... attendants, envoys, propagandists, chaplains, physicians and almsgivers.4 The educational training undergone by clergy is also a necessary subject of investigation for those studying the culture and society of medieval Europe, and, ...
Author: Julia Barrow
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The first broad-ranging social history in English of the medieval secular clergy.
37–8, 55–64, 175, 181, 186; Susan Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 66–91, 882–921; Julia Barrow, The Clergy in the Medieval World: Secular Clerics, Their Families, ...
Author: Nathan J. Ristuccia
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Christianization and Commonwealth in Early Medieval Europe re-examines the alterations in Western European life that followed widespread conversion to Christianity-the phenomena traditionally termed "Christianization". It refocuses scholarly paradigms for Christianization around the development of mandatory rituals. One prominent ritual, Rogationtide supplies an ideal case study demonstrating a new paradigm of "Christianization without religion." Christianization in the Middle Ages was not a slow process through which a Christian system of religious beliefs and practices replaced an earlier pagan system. In the Middle Ages, religion did not exist in the sense of a fixed system of belief bounded off from other spheres of life. Rather, Christianization was primarily ritual performance. Being a Christian meant joining a local church community. After the fall of Rome, mandatory rituals such as Rogationtide arose to separate a Christian commonwealth from the pagans, heretics, and Jews outside it. A Latin West between the polis and the parish had its own institution-the Rogation procession-for organizing local communities. For medieval people, sectarian borders were often flexible and rituals served to demarcate these borders. Rogationtide is an ideal case study of this demarcation, because it was an emotionally powerful feast, which combined pageantry with doctrinal instruction, community formation, social ranking, devotional exercises, and bodily mortification. As a result, rival groups quarrelled over the holiday's meaning and procedure, sometimes violently, in order to reshape the local order and ban people and practices as non-Christian.
DOI: 10.4324/9781315844626-15 Church and State A political estrangement of the ecclesiastical and secular arms accompanied the growth of a state apparatus in the later Middle Ages. The clergy were gradually displaced in princes' ...
Author: David M Nicholas
This ambitious and wide-ranging study of the European Middle Ages respects the complexity and richness of its subject; always accessible, it is never merely superficial or over-simplistic. Stressing the long-term factors of continuity, evolution and change throughout, David Nicholas discusses the social and economic aspects of medieval civilization, and examines their links with political, institutional and cultural development. Designed for students and non-specialists, his book triumphantly meets the need for a comprehensive survey of the medieval world within the covers of a single authoritative volume.
Julia Barrow, The Clergy in the Medieval World: Secular Clerics, Their Families and Careers in North-Western Europe, c. 800–c.1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015); Pierre-Yves Laffront, ed., Elites et leurs residences en ...
Author: Maureen C. Miller
This book of eleven essays by an international group of scholars in medieval studies honors the work of Barbara H. Rosenwein, Professor emerita of History at Loyola University Chicago. Part I, “Emotions and Communities,” comprises six essays that make use of Rosenwein’s well-known and widely influential work on the history of emotions and what Rosenwein has called “emotional communities.” These essays employ a wide variety of source material such as chronicles, monastic records, painting, music theory, and religious practice to elucidate emotional commonalities among the medieval people who experienced them. The five essays in Part II, “Communities and Difference,” explore different kinds of communities and have difference as their primary theme: difference between the poor and the unfree, between power as wielded by rulers or the clergy, between the western Mediterranean region and the rest of Europe, and between a supposedly great king and lesser ones.
The truth for the later Middle Ages is incontrovertible; whether we look at Christian Spain, England, or Paris, the clergy seems to have followed natural law rather than canon law.124 1 2 Barrow, The Clergy in the Medieval World.
Author: Elisabeth van Houts
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Married Life in the Middle Ages, 900-1300 contains an analysis of the experience of married life by men and women in Christian medieval Europe, c. 900-1300. The study focusses on the social and emotional life of the married couple rather than on the institutional history of marriage, breaking it into three parts: Getting Married - the process of getting married and wedding celebrations; Married Life - the married life of lay couples and clergy, their sexuality, and any remarriage; and Alternative Living - which explores concubinage and polygyny, as well as the single life in contrast to monogamous sexual unions. In this volume, van Houts deals with four central themes. First, the tension between patriarchal family strategies and the individual family member's freedom of choice to marry and, if so, to what partner; second, the role played by the married priesthood in their quest to have individual agency and self-determination accepted in their own lives in the face of the growing imposition of clerical celibacy; third, the role played by women in helping society accept some degree of gender equality and self-determination to marry and in shaping the norms for married life incorporating these principles; fourth, the role played by emotion in the establishment of marriage and in married life at a time when sexual and spiritual love feature prominently in medieval literature.
