The Early History of Data Networks

This book gives a fascinating glimpse of the many documented attempts throughout history to develop effective means for long-distance communications.

The Early History of Data Networks

Most of us would consider the emergence of large-scale communication networks to be a twentieth-century phenomenon. The first nationwide data networks, however, were built almost two hundred years ago. At the end of the eighteenth century, well before the electromagnetic telegraph was invented, many countries in Europe had fully operational data communications systems, with altogether close to one thousand network stations. This book gives a fascinating glimpse of the many documented attempts throughout history to develop effective means for long-distance communications. The oldest attempts date back to millennia before Christ, and include ingenious uses of homing pigeons, mirrors, flags, torches, and beacons. The book then shows how Claude Chappe, a French clergyman, started the information revolution in 1794, with the design and construction of the first true telegraph network in France. Another chapter contains the first English translation of a remarkable document on the design of optical telegraphs networks, originally written in 1796 by the Swedish nobleman Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz.

Handbook of Fiber Optic Data Communication

A Practical Guide to Optical Networking Casimer DeCusatis. ones during the day, so that they could ... 1Gerard J. Holzmann and Björn Pehrson, The early history of data networks (Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995), ...

Handbook of Fiber Optic Data Communication

Handbook of Fiber Optic Data Communication, Third Edition provides a comprehensive, easy to use guide to the field of optical fiber data communications. Written by experts in the industry from major companies such as IBM, Cisco and Nortel, the Handbook is a key reference for optical fiber technology, networking, protocols, applications, manufacturing, and future directions. It includes chapters on all the major industry standards, written by the same experts who developed them. This edition contains new material on transceiver form factors (QSFP, SFP +, XFP, X2), manufacturing standards, including JEDEC and RoHS, as well as the latest revisions to industry standards including 8G and 10G Fiber Channel, FICON, SONET GFP/LCAS, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The book also contains new chapters on emerging technologies and leading edge applications such as silicon photonics, nanophotonics, parallel optical interconnects, specialty fiber cable types, and optical backplanes. Features include: New Case Studies on Voice/Data Convergence, Redesigning Mainframe I/O, National LambdaRail, and optical peer-to-peer networks Includes an expanded listing of references on the World Wide Web, plus hard-to-find references for international, homologation, and type approval requirements Quick reference tables of all the key optical network parameters and a glossary that defines hundreds of technical terms and acronyms Written for engineers by engineers, this Handbook will be an indispensable, hands-on reference for optical networks and equipment developers, designers, and installers, as well as for students studying optical fiber communications wanting an understanding of, and insight into, professional practice. New Case Studies on Voice/Data Convergence, Redesigning Mainframe I/O, National LambdaRail, and optical peer-to-peer networks Includes an expanded listing of references on the World Wide Web, plus hard-to-find references for international, homologation, and type approval requirements Quick reference tables of all the key optical network parameters and a glossary that defines hundreds of technical terms and acronyms

The Information

15 MEANWHILE THE CHAPPES MANAGED: Gerard J. Holzmann and Björn Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks (Washington, D.C.: IEEE Computer Society, 1995), 52 ff. 16 “THE DAY WILLCOME”: “Lettre sur une nouveau télégraphe,” quoted in ...

The Information

From the bestselling author of the acclaimed Chaos and Genius comes a thoughtful and provocative exploration of the big ideas of the modern era: Information, communication, and information theory. Acclaimed science writer James Gleick presents an eye-opening vision of how our relationship to information has transformed the very nature of human consciousness. A fascinating intellectual journey through the history of communication and information, from the language of Africa’s talking drums to the invention of written alphabets; from the electronic transmission of code to the origins of information theory, into the new information age and the current deluge of news, tweets, images, and blogs. Along the way, Gleick profiles key innovators, including Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, Samuel Morse, and Claude Shannon, and reveals how our understanding of information is transforming not only how we look at the world, but how we live. A New York Times Notable Book A Los Angeles Times and Cleveland Plain Dealer Best Book of the Year Winner of the PEN/E. O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award

When Information Came of Age

Holzmann and Pehrson, Early History of Data Networks, 51-55; and Holzmann and Pehrson, “The First Data Networks,” Scientific American, January 1994, 124–29. 55. On the beginnings of the Chappe telegraph, see Ignace Urbain Jean Chappe, ...

