic areas; a detailed index helps users quickly locate entries of most immediate interest; and a Resource Guide provides a list of journals, books, and associations and their websites. While articles were written to avoid jargon as much as possible, a Glossary provides quick definitions of technical terms. To ensure full, well-rounded coverage of the field, the General Editor with expertise in urban planning, public policy, and the environment worked alongside a Consulting Editor with a background in Civil Engineering. The index, Reader’s Guide, and cross references combine for thorough search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic edition. Available in both print and electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Transportation is an ideal reference for libraries and those who want to explore the issues that surround transportation in the United States and around the world.
In sum , although the City is pushing the limits on the burdens it may impose on its employees during a commute ... In the commuting context , we believe that the appropriate application of the predominant benefit test is whether an ...
The existence of commuter workers can provide benefits for the city, suburbs, and the commuters themselves. For the city, the existence of commuters will not add to the population administratively (BPS, 2009).
Author: Yuli Rahmawati
Publisher: CRC Press
This conference proceedings focuses on enabling science and mathematics practitioners and citizens to respond to the pressing challenges of global competitiveness and sustainable development by transforming research and teaching of science and mathematics. The proceedings consist of 82 papers presented at the Science and Mathematics International Conference (SMIC) 2018, organised by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia. The proceedings are organised in four parts: Science, Science Education, Mathematics, and Mathematics Education. The papers contribute to our understanding of important contemporary issues in science, especially nanotechnology, materials and environmental science; science education, in particular, environmental sustainability, STEM and STEAM education, 21st century skills, technology education, and green chemistry; and mathematics and its application in statistics, computer science, and mathematics education.
To understand this market failure , note first that commuting costs incurred by urban residents include the out - of - pocket costs of vehicle operation as well as the " time cost " of commuting . The latter cost measures the dollar ...
Author: William G. Gale
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Category: Business & Economics
Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, this new series contains studies on urban sprawl, crime, taxes, education, poverty, and related subjects. Contents of the second issue include: "Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City" Edward Glaeser (Brookings Institution) and Matthew Kahn (Columbia University) "Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics" Jan K. Brueckner (University of Illinois) "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps? Steven Raphael (University of California, Berkeley) and Michael Stoll (UCLA) "The Effects of Urban Poverty on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment" Jens Ludwig (Georgetown University), Helen F. Ladd (Duke University), and Greg J. Duncan (Northwestern University) "Explaining Recent Declines in Food Stamp Program Participation" Janet Currie and Jeffrey Grogger (UCLA and NBER) "Racial Minorities and the Geography of Self-Employment" Dan Black, Douglas Holtz-Eakin, and Stuart Rosenthal (Syracuse University)
time, follows the employees' daily commute. In his study of urban cinema, Yomi Braester identifies several distinct forms of camera work that recur in urban films: for example, recurrent alternation between extreme long shots of built ...
Author: Esther M. K. Cheung
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Performing Arts
A Companion to Hong Kong Cinema provides the first comprehensive scholarly exploration of this unique global cinema. By embracing the interdisciplinary approach of contemporary film and cultural studies, this collection navigates theoretical debates while charting a new course for future research in Hong Kong film. Examines Hong Kong cinema within an interdisciplinary context, drawing connections between media, gender, and Asian studies, Asian regional studies, Chinese language and cultural studies, global studies, and critical theory Highlights the often contentious debates that shape current thinking about film as a medium and its possible future Investigates how changing research on gender, the body, and sexual orientation alter the ways in which we analyze sexual difference in Hong Kong cinema Charts how developments in theories of colonialism, postcolonialism, globalization, neoliberalism, Orientalism, and nationalism transform our understanding of the economics and politics of the Hong Kong film industry Explores how the concepts of diaspora, nostalgia, exile, and trauma offer opportunities to rethink accepted ways of understanding Hong Kong’s popular cinematic genres and stars
However, this would require estimating the number of rail passengers either riding or in the process of commuting to ... route into the city center and would instead need to find another way to commute to their workplaces (e.g., bus, ...
Author: Jeremy M. Wilson
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Category: Political Science
U.S. communities depend on reliable, safe, and secure rail systems. Each weekday, more than 12 million passengers take to U.S. railways. This book explains a framework for security planners and policymakers to guide cost-effective rail-security planning, specifically for the risk of terrorism. Risk is a function of threat, vulnerability, and consequences. This book focuses on addressing vulnerabilities and limiting consequences.
SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND URBAN COMMUTING Shunfeng Song School of Social Sciences , University of California at Irvine 1 . INTRODUCTION The standard urban economic model was developed during the 1960s as economists sought to provide an ...
The city, its crisis, and the debate on urban planning and development Jean Racine ... residence after securing a job and from, his joining the band of city's commuters who are disgorged daily at the Howrah and Sealdah railway stations.
Author: Jean Racine
Publisher: Institut français de Pondichéry
A city laden with symbolic meaning in the Western mind, Calcutta – with ten million inhabitants today – is much more than the apathetic or violent display of urban destitution in India, as seen by the world at large. This collection tries to reach precisely beyond the cliches, to enable some of those who work in the city as decision-makers, planners or analysts, to speak out and Interpret the multifaceted crisis that has hit this city as it continues to grow, even though its economy is in decline. Their words have all the force as they are derived from first-hand experience. In analysing the laboured evolution of this city, once known as "the most beautiful city east of Suez", we have provided some material on a major case-study for the debate on urban planning and development in the Third World. The planning exercise launched in Calcutta in early 1960s, with support from American experts, hoped also to halt the spread of communism in Bengal. This was a vain expectation, however, as the Communist Party of India-Marxist has been continuously voted into power since 1977. From that date, the Left Front Government has controlled the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority, which provides amenities to the city and metropolitan district with support from, among others, the World Bank. What are henceforth the urban development policies of "parliamentary communism"? What are the problems they are up against when action is necessary on all fronts at once? In the final analysis, for what purpose and for whom are they planning? What should be the priorities? To set up the economy to right first? To provide amenities for the city? Or to improve the daily life of the most underprivileged? When confronted with these realities, what the Left is able to achieve in power? These are some of the questions that the contributors to this collection have, in their own way, been concerned with in creating an image of present-day Calcutta, seen through its own eyes.
In Transit Life, David Bissell explores how everyday life in cities is increasingly defined by commuting.
Author: David Bissell
Publisher: MIT Press
An exploration of the ways that everyday life in the city is defined by commuting. We spend much of our lives in transit to and from work. Although we might dismiss our daily commute as a wearying slog, we rarely stop to think about the significance of these daily journeys. In Transit Life, David Bissell explores how everyday life in cities is increasingly defined by commuting. Examining the overlooked events and encounters of the commute, Bissell shows that the material experiences of our daily journeys are transforming life in our cities. The commute is a time where some of the most pressing tensions of contemporary life play out, striking at the heart of such issues as our work-life balance; our relationships with others; our sense of place; and our understanding of who we are. Drawing on in-depth fieldwork with commuters, journalists, transit advocates, policymakers, and others in Sydney, Australia, Transit Life takes a holistic perspective to change how we think about commuting. Rather than arguing that transport infrastructure investment alone can solve our commuting problems, Bissell explores the more subtle but powerful forms of social change that commuting creates. He examines the complex politics of urban mobility through multiple dimensions, including the competencies that commuters develop over time; commuting dispositions and the social life of the commute; the multiple temporalities of commuting; the experience of commuting spaces, from footpath to on-ramp, both physical and digital; the voices of commuting, from private rants to drive-time radio; and the interplay of materialities, ideas, advocates, and organizations in commuting infrastructures.
Release on 2003 | by McKnight Presidential Chair in Sociology Phyllis Moen
By extension , wives may also be less likely to inconvenience the family by having a long commute or to require a ... two compromises : to live in smaller dwellings with less privacy and less green space ( within the city ) close to ...
Author: McKnight Presidential Chair in Sociology Phyllis Moen
This maximum probability is calculated (Eqn. 1) based on the percentage of car commuters in the city (A) and the percentage of car users that have cycled 1–3 times/ month (B). This includes the assumption cyclists at this frequency are ...
Author: C. A. Brebbia
Publisher: WIT Press
Category: Political Science
Urban Transport XX contains the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment.Topics covered include: Environmental impact; Transport strategies; Public transport systems; Urban transport simulation; Transport safety and security; Experiences from emerging countries; Intelligent transport systems.
The economy of the Baltimore Metropolitan Area is not only decentralizing and creating a geographic disparity between the city and the suburban counties in terms of employment and income , but it is industrially restructuring as well .