Prosopographical work of this kind on the medieval clergy has gone far in exploring the relationship between the secular ... Tinti; Catherine Cubitt, “Bishops, Priests and Penance in Late Saxon England,” Early Medieval Europe 14, no.
Author: Gerald P. Dyson
Publisher: Boydell & Brewer
Fresh perspectives on the English clergy, their books, and the wider Anglo-Saxon church.
For Urban in general, A. Becker, Papst Urban II. (1088–1099) (1964–2012). For Clermont, ibid., vol. 1, 220–5, vol. 2, 374–413; Le concile de Clermont (1997), 1–140. J. Barrow, The clergy in the medieval world (2015), 135–47.
Author: Chris Wickham
Publisher: Yale University Press
Chapter nine 1204: the failure of alternatives -- chapter ten Defining society: gender and community in late medieval Europe -- chapter eleven Money, war and death, 1350-1500 -- chapter twelve Rethinking politics, 1350-1500 -- chapter thirteen Conclusion -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index
of celibacy (for the secular clergy). Records of episcopal visitations and church court prosecutions, as well as anticlerical satires especially from the later Middle Ages, make this abundantly clear.2 Scholars have found in this ...
Author: Lisa M. Bitel
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
In Gender and Christianity in Medieval Europe, six historians explore how medieval people professed Christianity, how they performed gender, and how the two coincided. Many of the daily religious decisions people made were influenced by gender roles, the authors contend. Women's pious donations, for instance, were limited by laws of inheritance and marriage customs; male clerics' behavior depended upon their understanding of masculinity as much as on the demands of liturgy. The job of religious practitioner, whether as a nun, monk, priest, bishop, or some less formal participant, involved not only professing a set of religious ideals but also professing gender in both ideal and practical terms. The authors also argue that medieval Europeans chose how to be women or men (or some complex combination of the two), just as they decided whether and how to be religious. In this sense, religious institutions freed men and women from some of the gendered limits otherwise imposed by society. Whereas previous scholarship has tended to focus exclusively either on masculinity or on aristocratic women, the authors define their topic to study gender in a fuller and more richly nuanced fashion. Likewise, their essays strive for a generous definition of religious history, which has too often been a history of its most visible participants and dominant discourses. In stepping back from received assumptions about religion, gender, and history and by considering what the terms "woman," "man," and "religious" truly mean for historians, the book ultimately enhances our understanding of the gendered implications of every pious thought and ritual gesture of medieval Christians. Contributors: Dyan Elliott is John Evans Professor of History at Northwestern University. Ruth Mazo Karras is professor of history at the University of Minnesota, and the general editor of The Middle Ages Series for the University of Pennsyvlania Press. Jacqueline Murray is dean of arts and professor of history at the University of Guelph. Jane Tibbetts Schulenberg is professor of history at the University of Wisconsin—Madison
See the important work by Anne Llewellyn Barstow , Married Priests and the Reforming Papacy : The Eleventh - Century Debates ( Lewiston , NY , 1982 ) . The masculinity of secular clergy at the end of the Middle Ages is discussed in ...
Author: P. H. Cullum
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Studies in gender in medieval culture have tended to focus on femininity, however the study of medieval masculinities has developed greatly over the last few years. Holiness and Masculinity in the Middle Ages is the first volume to concentrate on this specific aspect of medieval gender studies, and looks at the ways in which varieties of medieval masculinity intersected with concepts of holiness. Patricia Cullum and Katherine J. Lewis have collected an exceptional group of essays that explore differing notions of medieval holiness, understood variously as religious, saintly, sacred, pure, morally perfect, and consider topics such as significance of the tonsure, sanctity and martyrdom, eunuch saints, and the writings of Henry Suso. Holiness and Masculinity in the Middle Ages deals with a wide variety of texts and historical contexts, from Byzantium to Anglo-Saxon and late-medieval England.
4 Glanmor Williams in particular has discussed Welsh clergy in the later medieval period. For examples, see Glanmor Williams, The Welsh Church from Conquest to Reformation (rev. edn, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1976); Glanmor ...
Author: Patricia Skinner
Publisher: University of Wales Press
How did the Welsh travel beyond their geographical borders in the Middle Ages? What did they do, what did they take with them in their baggage, and what did they bring back? This book seeks for the first time to capture the medieval Welsh on the move, and core to its purpose is the exploration of identity within and outside the Welsh territories – particularly since ‘Welsh’ may have become a fluid term to describe a stranger, often pejoratively. The contributors also seek to explore the nature of ‘Welsh history’ as a discipline. How can a consideration of the Welsh abroad draw upon wider paradigms of nationhood, diaspora and colonisation; economic migration; gender relations; and the pursuit of educational, religious and cultural opportunities? Is there anything specifically ‘Welsh’ about the experiences of medieval migrants and correspondents? And what can the medieval experience of Welsh people exploring the then known world contribute to the longer-term history of emigration and exchange? Examining archaeological, historical and literary evidence together, this book enables a better understanding of the ways in which people from Wales interacted with and understood their near and distant neighbours.