When Information Came of Age

"The book provides a concise and readable survey of the many conceptual developments between 1700 and 1850 and draws connections to leading technologies of today. It documents three breakthroughs in information systems that date to the period: the classification and nomenclature of Linneaus, the chemical system devised by Lavoisier, and the metric system. It shows how eighteenth-century political arithmeticians and demographers pioneered statistics and graphs as a means for presenting data succinctly and visually. It describes the transformation of cartography from art to science as it incorporated new methods for determining longitude at sea and new data on the measure of the arc of the meridian on land. Finally, it looks at the early steps in codifying and transmitting information, including the development of dictionaries, the invention of semaphore telegraphs and naval flag signaling, and the conceptual changes in the use and purpose of postal services.".

History of Computer Science

NETWORKS FROM THE 1970S TILL 2013 Readers interested in ancient communication techniques (with flags, mirrors and fire) may like the introductory remarks in “The Early History of Data Networks”.68 This book focuses on wired networks ...

History of Computer Science

The history of Computer Science is a picture of dramatic changes. European Scientists discovered many basic methods needed for computing. American companies saw the commercial potential. Asian factories produce first class products like mobile devices. Chinese supercomputing is one of the leaders in the race to exascale computing power. Freedom of information, Open Data and Open Government are impossible without open Internet and net neutrality. Privacy and security issues become important human rights while all of our avatars collect myriads of data and know more about us than we know ourselves. Cloud Computing is the key for commercial organization of computing in the future. Everyone needs orientation in this fast changing world. A look into the history of computer science provides help to understand ICT technology of today.

Informatik und Gesellschaft

Die Geschichte des Internet. Heidelberg 1997. [HP99] Holzmann, G. J.;Pehrson, B.: The Early History of Data Networks, 2. Aufl. 1999. [Hu83] Hughes, Th. P.: Networks of Power, Electrification in Western Society 1880-1930, Baltimore 1983.

Informatik und Gesellschaft


Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference FTC 2020 Volume 3

We have recognized a good discussion of the early history of communication and their evolution, in the book titled “The early history of data networks” by Holzmann and Pehrson, published in 1995 [14]. As the name implies, it covers the ...

Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference  FTC  2020  Volume 3

This book provides the state-of-the-art intelligent methods and techniques for solving real-world problems along with a vision of the future research. The fifth 2020 Future Technologies Conference was organized virtually and received a total of 590 submissions from academic pioneering researchers, scientists, industrial engineers, and students from all over the world. The submitted papers covered a wide range of important topics including but not limited to computing, electronics, artificial intelligence, robotics, security and communications and their applications to the real world. After a double-blind peer review process, 210 submissions (including 6 poster papers) have been selected to be included in these proceedings. One of the meaningful and valuable dimensions of this conference is the way it brings together a large group of technology geniuses in one venue to not only present breakthrough research in future technologies, but also to promote discussions and debate of relevant issues, challenges, opportunities and research findings. The authors hope that readers find the book interesting, exciting and inspiring.

Bodies Machines

See G. J. Holzmann and B. Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks, 1994, URL: http://www.it.kth.se/docs/early_net/toc.html, accessed 20–21 May 1999. Holzmann and Pehrson, Data Networks, Chapter 2. Actually, investigations into ...