The Christian clergy in the medieval Europe was divided into two groups: the secular clergy and the regular clergy. The secular clergy were those who were responsible for helping lay people find salvation through Christ's teachings and ...
Author: Paul B. Newman
Dangerous and difficult for both mother and child—what was the birth experience like in the Middle Ages? Dependent, in part, on social class, what pastimes did children enjoy? What games did they play? With often uncomfortable and even harsh living conditions, what kind of care did children receive in the home on a daily basis? These are just a few of the questions this work addresses about the day-to-day childhood experiences during the Middle Ages. Focusing on all social classes of children, the topics are wide-ranging. Chapters cover birth and baptism; early childhood; playing; clothing; care and discipline; formal education; university education; career training for peasants, craftsmen, merchants, clergy and nobility; and coming of age. In addition, three appendices are included. Appendix I provides information on the humoral theory of medicine. Appendix II offers examples of medieval math problems. Appendix III covers a unique episode in medieval history known as “The Children’s Crusade.” Instructors considering this book for use in a course may request an examination copy here.
... archbishop ofTrier (915–931), addressed to his diocesan clergy, 'Know that you may give penance for hidden sins but ... manuscripts survive from the early middle ages – and recent research suggests that in the Carolingian period, ...
Author: Peter Linehan
This groundbreaking collection brings the Middle Ages to life and conveys the distinctiveness of this diverse, constantly changing period. Thirty-eight scholars bring together one medieval world from many disparate worlds, from Connacht to Constantinople and from Tynemouth to Timbuktu. This extraordinary set of reconstructions presents the reader with a vivid re-drawing of the medieval past, offering fresh appraisals of the evidence and modern historical writing. Chapters are thematically linked in four sections: identities beliefs, social values and symbolic order power and power-structures elites, organizations and groups. Packed full of original scholarship, The Medieval World is essential reading for anyone studying medieval history.
Barrow, Julia, The Clergy in the Medieval World: Secular Clerics, Their Families and Careers in North-Western Europe, c. 800–c. 1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016) paperback, xxi + 447 pages, 3 maps, RRP $34.99; ...
Author: Geoffrey D. Dunn
Publisher: The Australian Early Medieval Association Inc.
The journal welcomes papers on historical, literary, archaeological, cultural, and artistic themes, particularly interdisciplinary papers and those that make an innovative and significant contribution to the understanding of the early medieval world and stimulate further discussion. For submission details please see the association website: www.aema.net.au. Submissions then may be sent to [email protected]
laypeople in devotional and liturgical life.8 In this book, I shift historiographical emphasis from the laity in the church to the clergy in the world. Recovering the intimate worlds of clerics and their household and family members is ...
Author: Roisin Cossar
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Roisin Cossar examines how clerics managed efforts to reform their domestic lives in the decades after the Black Death. Despite reformers’ desire for clerics to remain celibate, clerical households resembled those of the laity, and priests’ lives included apprenticeships in youth, fatherhood in middle age, and reliance on their families in old age.
On Game of Thrones see Carolyne Larrington, Winter Is Coming: The Medieval World of Game of Thrones (London: I.B. Tauris, 2015). On child molestation and the clergy see Dyan Elliott, “Sexual Scandal and the Clergy: A Medieval Blueprint ...
Author: Ruth Mazo Karras
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Challenging the way the Middle Ages have been treated in general histories of sexuality, Sexuality in Medieval Europe shows how views at the time were conflicted and complicated; there was no single medieval attitude towards sexuality any more than there is one modern attitude. Focusing on marital sexual activity, as well as behavior that was seen as transgressive, the chapters cover such topics as chastity, the role of the church, and non-reproductive activity. Combining an overview of research on the topic with original interpretations, Ruth Mazo Karras demonstrates that medieval culture developed sexual identities that were quite distinct from the identities we think of today, yet were still ancestral to our own. Using a wide collection of evidence from the late antique period until the fifteenth century, this fully revised third edition has been updated to include the latest scholarship throughout, including expanded coverage of Islamic and Jewish cultures and new ideas on how medieval sexual violence relates to the modern world. A new companion website supplements the text featuring an interactive timeline of key events, links to key primary sources, and references to further reading. Sexuality in Medieval Europe is essential reading for those who study medieval history and culture.
But like everything he did , it greatly enriched the world he lived in . Clearly he saw the danger of conflict between clergy and laity , and that one of his main duties was to allay it . We may well suppose indeed that he looked beyond ...