Bodies Machines

It is hard to believe that the pursuit of artificial intelligence is not a phenomenon of the twentieth century. For over three hundred years, the boundaries between bodies and machines the natural and the artificial, the animate and the inanimate have been passionately explored. These explorations, beginning in the seventeenth and eighteenth and increasing during the nineteenth century, have been all but forgotten, lost beneath the commotion of the modern day world. This book retrieves these lost histories, giving voice to the hopes, dreams, and fears of philosophers, medical practitioners, engineers, craftsmen and artisans who have all been fascinated by the interface between bodies and machines. The journey back in time unfolds with the mysterious advent of mechanical philosophies, which conceptualized the body and the surrounding world largely in terms of mechanistic interactions. These theories develop in intriguing directions and fuel experiments in such areas as material production and social punishment, spiritualism and mental health. From reanimating dead bodies with electricity, which led to the introduction of the electric chair, through to the use of machines to render hysterics and the insane fit for reintroduction into society, this book conveys the dark truths behind our relationship with machines. This book is not only an exceptional contribution to the history of technology but also to contemporary debates about humans and machines.

Computer Networks

hind RISC architectures; as we will soon discover, making good judgments about where to place functionality in a complex system is what system design is ... The first is Holzmann and Pehrson's The Early History of Data Networks [HP95].

Computer Networks

This volume reflects recent changes in networking technology. Using a systems approach focused on the Internet, it helps gain an enduring understanding of networks and their building blocks.

Computer Networks ISE

hind RISC architectures; as we will soon discover, making good judgments about where to place functionality in a complex system is what system design is ... The first is Holzmann and Pehrson's The Early History of Data Networks [HP95].

Computer Networks ISE

Computer Networks ISE, Fourth Edition, is the only introductory computer networking book written by authors who have had first-hand experience with many of the protocols discussed in the book, who have actually designed some of them as well, and who are still actively designing the computer networks today. This newly revised edition continues to provide an enduring, practical understanding of networks and their building blocks through rich, example-based instruction. The authors' focus is on the why of network design, not just the specifications comprising today's systems but how key technologies and protocols actually work in the real world to solve specific problems. The new edition makes less use of computer code to explain protocols than earlier editions. Moreover, this new edition shifts the focus somewhat higher in the protocol stack where there is generally more innovative and exciting work going on at the application and session layers than at the link and physical layers. Completely updated with NEW sidebars discussing successes/failures of previously deployed networks Thorough companion website with downloadable OpNet network simulation software and lab experiments manual Expanded coverage of topics of utmost importance to today's networking professionals, e.g., security, wireless, multimedia applications

The Literature of Connection

Gerard J. Holzmann and Björn Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2003), 47–96. Friedrich Kittler, “The City Is a Medium, in The Truth of the Technological World: Essays on the Genealogy of ...

The Literature of Connection

This book is about some of the ways in which the world got ready to be connected, long before the advent of the technologies and the concentrations of capital necessary to implement a global 'network society'. It investigates the prehistory not of the communications 'revolution' brought about by advances in electronic digital computing from 1950 onwards, but of the principle of connectivity which was to provide that revolution with its justification and rallying-cry. Connectivity's core principle is that what matters most in any act of telecommunication, and sometimes all that matters, is the fact of its having happened. During the nineteenth century, the principle gained steadily increasing traction by means not only of formal systems such as the telegraph, but of an array of improvised methods and signalling devices. These methods and devices fulfilled not just an ever more urgent need, but a fundamental recurring desire, for near-instantaneous real-time communication at a distance. Connectivity became an end in itself: a complex, vivid, unpredictable romance woven through the enduring human desire and need for remote intimacy. Its magical enhancements are the stuff of tragedy, comedy, satire, elegy, lyric, melodrama, and plain description; of literature, in short. The book develops the concepts of signal, medium, and interface to offer, in its first part, an alternative view of writing in Britain from George Eliot and Thomas Hardy to D.H. Lawrence, Hope Mirrlees, and Katherine Mansfield; and, in its second, case-studies of European and African-American fiction, and of interwar British cinema, designed to open the topic up for further enquiry.

Second Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing Computers and the Information Processing Industry

This is an excellent, up-to-date review of the subject; important. goes from wide area networks (SAGE) to packet-switching and time sharing, to LANs. 420 Holzmann, Gerard J. and Pehrson, Bjorn. The Early History of Data Networks.

Second Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing  Computers  and the Information Processing Industry

Complementing the author's 1990 bibliography, this volume provides 2,500 new citations, covering all significant literature published since the late 1980s. It includes all aspects of the subject--biographies, company histories, industry studies, product descriptions, sociological studies, industry directories, and traditional monographic histories--and covers all periods from the beginnings to the personal computer. New to this volume is a chapter on the management of information processing operations, useful to both historians and managers of information technology. Together with the earlier bibliography, this work provides the most comprehensive bibliographic guide to the history of computers, computing, and the information processing industry.

Principles of Ad hoc Networking

Holzmann GJ and Pehrson B 1995 The Early History of Data Networks. IEEE Computer Society. Hu L and Evans D 2004 Using directional antennas to prevent wormhole attacks Proceedings of the Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, ...

Principles of Ad hoc Networking

Principles of Ad Hoc Networking presents a systematic introduction to the fundamentals of ad hoc networks. An ad-hoc network is a small network, especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections. Typically, some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session or, in the case of mobile or portable devices, while in some close proximity to the rest of the network. These networks can range from small and static systems with constrained power resources to larger-scale dynamic and mobile environments. Wireless ad hoc networks facilitate numerous and diverse applications for establishing survivable dynamic systems in emergency and rescue operations, disaster relief and intelligent home settings. Principles of Ad Hoc Networking: Introduces the essential characteristics of ad hoc networks such as: physical layer, medium access control, Bluetooth discovery and network formation, wireless network programming and protocols. Explains the crucial components involved in ad-hoc networks in detail with numerous exercises to aid understanding. Offers key results and merges practical methodologies with mathematical considerations. Principles of Ad Hoc Networking will prove essential reading for graduate students in Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Applied Mathematics and Physics as well as researchers in the field of ad hoc networking, professionals in wireless telecoms, and networking system developers. Check out www.scs.carleton.ca/~barbeau/pahn/index.htm for further reading, sample chapters, a bibliography and lecture slides!

Academic Press Library in Mobile and Wireless Communications

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] G.J. Holzmann, B. Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks, Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press, 1994.

Academic Press Library in Mobile and Wireless Communications

This book, edited and authored by world leading experts, gives a review of the principles, methods and techniques of important and emerging research topics and technologies in wireless communications and transmission techniques. The reader will: Quickly grasp a new area of research Understand the underlying principles of a topic and its application Ascertain how a topic relates to other areas and learn of the research issues yet to be resolved Reviews important and emerging topics of research in wireless technology in a quick tutorial format Presents core principles in wireless transmission theory Provides reference content on core principles, technologies, algorithms, and applications Includes comprehensive references to journal articles and other literature on which to build further, more specific and detailed knowledge

A Nation Transformed by Information

Gerard J. Holzmann and Bjorn Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks (Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Press, 1995), focuses on the optical telegraph with a somewhat antiquarian approach. There is also Geoffrey Wilson, ...

A Nation Transformed by Information

This book makes the startling case that North Americans were getting on the "information highway" as early as the 1700's, and have been using it as a critical building block of their social, economic, and political world ever since. From the beginning North Americans were willing to invest in the infrastructure to make such connectivity possible. This book explores what the deployment of these technologies says about American society. The editors assembled a group of contributors who are experts in their particular fields and worked with them to create a book that is fully integrated and cross-referenced.

The Ashgate Research Companion to Modern Warfare

... Thomas L., The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, ... Gerard J. and Björn Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks (Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, ...

The Ashgate Research Companion to Modern Warfare

This research collection provides a comprehensive study of important strategic, cultural, ethical and philosophical aspects of modern warfare. It offers a refreshing analysis of key issues in modern warfare, not only in terms of the conduct of war and the wider complexities and ramifications of modern conflict, but also concepts of war, the crucial shifts in the structure of warfare, and the morality and legality of the use of force in a post-9/11 age.

Software

Compiling SIMULA: A historical study of technological genesis. IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput. 16, 4, 25–37. G. J. Holzmann and B. Pehrson. 2003. The Early History of Data Networks. IEEE Computer Society Press. D. H. Hook and J. M. Norman.