Author: C. N. L. Brooke
Publisher: A&C Black
Considers many facets of the medieval church, dealing with institutions, buildings, personalities and literature. The text explores the origins of the diocese and the parish, the history of the See of Hereford and of York Minster. It discusses the arrival of the archdeacon, the Normans as cathedral builders and the kings of England and Scotland as monastic patrons. The studies of monastic life deal with the European question of monastic vocation and with St Bernard's part in the sensational expansion of the early 12th century. An epilogue takes us to the 14th century, contrasting Chaucer's parson with an actual Norfolk rector.
It is, rather, a first attempt to chart some questions and problems presented by the extant sources about early medieval priests and the small worlds in early medieval Europe within which they operated. Overall, all contributors have ...
Author: Steffen Patzold
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
This volume studies local priests as central players in small communities of early medieval Europe. As clerics living among the laity, priests played a double role within their communities: that of local representatives of the Church and religious experts, and that of owners of land and other goods. By virtue of their membership of both the ecclesiastical and the secular world, they can be considered as ‘men in the middle’: people who brought politico-religious ideas and ideals to secular communities, and who linked the local to the supra-local via networks of landownerhsip. This book addresses both roles that local priests played by approaching them via their manuscripts, and via the charters that record transactions in which they were involved. Manuscripts once owned by local priests bear witness to their education and expertise, but also indicate how, for instance, ideals of the Carolingian reforms reached the lowest levels of early medieval society. The case-studies of collections of charters, on the other hand, show priests as active members of networks of the locally powerful in a variety of European regions. Notwithstanding many local variations, the contributions to this volume show that local priests as ‘men in the middle’ are a phenomenon shared by the early medieval world as a whole.
15, september, 1909, 881–93. besserman, The Legend of Job in the Middle Ages, 57–58. The Legend of Job in the Middle Ages, 57. besserman goes on to point out that the practice of the clergy receiving money for the recitation of the ...
Author: Stephen J. Vicchio
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
In this second of a three-volume work, Vicchio addresses the Job traditions as interpreted in the period of the Middle Ages--in Jewish, Christian and Islamic sources. From the Vulgate to the Qur'an, from Maimonides to Calvin, Vicchio addresses the complexities of the Òreception history of intriguing work. Two appendices address how Job has been treated throughout history in literature, in drama, and in medicine. Volume 1: Job in the Ancient World Volume 2: Job in the Medieval World Volume 3: Job in the Modern World
Arnold, John A. What is Medieval History? ... “Technologies of Appearance: Hair Behaviour in Early Medieval Europe. ... The Clergy in the Medieval World: Secular Clerics, their Families, and their Careers in North-Western Europe, c.
Author: Roberta Milliken
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The Middle Ages were a time of great innovation, artistic vigor, and cultural richness. Appearances mattered a great deal during this vibrant era and hair was a key marker of the dynamism and sophistication of the period. Hair became ever more central to religious iconography, from Mary Magdalen to the Virgin Mary, while vernacular poets embellished their verses with descriptions of hairstyles both humble and elaborate, and merchants imported the finest hair products from great distances. Drawing on a wealth of visual, textual and object sources, the volume examines how hairstyles and their representations developed-often to a degree of dazzling complexity-between the years AD 800 and AD 1450. From wimpled matrons and tonsured monks to adorned noblewomen, hair is revealed as a potent cultural symbol of gender, age, sexuality, health, class, and race. Illustrated with approximately 80 images, A Cultural History of Hair in the Middle Ages brings together leading scholars to present an overview of the period with essays on politics, science, religion, fashion, beauty, the visual arts, and popular culture.
127 See also Chapter 7 'Clerical Marriage and Clerical Celibacy' in Thomas, Secular Clergy, 154–89; Chapter 4 'Clergy as Family Men' in Barrow, Clergy in the Medieval World, 115–57; D.G. Hunter, 'Married Clergy in Eastern and Western ...
Author: Maroula Perisanidi
Why did the medieval West condemn clerical marriage as an abomination while the Byzantine Church affirmed its sanctifying nature? This book brings together ecclesiastical, legal, social, and cultural history in order to examine how Byzantine and Western medieval ecclesiastics made sense of their different rules of clerical continence. Western ecclesiastics condemned clerical marriage for three key reasons: married clerics could alienate ecclesiastical property for the sake of their families; they could secure careers in the Church for their sons, restricting ecclesiastical positions and lands to specific families; and they could pollute the sacred by officiating after having had sex with their wives. A comparative study shows that these offending risk factors were absent in twelfth-century Byzantium: clerics below the episcopate did not have enough access to ecclesiastical resources to put the Church at financial risk; clerical dynasties were understood within a wider frame of valued friendship networks; and sex within clerical marriage was never called impure in canon law, as there was little drive to use pollution discourses to separate clergy and laity. These facts are symptomatic of a much wider difference between West and East, impinging on ideas about social order, moral authority, and reform.