Software

Software history has a deep impact on current software designers, computer scientists, and technologists. System constraints imposed in the past and the designs that responded to them are often unknown or poorly understood by students and practitioners, yet modern software systems often include “old” software and “historical” programming techniques. This work looks at software history through specific software areas to develop student-consumable practices, design principles, lessons learned, and trends useful in current and future software design. It also exposes key areas that are widely used in modern software, yet infrequently taught in computing programs. Written as a textbook, this book uses specific cases from the past and present to explore the impact of software trends and techniques. Building on concepts from the history of science and technology, software history examines such areas as fundamentals, operating systems, programming languages, programming environments, networking, and databases. These topics are covered from their earliest beginnings to their modern variants. There are focused case studies on UNIX, APL, SAGE, GNU Emacs, Autoflow, internet protocols, System R, and others. Extensive problems and suggested projects enable readers to deeply delve into the history of software in areas that interest them most.

Prometheus Wired

The Hope for Democracy in the Age of Network Technology Darin Barney ... AZ: Coriolis, 1995); Gerard I. Holzmann and Bjorn Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks (Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Press, 1995); and Irwin Lebow, ...

Prometheus Wired

In Prometheus Wired, Darin Barney debunks claims that a networked society will provide the infrastructure for a political revolution and shows that the resources we need for understanding and making sound judgments about this new technology are surprisingly close at hand. By looking to thinkers who grappled with the relationship of society and technology, such as Plato, Aristotle, Marx, and Heidegger, Barney critically examines such assertions about the character of digital networks.

Data Networks IP and the Internet

But originally handshaking was the term used to describe the early data flow control procedures used to regulate the speed of data ... Next in the history of data flow control came the development of the window ( or packet window ) .

Data Networks  IP and the Internet

Data Networking is a capability that allows users to combine separate data bases, telecommunication systems, and specialised computer operations into a single integrated system, so that data communication can be handled as easily as voice messages. Data communications is the problem of getting information from one place to another reliably (secure both from channel disruptions and deliberate interference) while conforming to user requirements. IP (Internet protocol) is the central pillar of the Internet and was designed primarily for internetworking as being a simple protocol almost any network could carry. The business world appears to increasingly revolve around data communications and the Internet and all modern data networks are based around either the Internet or at least around IP (Internet Protocol)-based networks. However, many people still remain baffled by multiprotocol networks - how do all the protocols fit together? How do I build a network? What sort of problems should I expect? This volume is intended not only for network designers and practitioners, who for too long have been baffled by the complex jargon of data networks, but also for the newcomer - eager to put the plethora of "protocols" into context. After the initial boom the rate of IP development is now beginning to stabilise, making a standard textbook and reference book worthwhile with a longer shelf life. Highly illustrated and written in an accessible style this book is intended to provide a complete foundation textbook and reference of modern IP-based data networking - avoiding explanation of defunct principles that litter other books. Network/IP engineers, Network operators, engineering managers and senior undergraduate students will all find this invaluable.

Accessory to War The Unspoken Alliance Between Astrophysics and the Military

Frederick E. Brasch, “John Winthrop (1714–1799), America's First Astronomer, and the Science of His Period,” ... of the earliest means of signaling, see Gerard J. Holzmann and Björn Pehrson, The Early History of Data Networks (Los ...

Accessory to War  The Unspoken Alliance Between Astrophysics and the Military

“Extraordinary.… A feast of history, an expert tour through thousands of years of war and conquest.” —Jennifer Carson, New York Times Book Review In this far-reaching foray into the millennia-long relationship between science and military power, acclaimed astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson and co-author Avis Lang examine how the methods and tools of astrophysics have been enlisted in the service of war. Spanning early celestial navigation to satellite-enabled warfare, Accessory to War is a richly researched and provocative examination of the intersection of science, technology, industry, and power that will introduce Tyson’s millions of fans to yet another dimension of how the universe has shaped our lives and our world.